The Death Of Tax Court Exceptionalism, 2014 SelectedWorks
The Death Of Tax Court Exceptionalism, Stephanie Hoffer, Christopher J. Walker
Christopher J. Walker
Tax exceptionalism—the view that tax law does not have to play by the administrative law rules that govern the rest of the regulatory state—has come under attack in recent years. In 2011, the Supreme Court rejected such exceptionalism by holding that judicial review of the Treasury Department’s interpretations of the tax code is subject to the same Chevron deference regime that applies throughout the administrative state. The D.C. Circuit followed suit by rejecting the IRS’s position that its notices are not subject to judicial review under the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). This Article calls for ...
Magnifying Deterrence By Prosecuting Professionals, 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University
Magnifying Deterrence By Prosecuting Professionals, Scott Schumacher
Indiana Law Journal
This Article examines the recent series of criminal prosecutions against tax professionals and offshore bankers. These criminal cases, brought against the largest Swiss bank (UBS), the oldest Swiss bank (Wegelin), one of the largest accounting firms in the world (KPMG), as well as numerous lawyers and accountants, represent a dramatic shift for the U.S. Department of Justice. After decades of tolerating abusive tax shelters and tax haven banks, the government changed its policy. However, rather than indicting the individuals and corporations who invested in tax shelters or hid money in offshore accounts, the Justice Department indicted the lawyers, accountants ...
The Fair Income Tax, 2014 SelectedWorks
The Fair Income Tax, Joseph M. Dodge
Joseph M Dodge
Abstract for: The Fair Income Tax
This article argues that the classic “accretion” Haig-Simons formulation of personal income, namely, an individual’s consumption plus net increases in wealth for the taxable year, not only was not actually advocated by Simons himself, but also is (in part) contrary to fundamental political values and raises unnecessary practical problems. Contrary to what is commonly supposed, consumption is best seen not an independent category of income, but only a deduction-disallowance principle. Likewise, the “accretion” notion of “changes in wealth” – requiring the annual valuation of asset values – is (mostly) impractical, psychologically unacceptable, and contrary to ...
The Smokable Goods Tax: Crafting A Constitutional Marijuana Tax, 2014 SelectedWorks
The Smokable Goods Tax: Crafting A Constitutional Marijuana Tax, Nima H. Mohebbi, Samuel T. Greenberg
Nima H. Mohebbi
Marijuana legalization and decriminalization has become a hot policy issue. Roughly twenty U.S. states have partially legalized marijuana (generally for medicinal purposes) and two states – Colorado and Washington – have legalized it for general adult recreational use. Given the likely hyper-growth of the cannabis market in view of the possible wide-scale legalization of marijuana, states might enjoy a potential budgetary windfalls from marijuana excise taxes.
Marijuana, however, remains a federally controlled substance, the sale or use of which is subject to substantial penalties. For the states, this presents a potential problem in collecting excise taxes on marijuana – namely, if an ...
Less Is More: Applying A Modified Reasonable Compensation Standard To Eliminate The Inconsistencies In The Payroll And Net Investment Income Tax Bases, John S. Treu
John S. Treu
The original policy for the implementation of payroll taxes was to impose a tax on wages as both a funding mechanism for, and a limitation to, qualifying for social security. However, the self-employment tax base developed severe inconsistencies with this original policy and among different tax entities by including certain returns on capital investments in the tax base. At present, different payroll tax obligations arise for similarly situated tax payers based solely on the type of entity the owner elects to be taxed as under the check-the-box regulations. These inconsistencies resulted from misguided efforts by congress and the treasury to ...
Facilitating The Commons Inside Out, 2014 BLR
Facilitating The Commons Inside Out, Hanoch Dagan, Tsilly Dagan
Tel Aviv University Law Faculty Papers
Commons property is a true challenge to the law, especially in a legal context that respects individual mobility, which is key to freedom and autonomy. While a tragedy of the commons is not inevitable, the sustainability – let alone flourishing – of the commons is far from obvious either. But the rewards of the latter trajectory are critical: a successful commons property can generate significant economic benefits, due to its intrinsic advantages of economies of scale, risk-spreading, specialization, and synergy. These benefits multiply in the context of social commons property regimes that function as the loci and engines of meaningful interpersonal relationships ...
