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Wills, Trusts, And Estates, Hunter M. Glenn, Allison A. Tait 2022 University of Richmond School of Law

Wills, Trusts, And Estates, Hunter M. Glenn, Allison A. Tait

University of Richmond Law Review

Between legislative and judicial activity, there have been a number of noteworthy developments and changes to the rules governing trusts and estates. Several of these developments turn on questions related to the role of fiduciaries, what responsibilities they have with respect to reporting as well as asset management, and when they can be removed. These questions concerning fiduciaries implicitly address the rights of beneficiaries and the protections available to them. New developments also will have multiple repercussions for estate planners and wealth managers. New planning strategies in response to changes in the law of undue influence may become important to …


Transparency And Reliance In Antidiscrimination Law, Steven L. Willborn 2022 Univeristy of Nebraska Lincoln College of Law

Transparency And Reliance In Antidiscrimination Law, Steven L. Willborn

Catholic University Law Review

All antidiscrimination laws have two structural features – transparency and reliance – that are important, even central, to their design, but have gone largely unnoticed. On transparency, some laws, like the recent salary-ban laws, attempt to prevent the employer from learning about the disfavored factor on the theory that an employer cannot rely on an unknown factor. Other laws require publication of the disfavored factor, such as salary, on the theory that it is harder to discriminate in the sunlight. Still other laws are somewhere between these two extremes. The Americans with Disabilities Act, for example, limits but does not …


A Covid Silver Lining? How Telework May Be A Reasonable Accommodation After All, Baylee Kalmbach 2022 University of Cincinnati College of Law

A Covid Silver Lining? How Telework May Be A Reasonable Accommodation After All, Baylee Kalmbach

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


Social Security Benefits Continue To Fall Short Of Covering Cost Of Basic Needs For Older Americans, 2021, Jan Mutchler, Nidya Velasco Roldán 2022 University of Massachusetts Boston

Social Security Benefits Continue To Fall Short Of Covering Cost Of Basic Needs For Older Americans, 2021, Jan Mutchler, Nidya Velasco Roldán

Center for Social and Demographic Research on Aging Publications

Social Security benefits fall short of what is required to cover the basic cost of living across the United States, according to new estimates based on the Elder Index, a county-by-county measure of the income older adults need to secure an independent lifestyle. Nationally, the average Social Security benefit covers just 68% of basic living expenses of housing, food, transportation, and health care for a single renter in 2021, and 81% for an older couple. The gap between Social Security benefits and what it takes to get by is especially problematic for older adults who rely largely or entirely on …


Adult Conservatorship In The United States: Flaws And Proposed Solutions To The Legal System, Margaret Sheffield, Alex Stevens 2022 Brigham Young University

Adult Conservatorship In The United States: Flaws And Proposed Solutions To The Legal System, Margaret Sheffield, Alex Stevens

Brigham Young University Prelaw Review

Despite attempts to protect incapacitated adults in the United States, financial exploitation of the elderly and disabled remains a serious problem. Adult conservatorships are often established to offer incapacitated adults protection. However, many cases of adult conservatorships lead to increased abuse due to lack of accountability from conservators. This paper provides a brief overview of abuse towards incapacitated adults and proposes a solution in the form of a federal office entitled the Office of Adult Conservatorship and Guardianship Enforcement (OACE) which would be established under the United States Department of Health and Human Services.


The Generational Squeeze: A Commentary On Multi- Generational Special Needs And Benefit Planning In Georgia, Christopher Wages 2022 Mercer University School of Law

The Generational Squeeze: A Commentary On Multi- Generational Special Needs And Benefit Planning In Georgia, Christopher Wages

Mercer Law Review

As the generation of baby boomers—individuals born between 1946 and 1964—grow older, their children are being progressively squeezed between caring for aging parents and the demands of a family of their own, giving rise to the term “sandwich generation.” The current population of fifty-three million baby boomers over the age of sixty-five accounts for 16% of the populace. As such, younger generations are finding themselves sandwiched between the financial, emotional, and physical needs of their aging parents and young children. This challenging situation is further exacerbated for families dealing with disabilities, and this scenario is only becoming more ubiquitous. In …


Revisiting The Visitor: Maine's New Uniform Probate Code & The Evolving Role Of The Court-Appointed Visitor In Adult Guardianship Reform, Lisa Kay Rosenthal 2022 University of Maine School of Law

Revisiting The Visitor: Maine's New Uniform Probate Code & The Evolving Role Of The Court-Appointed Visitor In Adult Guardianship Reform, Lisa Kay Rosenthal

