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Scarce Medical Resources – Parenthood At Every Age, In Every Case And Subsidized By The State?, yehezkel Margalit 2015 SelectedWorks

Scarce Medical Resources – Parenthood At Every Age, In Every Case And Subsidized By The State?, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

The dilemma of scarce medical resources is deeply rooted in the ancient mankind history, but it has been accelerated in the modern era with the appearance of the bio-medical innovations. This acute dilemma is relevant to all the western developed states, include Israel. Nevertheless, in one field there is the notion that Israel has unlimited medical resources – the fulfillment of its citizen's procreation and parenthood rights. Thus, for sociological, demographical, religious and security reasons the State of Israel invests a vast amount of money to develop and use the various fertility treatments. Israel, today, has the highest per capita ...


Conscience And Complicity: Assessing Pleas For Religious Exemptions In Hobby Lobby's Wake, Amy Sepinwall 2015 Legal Studies & Business Ethics/Wharton University of Pennsylvania

Conscience And Complicity: Assessing Pleas For Religious Exemptions In Hobby Lobby's Wake, Amy Sepinwall

Amy J. Sepinwall

In the paradigmatic case of conscientious objection, the objector claims that his religion forbids him from actively participating in a wrong (e.g., by fighting in a war). In the religious challenges to the Affordable Care Act’s employer mandate, on the other hand, employers claim that their religious convictions forbid them from merely subsidizing insurance through which their employees might commit a wrong (e.g., by using contraception). The understanding of complicity underpinning these challenges is vastly more expansive than what standard legal doctrine or moral theory contemplates. Courts routinely reject claims of conscientious objection to taxes that fund ...


Confrontational Contestation And Democratic Compromise: The Sunflower Movement And Its Aftermath, Brian Christopher Jones, Yen-Tu Su 2015 Academia Sinica

Confrontational Contestation And Democratic Compromise: The Sunflower Movement And Its Aftermath, Brian Christopher Jones, Yen-Tu Su

Brian Christopher Jones

This piece describes the two conflicting governmental visions involved in the events surrounding the Taiwan Sunflower Movement, and attempts to justify the Movement from the perspective of democratic theory. In doing so we analyse the justifications Sunflower Movement leaders put forward for their occupation, and present a novel theory of “confrontational contestation”. The theory stems from the belief that the Sunflower Movement events represented a unique type of democratic disobedience, and new understandings regarding disobedience have emerged from these circumstances. The second part of our paper analyses the cases for and against prosecuting Sunflower Movement members. Ultimately, we decide that ...


What The Constitution Means By “Duties, Imposts, And Excises”—And “Taxes” (Direct Or Otherwise), Robert G. Natelson 2015 Independence Institute

What The Constitution Means By “Duties, Imposts, And Excises”—And “Taxes” (Direct Or Otherwise), Robert G. Natelson

Robert G. Natelson

This Article recreates the original definitions of the U.S. Constitution’s terms “tax,” “direct tax,” “duty,” “impost,” “excise,” and “tonnage.” It draws on a greater range of Founding-Era sources than accessed heretofore, including eighteenth-century treatises, tax statutes, and literary source, and it corrects several errors made by courts and previous commentators. It concludes that the distinction between direct and indirect taxes was widely understood during the Founding Era, and that the term “direct tax” was more expansive than commonly realized.

The Article identifies the reasons the Constitution required that direct taxes be apportioned among the states by population. It ...


Can A One Star Review Get You Sued? The Right To Anonymous Speech On The Internet And The Future Of Internet “Unmasking” Statutes, Jesse D. Lively 2015 American University

Can A One Star Review Get You Sued? The Right To Anonymous Speech On The Internet And The Future Of Internet “Unmasking” Statutes, Jesse D. Lively

Jesse D Lively

This Comment argues that the Supreme Court of Virginia should first reverse the Virginia Court of Appeal’s decision when it hears the Yelp case later this year. Secondly, the court hold that the Virginia statute for identifying persons communicating anonymously over the Internet violates the First Amendment's required showing of merit on both law and facts before a subpoena duces tecum to identify an anonymous speaker can be enforced. Lastly, it should adopt a new “unveiling standard” similar to the standards used in either Dendrite or Cahill. Part II examines the jurisprudential history of identifying anonymous Internet speakers ...


From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, yehezkel Margalit 2015 SelectedWorks

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

In 1985, when Kim Cotton became Britain’s first commercial surrogate mother, Europe was exposed to the issue of surrogacy for the first time on a large scale. Three years later, in 1988, the famous case of Baby M drew the attention of the American public to surrogacy as well. These two cases implicated fundamental ethical and legal issues regarding domestic surrogacy and triggered a fierce debate about motherhood, child-bearing, and the relationship between procreation, science and commerce. These two cases exemplified the debate regarding domestic surrogacy - a debate that has now been raging for decades. Contrary to the well-known ...