Bounties For Bad Behavior: Rewarding Culpable Whistleblowers Under The Dodd-Frank Act And Internal Revenue Code, Jennifer M. Pacella
Jennifer M. Pacella, Esq.
In 2012, Bradley Birkenfeld received a $104 million reward or “bounty” from the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for blowing the whistle on his employer, UBS, which facilitated a major offshore tax fraud scheme by assisting thousands of U.S. taxpayers to hide their assets in Switzerland. Birkenfeld does not fit the mold of the public’s common perception of a whistleblower. He was himself complicit in this crime and even served time in prison for his involvement. Despite his conviction, Birkenfeld was still eligible for a sizable whistleblower bounty under the IRS Whistleblower Program, which allows rewards for whistleblowers who ...
Tontine Pensions: A Solution To The State And Local Pension Underfunding Crisis, 2014 University of Oklahoma College of Law
Tontine Pensions: A Solution To The State And Local Pension Underfunding Crisis, Jonathan B. Forman, Michael J. Sabin
Jonathan B. Forman
Tontines are investment vehicles that can be used to provide retirement income. Basically, a tontine is a financial product that combines features of an annuity and a lottery. In a simple tontine, a group of investors pool their money together to buy a portfolio of investments, and, as investors die, their shares are forfeited, with the entire fund going to the last surviving investor. Over the years, this last-survivor-takes-all approach has made for some great fiction. For example, on the television show “Mash,” Colonel Sherman T. Potter, as the last survivor of his World War I unit, got to open ...
Even Adr Must Pay Its Dues: An Analysis Of The Evolution Of The Internal Revenue Service's Adr Programs And Where They Still Need To Grow, Stephen Folan
Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal
The article offers information on the evolution, development and effectiveness of the alternative dispute resolution (ADR) programs in the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) appeals system. It analyzes the history of the IRS's post-appeal mediation and arbitration systems and advocates adoption of its contemporary commercial arbitration principles to increase the ADR program's desirability for both the taxpayers and the IRS. It proposes cost-effective measures for dispute resolution processes.
Deferential Review Of The U.S. Tax Court, After Mayo Foundation V. United States (2011), Andre L. Smith
Andre L. Smith
Deferential Review of the U.S. Tax Court, After Mayo examines whether the Chevron doctrine requires federal circuit courts of appeal to deferentially review the U.S. Tax Court decisions of law. Mayo Foundation v. US (2011) rejects tax exceptionalism and requires the U.S. Tax Court to defer to Treasury regulations carrying the force of law. But Mayo avoids dealing with whether Chevron applies to appellate review of the Tax Court. In “The Fight Over ‘Fighting Regs’ and Judicial Deference in Tax Litigation”, 92 B.U. L. Rev. 643 (2012), Professor Leandra Lederman (Indiana) contends that deference belongs to ...
Tax, State, And Utopia, 2014 SelectedWorks
Tax, State, And Utopia, Tsilly Dagan, Avital Margalit
This article examines the appropriate tax treatment of communities through the unique example of the Israeli kibbutz, a community that is traditionally governed by the maxim "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs.” The case of the kibbutz highlights the tension between communities and the market in governing human interactions as well as the tension that exists between communities and the state in applying private schemes of redistribution.
The challenge communities pose for tax law is whether, and to what extent, the taxation regime should accommodate a community’s values and practices when they diverge ...
Is There A Justification For Imposing Criminal Liability On Corporate Managers In Tax Legislation?, Karnit Malka
No abstract provided.
Taxing Offshore Transactions In India And The Territoriality Clause - A Case For Substantial Constitutional Limitations On Indian Parliament's Power To Retrospectively Amend The Income Tax Act, 2014 SelectedWorks
Taxing Offshore Transactions In India And The Territoriality Clause - A Case For Substantial Constitutional Limitations On Indian Parliament's Power To Retrospectively Amend The Income Tax Act, Khagesh Gautam
No abstract provided.
Green Building Geography Across The United States: Does Governmental Incentives Or Economic Growth Stimulate Construction?, Darren Prum, Tetsuo Kobayashi
Darren A. Prum
As green building activity continues to rise across the country, some state governments decided to create incentives that would motivate developers to voluntarily pursue third party certification for their real estate projects in order to assist in meeting sustainability and environmental goals. Despite the growing number of studies in green buildings, the geography of green buildings and sustainable construction only includes a few studies, which emphasize the lack of green building research from the spatial perspective and their relevance to public policies the lack of green building research from the spatial perspective and their relevance to public policies. This study ...
