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The Impact Of Cultural Heritage On Japanese Towns And Villages, Yuichiro Tsuji Dr. 2020 University of Tsukuba

The Impact Of Cultural Heritage On Japanese Towns And Villages, Yuichiro Tsuji Dr.

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

In 1954, when historically significant clays and clay pots were found in the Iba district of Shizuoka prefecture, the city applied to the prefectural education committee for a historic site designation. The committee granted this designation to the city..

However, in 1973 the education committee lifted its permission to promote development around the location. Historians have sought revocation of this decision under the Administrative Case Litigation Act (ACLA), but the Supreme Court has denied standing. By denying standing, the Japanese Supreme Court allows the prefecture to destroy a historical site.

First, this paper seeks to discuss the doctrine of standing ...


Masthead, 2020 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Masthead

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

No abstract provided.


Neurodiversity In Public Schools: A Critique Of Special Education In America, Pallavi M. Vishwanath 2020 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Neurodiversity In Public Schools: A Critique Of Special Education In America, Pallavi M. Vishwanath

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

This Note provides a comparative critique to the special education practices in the U.S. and Canada. The Note reasons that a country or democracy is most benefitted when there is a recognized governmental duty to maximize the potential of every student via public education. The Note further exposes how a difference in governmental duty to provide equal education drastically affects students’ dignity and potential. This Note describes the history of the American public education system; explains the development of special education in the United States and the ambiguous governmental duty to educate American students; and discusses Canadian case law ...


Worse Than Punishment: How The Involuntary Commitment Of Persons With Mental Illness Violates The United States Constitution, Samantha M. Caspar, Artem M. Joukov 2020 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Worse Than Punishment: How The Involuntary Commitment Of Persons With Mental Illness Violates The United States Constitution, Samantha M. Caspar, Artem M. Joukov

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

This Article highlights that individuals who suffer from mental health problems can be particularly defenseless against an attack on their liberty through criminal and civil law. Specifically, it delineates how the current laws allow for a potential indefinite commitment of a person who may not have even committed a single crime. The Article explains that constitutionally mandated standards should be required to protect individuals who face losing their liberty due to the perceived threat of future harm. The authors posit that, while preventing individuals from harming themselves or others is an honorable goal, the state should only be able to ...


Comparative Cruelty: A Comparative Analysis Of The Eighth Amendment To The United States Constitution And Section Nine Of The New Zealand Bill Of Rights Act, Carrie Leonetti 2020 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Comparative Cruelty: A Comparative Analysis Of The Eighth Amendment To The United States Constitution And Section Nine Of The New Zealand Bill Of Rights Act, Carrie Leonetti

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

Given that the United States Constitution and the New Zealand Bill of Rights Act both contain prohibitions against governmental acts of cruelty and torture, this Article offers a comparative analysis of the judicial interpretations of the meaning of “cruel” in the prohibition against cruel and unusual punishment in the two country’s founding documents. The Article beings by considering the shared historical underpinnings of the prohibitions, which require a proportionality analysis when assessing whether a punishment is excessive. Next, it examines the meaning of “cruelty” and the scope of the prohibitions in New Zealand and the United States. The Article ...


You Don’T Have To Pay The Troll Toll: Antitrust Violations Of Patent Assertion Entities And The Noerr-Pennington Doctrine “Sham Litigation” Exception, Katheryn M. Wenger 2020 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

You Don’T Have To Pay The Troll Toll: Antitrust Violations Of Patent Assertion Entities And The Noerr-Pennington Doctrine “Sham Litigation” Exception, Katheryn M. Wenger

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

This Note discusses the implications of possible antitrust violations when Patent Assertion Entities (“PAEs”) enforce their vast patent portfolios against alleged infringers by forcing a license of the entire portfolio or threatening continuous and costly litigation. This Note analyzes this PAE conduct under antitrust laws, using Intellectual Ventures I, LLC v. Capital One Financial Corp. as an exemplar case study. Further, the Note explains that PAEs are not immune to antitrust counterclaims under the Noerr-Pennington doctrine because their anticompetitive conduct meets the standard for the “sham litigation” exception to the doctrine. Ultimately, this Note offers preventative solutions to this PAE ...


Foreword, Wendy Melissa Hernandez 2020 University of California, Hastings College of the Law

Foreword, Wendy Melissa Hernandez

Hastings Constitutional Law Quarterly

No abstract provided.