The End Of At-Will Employment? The “”Color-Blind” Standard Of Intent To Discriminate, Michael J. Zimmer 2015 Loyola University Chicago, School of Law

The End Of At-Will Employment? The “”Color-Blind” Standard Of Intent To Discriminate, Michael J. Zimmer

Michael J Zimmer

The End of At-Will Employment? The “”Color-Blind” Standard of Intent to Discriminate

Abstract

In Ricci v. DeStefano, the New Haven firefighters case, the Supreme Court decided as a matter of law that New Haven had committed intentional disparate treatment discrimination against some of the white testtakers when it did not use the results of a promotion test because its use would have resulted in an adverse effect on black and Latino testtakers. A careful reading of Ricci establishes how it has a significant potential impact on all disparate treatment cases. Because liability was established simply on the fact that New ...


Does It Matter How One Opposes Memory Bans? A Commentary On Liberte Pour L'Histoire, Robert Kahn 2015 University of St. Thomas School of Law

Does It Matter How One Opposes Memory Bans? A Commentary On Liberte Pour L'Histoire, Robert Kahn

Robert Kahn

This paper examines Liberté pour l'Histoire, a group of French historians who led the charge against that nation’s memory laws, in the process raising unique arguments not found elsewhere in the debate over hate speech regulation. Some of these arguments – such as a focus on how the constitutional structure of the Fifth Republic encouraged memory laws – advance our understanding of the connection between hate speech bans and political institutions. Other arguments, however, are more problematic. In particular, Liberté historians struggle to distinguish the Holocaust (which is illegal to deny) from the Armenian Genocide (which is not). The Liberté ...


Once We’Re Done Honeymooning: Marriage Equality, Incrementalism, And Advances For Sexual Orientation Antidiscrimination, Jeremiah A. Ho 2015 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Once We’Re Done Honeymooning: Marriage Equality, Incrementalism, And Advances For Sexual Orientation Antidiscrimination, Jeremiah A. Ho

Jeremiah A Ho

Once We’re Done Honeymooning: Marriage Equality, Incrementalism, and Advances for Sexual Orientation Antidiscrimination

Abstract

Following the Supreme Court’s decision in U.S. v. Windsor, each recent victory in the federal courts has evidenced that the legal recognition of same-sex marriages in the U.S. is becoming increasingly secure. Yet, can marriage equality be the last stop in the pro-LGBT movement, or should we expect sexual minorities to advance in other legal arenas? Should we expect that the recent strides in marriage equality can somehow leverage broader protections of LGBT individuals beyond their marital relationships?

This article begins from ...


Must The States Discriminate Against Their Own Producers Under The Dormant Commerce Clause?, David M. Driesen 2015 Syracuse University College of Law

Must The States Discriminate Against Their Own Producers Under The Dormant Commerce Clause?, David M. Driesen

David M Driesen

This article works out the implications of an insight mentioned, but not developed thoroughly, in the literature on free trade law: A polity that regulates its own producers without regulating outside producers serving that polity discriminates against its own producers. This gives rise to a question, should laws serving free trade values require polities to discriminate against their own producers? The dormant Commerce Clause’s extraterritoriality doctrine—which prohibits regulating wholly outside the enacting state’s borders—seems to require discrimination against the enacting state’s producers. Federal courts have recently used this doctrine to strike down state laws addressing ...


Lyman Trumbull: Author Of The Thirteenth Amendment, Author Of The Civil Rights Act, And The First Second Amendment Lawyer, David B. Kopel 2015 Denver University, Sturm College of Law

Lyman Trumbull: Author Of The Thirteenth Amendment, Author Of The Civil Rights Act, And The First Second Amendment Lawyer, David B. Kopel

David B Kopel

Illinois Senator Lyman Trumbull is not well-known today, but he is one of the "Founding Sons" who transformed the nation and the Constitution before, during, and after the Civil War. He wrote the Thirteenth Amendment, the first Freedmen's Bureau Bill, and the Civil Rights Act. He sponsored the first federal statutes which actually freed slaves. As Chair of the Senate Judiciary Committee and later as a civil rights attorney, he did more to protect Second Amendment rights--including taking a test case to the U.S. Supreme Court (Presser v. Illinois)--than did any other lawyer or legislator in the ...


Prerogative, Nationalized: The Social Formation Of Intellectual Property, Laura R. Ford 2015 SUNY Buffalo Law School

Prerogative, Nationalized: The Social Formation Of Intellectual Property, Laura R. Ford

Laura R Ford

In this article, I offer a “social formation story” (Hirschman & Reed) of the emergence of intellectual property, as a new type of legal property in England. I treat the history of patents and copyrights together, and focus especially on the Constitutional transformations of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries that enabled this new, “intellectual” form of property to finally emerge in the Eighteenth Century. I open and conclude with the cases of Millar v. Taylor (King’s Bench 1769) and Donaldson v. Becket (House of Lords 1774), viewing these as the first cases in which the status of this new type ...


Crafting A Constitutional Marijuana Tax, Nima H. Mohebbi 2015 United States Federal Courts

Crafting A Constitutional Marijuana Tax, Nima H. Mohebbi

Nima H. Mohebbi

Marijuana legalization and decriminalization have become important policy issues. Twenty-three states have partially legalized marijuana (generally for medicinal purposes), and four – Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington – have legalized it for general adult recreational use. Given the likely hyper-growth of the cannabis market due to widespread legalization, states might enjoy budgetary windfalls from collecting marijuana taxes.

