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And Then There Were Two: Why Is The United States One Of Only Two Countries In The World That Has Not Ratified The Convention On The Rights Of The Child?, Mark Engman 2015 Director, Public Policy and Advocacy at U.S. Fund for UNICEF

And Then There Were Two: Why Is The United States One Of Only Two Countries In The World That Has Not Ratified The Convention On The Rights Of The Child?, Mark Engman

International Human Rights Law Journal

Twenty-five years ago, the United Nations General Assembly (‘U.N. General Assembly’) unanimously adopted the Convention on the Rights of the Child (hereinafter the “CRC”), which became the most widely accepted human rights treaty in history. Today, every nation in the world is a party to the CRC – except for two: Somalia, and the United States. This article will analyze the politics behind America’s failure to ratify this treaty. That may seem a little out of place in a law journal, but in reality the United States’ (‘U.S.’) acceptance or rejection of international law is as much a ...


Principled Humanitarian Organizations And The Use Of Force: Is There Space To Speak Out?, Scott Paul, Elizabeth Holland 2015 Senior Humanitarian Advisor, Oxfam America

Principled Humanitarian Organizations And The Use Of Force: Is There Space To Speak Out?, Scott Paul, Elizabeth Holland

International Human Rights Law Journal

Humanitarian organizations are fundamentally concerned with addressing the suffering of civilians. The decision by an armed actor to resort to force can result in greater protection or greater harm, and has at least as significant an impact on civilian lives as any decision made during the conduct of hostilities. Yet, humanitarian organizations rarely publicly advocate for or against the use of force. This article explores the perceived and actual limitations that humanitarian principles place on the public advocacy of humanitarian organizations regarding the recourse to force. It begins with a discussion of the relevant legal framework and explication of the ...


Transitional Justice In Sri Lanka: Rethinking Post-War Diaspora Advocacy For Accountability, Mytili Bala 2015 Robert L. Bernstein International Human Rights Fellow at the Center for Justice and Accountability

Transitional Justice In Sri Lanka: Rethinking Post-War Diaspora Advocacy For Accountability, Mytili Bala

International Human Rights Law Journal

Sri Lanka’s 26-year civil war against the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam came to a bloody end in May 2009, amidst allegations of war crimes and crimes against humanity on both sides. Since then, Tamils in the diaspora, long accused of funding the war, have become vocal proponents for war crimes accountability. Some might label certain forms of diaspora advocacy as “lawfare” or “long-distance nationalism.” However, these labels fail to account for the complex memories and identities that shape diaspora advocacy for accountability today. In order for Sri Lanka to move forward from decades of conflict, transitional justice mechanisms ...


Prosecuting Beyond The Rule Of Law: Corporate Mandates Imposed Through Pretrial Diversion Agreements, Jennifer Arlen 2015 NYU School of Law

Prosecuting Beyond The Rule Of Law: Corporate Mandates Imposed Through Pretrial Diversion Agreements, Jennifer Arlen

New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers

U.S. corporate criminal enforcement policy encourages prosecutors to substitute pretrial diversion agreements (PDAs) for formal conviction and allows them to use PDAs to impose corporate reform mandates on firms, often without ex ante guidance or ex post review from the DOJ. This article finds that the discretion that prosecutors currently enjoy to use PDAs to impose corporate mandates violates the rule of law. The rule of law requires that government actors exercise their power over others for the public’s good; they should not be free to serve personal aims or exercise authority to achieve personal conceptions of the ...


Chief Justice Maureen O'Connor: A Legacy Of Judicial Independence, Pierce Reed 2015 University of Akron

Chief Justice Maureen O'Connor: A Legacy Of Judicial Independence, Pierce Reed

Akron Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Global Fight Against Foreign Bribery: Is Canada A Leader Or A Laggard?, Susana C. Mijares 2015 Western Law

The Global Fight Against Foreign Bribery: Is Canada A Leader Or A Laggard?, Susana C. Mijares

Western Journal of Legal Studies

This paper explores international responses to foreign bribery with a specific focus on Canada’s increased role in combating the issue. It outlines international anti-bribery measures and their impact on Canada’s approach to foreign bribery, with an overview of Canada’s anti-bribery legislation, the Corruption of Foreign Public Officials Act (CFPOA). These measures have met with international criticism, to which Canada has responded with legislative amendments. Four Canadian legal decisions since the CFPOA amendment exemplify Canada’s stricter enforcement of the Act. Transparency International (TI) issued a progress report that commented on Canada’s current and future role in ...