Policing The Wombs Of The World's Women: The Mexico City Policy, Samantha Lalisan 2020 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Policing The Wombs Of The World's Women: The Mexico City Policy, Samantha Lalisan

Indiana Law Journal

This Comment argues that the Policy should be repealed because it undermines

firmly held First Amendment values and would be considered unconstitutional if

applied to domestic nongovernmental organizations (DNGOs). It proceeds in four

parts. Part I describes the inception of the Policy and contextualizes it among other

antiabortion policies that resulted as a backlash to the U.S. Supreme Court’s

landmark decision in Roe v. Wade. Part II explains the Policy’s actual effect on

FNGOs, particularly focusing on organizations based in Nepal and Peru, and argues

that the Policy undermines democratic processes abroad and fails to achieve its ...


The Guinea-Bissau Constitutional Reform Debate, Watson Aila Gomes 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

The Guinea-Bissau Constitutional Reform Debate, Watson Aila Gomes

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

The enactment of law is not to be confused with the rule of law, and simply having a constitution does not guarantee political order. In Guinea-Bissau there have been calls to write a new constitution, but whether that helps Guinea-Bissau become a more stable country is questionable. Currently, there is a gap in the research of social science, history and political science examining how the processes of instability have unfolded in Guinea-Bissau. Few studies attempt to examine the correlation between a country’s stability and its constitution. A paradoxical situation exists in many countries in Africa where the political system ...


Ascriptive Nationalism, Demagoguery, And The Modern Presidency: A Case Study In Constitutional Decay, Christopher J. Putney 2020 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Ascriptive Nationalism, Demagoguery, And The Modern Presidency: A Case Study In Constitutional Decay, Christopher J. Putney

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

This study is an account of the modern presidency as a source––and under Donald Trump, an accelerant––of systemic problems in American politics. Against the prevailing scholarly view of the Trump presidency as an unqualified aberration, I argue that the signal features of his efforts at governance are actually the product of converging patterns of political and institutional order. Building on seminal (but previously disjointed) work on ascriptive Americanism and the rhetorical presidency, I show that Trump represents the political synthesis of America’s ascriptive tradition and a form of presidential leadership inaugurated more than a century ago by ...


Artificial Entities With Natural Rights: Pursuing Profits At The Expense Of Human Capital, Loren M. Findlay 2020 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Artificial Entities With Natural Rights: Pursuing Profits At The Expense Of Human Capital, Loren M. Findlay

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

This Note explores the legal and constitutional rights granted to corporations and highlights how these corporate benefits are often at the expense of individuals. Over the past century, the corporation has evolved, taking on human-like characteristics. While many statutes and the Constitution use the word “person,” courts have inconsistently interpreted the definition of “person” in determining when it expands to corporations. In courts’ ad hoc analysis and interpretation, individuals get the metaphorical short-end of the stick.

The First Amendment of the Constitution was interpreted by the U.S. Supreme Court to afford the right of free speech to corporations in ...


Privacy's Constitutional Moment And The Limits Of Data Protection, Woodrow Hartzog, Neil Richards 2020 Northeastern University

Privacy's Constitutional Moment And The Limits Of Data Protection, Woodrow Hartzog, Neil Richards

Boston College Law Review

America’s privacy bill has come due. Since the dawn of the internet, Congress has repeatedly failed to build a robust identity for American privacy law. But now both California and the European Union have forced Congress’s hand by passing the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) and the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR). These data protection frameworks, structured around principles for fair information processing called the “FIPs,” have industry and privacy advocates alike clamoring for a “U.S. GDPR.” States seem poised to blanket the country with FIPs-based laws if Congress fails to act. The United States is thus ...


The Indiscretion Of Friends: Fourth Amendment Concerns About The Ability To Predict A Person’S Online Social Activity By Monitoring Her Contacts, George M. Dery III 2020 University of Minnesota Law School

The Indiscretion Of Friends: Fourth Amendment Concerns About The Ability To Predict A Person’S Online Social Activity By Monitoring Her Contacts, George M. Dery Iii

Minnesota Journal of Law, Science & Technology

No abstract provided.


Youth Suffrage: In Support Of The Second Wave, Mae C. Quinn, Caridad Dominguez, Chelsey Omega, Abrafi Osei-Kofi, Carlye Owens 2020 The University of Akron

Youth Suffrage: In Support Of The Second Wave, Mae C. Quinn, Caridad Dominguez, Chelsey Omega, Abrafi Osei-Kofi, Carlye Owens

Akron Law Review

The 19th Amendment is talked about as central to our nation’s suffrage story, with many situating women's suffrage work within feminist theory "wave" discourse. However, with this telling, scholars and others too frequently overlook young voters and efforts relating to their election law rights. This article seeks to remedy this oversight and complicate the voting rights canon, in addition to supporting efforts of today’s youth voting rights advocates. It does so by turning our attention to youth suffrage movements, which we argue also can be examined by way of a framework of "waves." The first to offer ...