A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations Of The Bitcoin Economy, 2014 SelectedWorks
A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations Of The Bitcoin Economy, Benjamin W. Akins Jd, Llm, Jennifer L. Chapman Jd, Cpa, Jason M. Gordon Jd, Mba
Benjamin W. Akins
Bitcoin is a virtual, cryptocurrency growing rapidly in influence throughout the world. Numerous characteristics associated with the bitcoin system, including low transaction costs and greater user privacy, make it appealing as a medium of electronic payment. The number of users of bitcoin, including merchants accepting the currency as a form of payment, has grown considerably in recent years. Estimates indicate that there are more than 60,000 active bitcoin users as of September 2012, with nearly 11 million bitcoins in existence. According to the latest estimates, bitcoin market capitalization is roughly $9 billion. The growth of bitcoin as an accepted ...
The Parallel March Of The Ginis: How Does Taxation Relate To Inequality And What Can Be Done About It?, 2014 University of Michigan Law School
The Parallel March Of The Ginis: How Does Taxation Relate To Inequality And What Can Be Done About It?, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah
Law & Economics Working Papers
The United States currently has one of the highest levels of inequality among industrialized economies. In addition, numerous scholars have shown that social mobility in the United States is significantly lower than it was in the period between 1945 and 1970, when inequality was also declining. The combination of these trends is dangerous because it risks transforming the US into a society where small elites capture most of the gains, a pattern in which growth cannot be sustained over time (Acemoglu and Robinson 2012, Zingales 2012). The level of inequality in the US after taxes and transfers are taken into ...
United States National Report On Tax Privacy, 2013 NELLCO
United States National Report On Tax Privacy, Joshua D. Blank
New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers
This National Report was prepared for a conference titled Tax Secrecy and Tax Transparency – The Relevance of Confidentiality in Tax Law, which took place in July 2012 in Rust, Austria and was co-hosted by the Institute for Austrian and International Tax Law at the Vienna University of Economics and Business and by Örebro University, Sweden. The Report describes the current tax privacy protections that apply to taxpayers in the United States and provides an overview of the policy considerations that have contributed to their enactment. Portions of this Report were originally published, in part, in Joshua D. Blank, In Defense ...
Social Enterprise: Who Needs It?, 2013 Boston College Law School
Social Enterprise: Who Needs It?, Brian Galle
Boston College Law Review
State statutes authorizing firms to pursue mixtures of profitable and socially beneficial goals have proliferated in the past five years. In this invited response essay, I argue that for one large class of charitable goals, the so-called “social enterprise” firm is often privately wasteful. Although the hybrid form is a bit more sensible for firms that combine profit with simple, easily monitored social benefits, existing laws fail to protect stake-holders against opportunistic conversion of the firm to pure profit-seeking. Given these failings, I suggest that social enterprise’s legislative popularity can best be traced to a race to the bottom ...
Two Federally Subsidized Health Insurance Programs Are One Too Many: Reconsidering The Federal Income Tax Exclusion For Employer-Provided Health Insurance In Light Of The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act, 2013 Boston College Law School
Two Federally Subsidized Health Insurance Programs Are One Too Many: Reconsidering The Federal Income Tax Exclusion For Employer-Provided Health Insurance In Light Of The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act, Nicholas Drew
Boston College Law Review
Section 106 of the Internal Revenue Code (I.R.C.) provides a federal income tax exclusion for the value of employer-provided health insurance. This decades-old provision was enacted for the primary purpose of increasing the incidence of health insurance in the United States. Since its adoption, scholars have advanced a number of additional policy considerations in support of preserving this exclusion. The enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA), however, will result in a significant overhaul of the American health care system. As a result, a reexamination of I.R.C. § 106 is warranted. This Note argues ...
Partnership Current Developments, 2013 College of William & Mary Law School
Partnership Current Developments, Robert J. Crnkovich, Steven M. Friedman
William & Mary Annual Tax Conference
No abstract provided.