Explaining The Establishment Of The Independent Prosecutor Of The International Criminal Court, Laszlo Sarkany 2015 The University of Western Ontario

Explaining The Establishment Of The Independent Prosecutor Of The International Criminal Court, Laszlo Sarkany

University of Western Ontario - Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The aim of this dissertation is to discern and explain why states established the International Criminal Court (ICC) with an independent Prosecutor with the aid of theories of international relations. The theories utilized were neorealism, neoliberal institutionalism, historical institutionalism, constructivism and liberal-pluralism. In order to complete the above-stated task, two supplemental questions were asked: first, how may one able to explain policy formulation in regards to the ICC; and second, what accounts for the victory of the supporters. The comparative case study method of the ‘method of agreement’ was employed. Canada and the United Kingdom – from among the supporters of ...


The Rhetoric Of Constitutional Absolutism, Eric Berger 2015 College of William & Mary Law School

The Rhetoric Of Constitutional Absolutism, Eric Berger

William & Mary Law Review

Though constitutional doctrine is famously unpredictable, Supreme Court Justices often imbue their constitutional opinions with a sense of inevitability. Rather than concede that evidence is sometimes equivocal, Justices insist with great certainty that they have divined the correct answer. This Article examines this rhetoric of constitutional absolutism and its place in our broader popular constitutional discourse. After considering examples of the Justices’ rhetorical performances, this Article explores strategic, institutional, and psychological explanations for the phenomenon. It then turns to the rhetoric’s implications, weighing its costs and benefits. This Article ultimately argues that the costs outweigh the benefits and proposes ...


Foreword, Scott P. Stedjan 2015 Penn State Law

Foreword, Scott P. Stedjan

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Geopolitics Of Resource Scarcity, Kent Hughes Butts 2015 Penn State Law

Geopolitics Of Resource Scarcity, Kent Hughes Butts

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Food As A Key Resource For Security And Stability: Implications Of Changes In The Global Food System 1950-2000, Bryan L. McDonald 2015 Penn State Law

Food As A Key Resource For Security And Stability: Implications Of Changes In The Global Food System 1950-2000, Bryan L. Mcdonald

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Food security remains an urgent problem affecting the national security and interests of states, as well as the human security of people and communities around the world. This article examines the changing landscape of food security threats and vulnerabilities by examining three sets of concerns that are converging to amplify, disrupt, and transform food relations: nutrition, food safety, and global environmental change. Ensuring food security will require utilization of a range of capabilities from the state, private, and non-state sectors to confront world food problems and build a sustainable and resilient world food network.


U.S. Aid To Agriculture: Shifting Focus From Production To Sustainable Food Security, Marc J. Cohen 2015 Penn State Law

U.S. Aid To Agriculture: Shifting Focus From Production To Sustainable Food Security, Marc J. Cohen

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Since the 1960s, agriculture has waxed and waned as a key theme of U.S. international development assistance. In the 1970s, the United States and other donors focused on “growing the pile of food” through the use of high-yielding cereal grain varieties, mineral fertilizer, and synthetic pesticides in developing countries—the Green Revolution. This led to huge productivity increases and lower food prices in Asia and Latin America. But donors paid less attention to questions of equity, environmental sustainability, and gender equality. Due to increased food availability at lower prices, the United States and other donors reduced their focus on ...


From Scarcity To Abundance: The Changing Dynamics Of Energy Conflict, Michael T. Klare 2015 Penn State Law

From Scarcity To Abundance: The Changing Dynamics Of Energy Conflict, Michael T. Klare

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Energy security and geopolitics have played a pivotal role in international affairs for a very long time, ever since the development of oil-powered vehicles and weapons of war. Until recently, the geopolitics of energy have largely been governed by perceptions of scarcity—the assumption that oil and other energy reserves were relatively limited, and that competition over their exploitation would lead to recurring crisis and conflict. However, the recent utilization of advanced extractive technologies—including deep-sea drilling and hydraulic fracturing—have resulted in unexpected production gains and fostered a sense that abundance, rather than scarcity, will govern the future energy ...