Maine Law Review

A judge may appoint a guardian for an adult who does not have the capacity to make decisions affecting their own health or welfare. However, the power of the guardian—while intended to serve a protective function—potentially invites financial, physical, and emotional abuse of the most vulnerable members of society. To help a probate judge understand the circumstances of a guardianship and the need for protection, probate courts in Maine appoint a “visitor” to interview both the person allegedly in need of a guardianship and the proposed guardian. The visitor submits a report to the court which contains the visitor’s observations, …


How Should Inheritance Law Remediate Inequality?, Felix B. Chang 2022 University of Washington School of Law

How Should Inheritance Law Remediate Inequality?, Felix B. Chang

Washington Law Review

This Article argues that trusts and estates (“T&E”) should prioritize intergenerational economic mobility—the ability of children to move beyond the economic stations of their parents—above all other goals. The field’s traditional emphasis on testamentary freedom, or the freedom to distribute property in a will as one sees fit, fosters the stickiness of inequality. For wealthy settlors, dynasty trusts sequester assets from the nation’s system of taxation and stream of commerce. For low-income decedents, intestacy (i.e., the system of property distribution for a person who dies without a will) splinters property rights and inhibits their transfer, especially to nontraditional heirs.

Holistically, …


When Legal Incapacity Becomes A Lack Of Personhood: Why A Ward's Ability To Sue In Their Own Name Should Be A Fundamental Aspect Of Virginia Guardianship, Rachel Davis 2022 William & Mary Law School

When Legal Incapacity Becomes A Lack Of Personhood: Why A Ward's Ability To Sue In Their Own Name Should Be A Fundamental Aspect Of Virginia Guardianship, Rachel Davis

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

It is a fundamental failing of any legal system when it is unable to protect the most vulnerable within its population. Whether we are comfortable admitting it or not, guardian abuse of incapacitated wards has been well-documented across all fifty states. Virginia is no exception, and this lack of oversight leaves one of our most vulnerable populations without recourse. This Note argues that by simply granting a ward the ability to bring suit in their own name, Virginia may strike a significant blow to the dysfunction that systematically infects the guardianship process. This Note highlights Virginia statute and case law …


The Visualities And Aesthetics Of Prosecuting Aged Defendants, Mark Drumbl, Caroline Fournet 2022 Washington and Lee University School of Law

The Visualities And Aesthetics Of Prosecuting Aged Defendants, Mark Drumbl, Caroline Fournet

Scholarly Articles

The prosecution—whether domestic or international—of international crimes and atrocities may implicate extremely aged defendants. Much has been written about the legalisms that inhere (or not) in trying these barely alive individuals. Very little however has been written about the aesthetics the barely alive encrust into the architecture of courtrooms, the optics these defendants suffuse into the trial process, and the expressive value of punishing them. This is what we seek to do in this project.


Dividing The Plausible Sheep From The Meritless Goats: The Fate Of Stock Drop Litigation, 29 Elder L.J. 393 (2022), Kathryn J. Kennedy 2022 UIC School of Law

Dividing The Plausible Sheep From The Meritless Goats: The Fate Of Stock Drop Litigation, 29 Elder L.J. 393 (2022), Kathryn J. Kennedy

UIC Law Open Access Faculty Scholarship

The Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974 (“ERISA”) provides federal oversight over employee benefit plans, specifically employee stock ownership plans (“ESOPs”) in which participants' and beneficiaries' retirement savings are in the form of employer stock. It imposes stringent fiduciary duties, especially for individuals or entities that purchase, hold, and sell plan assets, including the duties of prudence, loyalty, and diversification of plan assets. In encouraging the formation of ESOPs, Congress exempts them from the fiduciary duty of diversification and the fiduciary duty of prudence to the extent it requires diversification. As the value of publicly traded employer stock held …


Edward J. Kelly Prize In Elder Law, Notre Dame Law School 2022 Notre Dame Law School

Edward J. Kelly Prize In Elder Law, Notre Dame Law School

Student, Faculty, and Staff Awards

The Elder Law Prize is intended to advance the study of elder law and to encourage and assist Notre Dame Law students who may have an interest in this field. This award is given annually to the NDLS student who has written the best essay, article, or legal brief on a topic relating to elder law. Due to a gift from the Retirement Research Foundation on behalf of Mr. Ed Kelly, the winner of the award will receive a monetary prize.


Aging, Health, Equity, And The Law: Foreword, Joan C. Foley 2022 Touro Law Center

Aging, Health, Equity, And The Law: Foreword, Joan C. Foley

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


End Of Life, Elder Abuse, And Guardianship: An Exploration Of New York’S Surrogate Decision-Making Framework, Tristan Sullivan-Wilson, Esq., Deirdre Lok, Esq., Joy Solomon, Esq. 2022 Touro University Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

End Of Life, Elder Abuse, And Guardianship: An Exploration Of New York’S Surrogate Decision-Making Framework, Tristan Sullivan-Wilson, Esq., Deirdre Lok, Esq., Joy Solomon, Esq.