Marijuana, however, remains a federally controlled substance, the sale or use of which is subject to substantial penalties. For the states, this presents a potential problem in collecting marijuana excise taxes. If an individual user in a state where marijuana is legal pays an accompanying ...


Randomized Judicial Review, Andrei Marmor 2015 BLR

Randomized Judicial Review, Andrei Marmor

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

One of the main arguments in support of constitutional judicial review points to the need to curtail the legal and political power of majority rule instantiated by democratic legislative institutions. This article aims to challenge the counter majoritarian argument for judicial review by showing that there is very little difference, at least morally speaking, between the current structure of constitutional judicial review in the US, and a system that would impose limits on majoritarian decisions procedures by an entirely randomized mechanism. The argument is based on a hypothetical model of a randomized system of judicial review, and proceeds to show ...


Gingles Versus Shaw: Why The Sweet Spot Between Thornburg V. Gingles And Shaw V. Reno Calls For An Amended § 2, Timothy L. O'Hair 2015 Pepperdine University

Gingles Versus Shaw: Why The Sweet Spot Between Thornburg V. Gingles And Shaw V. Reno Calls For An Amended § 2, Timothy L. O'Hair

Timothy L. O'Hair

Minority voter enfranchisement, and the related issue of minority voter dilution, has been a back and forth issue since the Reconstruction Era—the Fifteenth Amendment was countered by the Jim Crow laws, which were countered by the Voting Rights Act, and so on (this paper goes in depth regarding this seesaw history). After the 1982 Amendments to the VRA, the holding in Thornburg v. Gingles articulated a threshold to ensure minority groups receive a majority-minority district when the group is sufficiently large and compact and politically cohesive. Shaw v. Reno frustrated this by enabling an Equal Protection claim for the ...


A “Modern” Interpretation Of The 3rd Amendment: Unconstitutional Militarized Police, Sarah York 2015 College of William and Mary

A “Modern” Interpretation Of The 3rd Amendment: Unconstitutional Militarized Police, Sarah York

Sarah York

This paper suggests that the 3rd Amendment has not been properly analyzed by the Court to reflect its broad basis and the intent of the founding fathers concerning the limitations on the use of military force on the civilian population. The paper specifically examines the 1033 program that streamlines the process for domestic police forces to take possession of military surplus weapons, vehicles, and tactical gear. The Posse Comitatus and the documented discussions of the founding fathers are used to support the argument that the 3rd Amendment was not meant to be limited to a strict interpretation of ...


Law, Fugitive Capital, And Karl Polanyi's The Great Transformation, walter j. kendall lll 2015 the john marshall law school

Law, Fugitive Capital, And Karl Polanyi's The Great Transformation, Walter J. Kendall Lll

walter j kendall lll

No abstract provided.


The Not So Great Writ: Constitution Lite For State Prisoners, Ursula Bentele 2015 Brooklyn Law School

The Not So Great Writ: Constitution Lite For State Prisoners, Ursula Bentele

Ursula Bentele

Examination of the universe of cases in which the Supreme Court has recently reversed grants of federal habeas relief by circuit courts by issuing summary, per curiam opinions reveals some disturbing patterns. Substantively, the opinions continue the Court’s narrow interpretation of what law has been so clearly established that state courts must abide by its constitutional principles. Moreover, any rejection of a constitutional claim must be upheld unless there is no possibility that fairminded jurists could disagree with that determination. In terms of process, the summary reversals are issued in response to petitions for review by wardens, when the ...


The Not So Great Writ: Constitution Lite For State Prisoners, Ursula Bentele 2015 Brooklyn Law School

The Not So Great Writ: Constitution Lite For State Prisoners, Ursula Bentele

Ursula Bentele

Examination of the universe of cases in which the Supreme Court has recently reversed grants of federal habeas relief by circuit courts by issuing summary, per curiam opinions reveals some disturbing patterns. Substantively, the opinions continue the Court’s narrow interpretation of what law has been so clearly established that state courts must abide by its constitutional principles. Moreover, any rejection of a constitutional claim must be upheld unless there is no possibility that fairminded jurists could disagree with that determination. In terms of process, the summary reversals are issued in response to petitions for review by wardens, when the ...


Old Habits Die Hard: Past And Current Issues With Eugenics And Forcible Sterilizations In California, Stephanie Lauren Borrowdale 2015 California Western School of Law

Old Habits Die Hard: Past And Current Issues With Eugenics And Forcible Sterilizations In California, Stephanie Lauren Borrowdale

Stephanie Lauren Borrowdale

While other states have been able to successfully move past their history with eugenics by acknowledging and redressing the harm caused, the issue of forcible sterilizations lingers in California. As the California legislature dealt with a new breed of eugenic policies that emerged in the state penal system, is enough being done to address California’s reliance on forcible sterilizations? This Comment addresses California’s history with forcible sterilization practices and the current issues with sterilization procedures in the California penal system, as well as what measures California has taken to remedy these issues.


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