The World Trade Organization Agreement On Agriculture And World Food Security, David Blandford 2015 Penn State Law

The World Trade Organization Agreement On Agriculture And World Food Security, David Blandford

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

This article discusses the nature of food insecurity in poor countries, its causes, and how these can be addressed. Disciplines are imposed on domestic agricultural policies through World Trade Organization (WTO) agreements, in particular the Agreement on Agriculture (AoA), resulting from the Uruguay Round negotiations that were completed in 1994. The AoA provides considerable flexibility for countries to pursue a range of economically efficient policies aimed at food security objectives. However, it limits the use of some policy measures, such as price supports and input subsidies, that can be costly and inefficient, and also has negative environmental consequences. There is ...


Global Hunger And The World Trade Organization: How The International Trade Rules Address Food Security, Terence P. Stewart, Stephanie Manaker Bell 2015 Penn State Law

Global Hunger And The World Trade Organization: How The International Trade Rules Address Food Security, Terence P. Stewart, Stephanie Manaker Bell

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


Not In My Backyard: Unconventional Gas Development And Local Land Use In Pennsylvania And Alberta, Canada, Nathaniel L. Foote 2015 Penn State Law

Not In My Backyard: Unconventional Gas Development And Local Land Use In Pennsylvania And Alberta, Canada, Nathaniel L. Foote

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Pennsylvania has struggled with rapid expansion in the state's unconventional oil and gas sector with the development of the Marcellus Shale formation. Likewise, Alberta, Canada has experienced similar growth. Yet Pennsylvania and Alberta's approaches to local land use and resource extraction differ considerably. This paper discusses each region's experience with oil and gas development, and contrasts their approaches to land use regulation in this context. The paper concludes that the Canadians' approach holds important lessons for Pennsylvania.


Land Is Not The New Oil: What The Nigerian Oil Experience Can Teach South Sudan About Balancing The Risks And Benefits Of Large Scale Land Acquisition, Scott P. Stedjan 2015 Penn State Law

Land Is Not The New Oil: What The Nigerian Oil Experience Can Teach South Sudan About Balancing The Risks And Benefits Of Large Scale Land Acquisition, Scott P. Stedjan

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

Recent global food price volatility combined with the growing use of agricultural land to produce biofuels has sparked a global scramble for land, with Sub-Saharan African countries serving as the main targets for investors. Derided as “land-grabbing” by those opposed to the practice, the phenomenon of large-scale acquisition of farmland by governments and private investors sparked a global debate since the global food crisis of 2008. Although international investment in agriculture plays a vital role in development and poverty reduction, large scale international investment poses some serious risks to both communities and international investors. Because there are no signs of ...


Symposium - The 9 Billion People Question: The Challenge Of Global Resource Scarcity, 2015 Penn State Law

Symposium - The 9 Billion People Question: The Challenge Of Global Resource Scarcity

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

No abstract provided.


The Future Of Food Assistance: Opportunities And Challenges, Erin Lentz 2015 Penn State Law

The Future Of Food Assistance: Opportunities And Challenges, Erin Lentz

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

The past decade has seen a radical remaking of direct food security interventions and an expanded understanding of preventing undernutrition. Today, there are more food assistance choices; researchers have identified the first 1000 days as a critical window for life-long cognitive development and health outcomes; and our understanding of the value of more tailored, nutritionally-specific interventions has expanded. The opportunities resulting from these findings can generate more effective food assistance programs. However, benefits from these findings will only be achieved if policymakers and practitioners clarify and prioritize among objectives and seek ways to build greater programming flexibility into the current ...


World Poverty And Food Insecurity, Carmen G. Gonzalez 2015 Penn State Law

World Poverty And Food Insecurity, Carmen G. Gonzalez

Penn State Journal of Law & International Affairs

The article draws upon the insights of Yale philosopher Thomas Pogge to suggest a way that we might think about the structural inequities in the global economic order that produce food insecurity. The article argues that chronic undernourishment is not a function of food scarcity, bad weather, or simply bad luck. Rather, it is a function of international political and economic arrangements that systematically benefit the wealthy at the expense of the poor. The article concludes with several legal and policy reforms that the United States and the European Union can adopt to reduce the burdens that our societies place ...


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