Touro Law Review

The best end of life care is always that which aligns with the wishes and values of the incapacitated person. For individuals with the capacity to execute advance directives, these documents and conversations with appointed surrogates are the clearest way to make care values known. However, the time, access, and ability to engage in advance planning is not an opportunity equally afforded.For those without advance directives and now involved in a guardianship proceeding, the party petitioning or otherwise involved in the case should consider addressing end of life decision-making directly in the guardianship hearing when major medical decision-making power may …


Old Age As The Hidden Sentencing Factor, Adam M. Gershowitz 2022 College of William and Mary

Old Age As The Hidden Sentencing Factor, Adam M. Gershowitz

Faculty Publications

Imagine two doctors who illegally sold opioids in exchange for cash. Both doctors sold roughly the same quantity of pills, had no prior criminal convictions, and accordingly faced the same sentencing guidelines range. The major difference was that one doctor was in his sixties and considerably older than the other doctor. The Federal Sentencing Guidelines provide that judges should consider a defendant's age only in atypical cases. Yet, this Article demonstrates that older defendants received sentencing discounts far more often than younger defendants convicted of the same crime.

This Article gathers sentencing data for almost 130 doctors convicted in federal …


2021 Rhode Island Public Laws, Madison C. Picard 2022 Juris Doctorate candidate, Roger Williams University School of Law

2021 Rhode Island Public Laws, Madison C. Picard

Roger Williams University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Cognitive Decline And The Workplace, Sharona Hoffman 2022 Case Western Reserve University School of Law

Cognitive Decline And The Workplace, Sharona Hoffman

Faculty Publications

Cognitive decline will increasingly become a workplace concern because of three intersecting trends. First, the American population is aging. In 2019, 16.5 percent of the population, or fifty-four million people, were age 65 and over, and the number is expected to increase to seventy-eight million by 2025. Dementia is not uncommon among older adults, and by the age of eighty-five, between twenty-five and fifty percent of individuals suffer from this condition. Second, individuals are postponing retirement and prolonging their working lives. For example, about a quarter of physicians are over sixty-five, as are fifteen percent of attorneys. The average age …


Post-Pandemic Estate Planning: Analyzing The Recent Changes In Remote Notarization Laws, Matthew Fiedler 2022 Seattle University School of Law

Post-Pandemic Estate Planning: Analyzing The Recent Changes In Remote Notarization Laws, Matthew Fiedler

Seattle University Law Review

This Note explores estate planning in the post-pandemic landscape. Part I of this Note discusses how the resistance to remote technology in estate planning is rooted in traditional notions of formalism. Part II introduces a discussion regarding the use of remote technology, including its benefits and drawbacks. Part III articulates the current legal requirements to validly notarize signatures on various estate planning documents in Washington state. This part also discusses the extent of electronic or remote notarization allowed in the wake of emergency orders issued by Washington State Governor Jay Inslee in response to the spread of COVID-19. Additionally, Part …


Supported Decision-Making: Potential And Challenges For Older Persons, Morgan K. Whitlatch, Rebekah Diller 2022 Center for Public Representation

Supported Decision-Making: Potential And Challenges For Older Persons, Morgan K. Whitlatch, Rebekah Diller

Articles

In recent years, supported decision-making (SDM) has gained traction as a recognized alternative to guardianship for persons with disabilities in the United States. To date, SDM has not been as widely recognized as an alternative for older people, particularly those struggling with cognitive decline. This paper explores some of the obstacles that have prevented SDM from being used more broadly by older people, identifies ways of surmounting some of those obstacles, and makes recommendations for ways that SDM can be used in the aging context.


Prosecuting The Phone Scammer When Extradition Fails And Concurrent Jurisdiction Exists, Michelle Lepkofker 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Prosecuting The Phone Scammer When Extradition Fails And Concurrent Jurisdiction Exists, Michelle Lepkofker

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Advancements in technology allow people to place phone calls half a world away via the internet. This technology has made it easier and cheaper for consumers to communicate, but it has also made it easier for scammers to reach more unsuspecting victims. In 2020, TrueCaller, an app designed to block scam phone calls, successfully blocked, and identified 31.3 billion spam calls in 20 countries. In the same year, Americans alone lost a total of USD $ 29.8 billion to scam calls. This Note argues that phone scams continue to be lucrative, in part, because criminal prosecutions of transnational crimes are …


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