Felony Disenfranchisement And The Nineteenth Amendment, Michael Gentithes 2020 The University of Akron

Felony Disenfranchisement And The Nineteenth Amendment, Michael Gentithes

Akron Law Review

The Nineteenth Amendment and the history of the women’s suffrage movement can offer a compelling argument against felony disenfranchisement laws. These laws leave approximately six million citizens unable to vote, often for crimes wholly unrelated to the political process. They also increasingly threaten gains in female enfranchisement.

Today’s arguments in support of felony disenfranchisement laws bear striking similarities to the arguments of anti-suffragists more than a century earlier. Both suggest that a traditionally subordinated class of citizens is inherently incapable of bearing the responsibility that the right to vote entails, and that their votes are somehow less worthy ...


The Nineteenth Amendment And The U.S. "Women's Emancipation Policy" In Post-World War Ii Occupied Japan: Going Beyond Suffrage, Cornelia Weiss 2020 The University of Akron

The Nineteenth Amendment And The U.S. "Women's Emancipation Policy" In Post-World War Ii Occupied Japan: Going Beyond Suffrage, Cornelia Weiss

Akron Law Review

This paper explores the influence of the Nineteenth Amendment on U.S. military occupation policy in Post-World War II Japan. A mere 25 years after the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, actions taken during the military occupation did not stop at suffrage for Japanese women. Actions included a constitution that provided for women’s “equality” (what, even 100 years after the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment, is still absent in the U.S. constitution). In addition to addressing women’s suffrage and constitutional equality, this paper examines the successes and failures of the Occupation to eradicate the legal enslavement of ...


The Temperance Movement's Impact On Adoption Of Women's Suffrage, Richard H. Chused 2020 The University of Akron

The Temperance Movement's Impact On Adoption Of Women's Suffrage, Richard H. Chused

Akron Law Review

This paper examines the nature of the Progressive Era and the Prohibition Movement and the important links between the sentiments giving rise to prohibition and those stimulating adoption of suffrage. Though each arose from a somewhat distinct array of reform impulses and overcame varying opposition groups, they were closely related in some ways, supported by overlapping groups of people, advanced by large numbers of women, and, in part, lifted to enactment by similar motivations. Indeed, without the support of many conservative citizens approving both Amendments, it is not clear what the fate of suffrage would have been after World War ...


"A Woman Stumps Her State": Nellie G. Robinson And Women's Right To Hold Public Office In Ohio, Elizabeth D. Katz 2020 The University of Akron

"A Woman Stumps Her State": Nellie G. Robinson And Women's Right To Hold Public Office In Ohio, Elizabeth D. Katz

Akron Law Review

In recognition of the centennial of the Nineteenth Amendment, this essay provides an introduction to a largely overlooked yet essential component of the women’s movement: the pursuit of women’s legal right to hold public office. From the mid-nineteenth century through ratification of the federal suffrage amendment in 1920, women demanded access to appointed and elected positions, ranging from notary public to mayor. Because the legal right to hold office had literal and symbolic connections to the right to vote, suffragists and antisuffragists were deeply invested in the outcome. Courts and legislatures varied in their responses, with those in ...


Suffragist Prisoners And The Importance Of Protecting Prisoner Protests, Nicole B. Godfrey 2020 The University of Akron

Suffragist Prisoners And The Importance Of Protecting Prisoner Protests, Nicole B. Godfrey

Akron Law Review

This paper examines the role that public exposure to the conditions experienced by suffragist prisoners played in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment. Using the experience of the suffragists as an example of how prisoner protest impacted democratic debate, the paper argues that robust protection of prisoners’ First Amendment rights is fundamental to the nation’s democratic values and political discourse and debate.

The paper begins with an historical overview of the arrests, convictions, and incarceration of the Silent Sentinels, women who began picketing outside the White House in 1917. Over the course of several months, local officials in the ...


Zarda And Sexual Orientation Expression: A New High For Title Vii Interpretation, Nico Ramos 2020 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

Zarda And Sexual Orientation Expression: A New High For Title Vii Interpretation, Nico Ramos

Catholic University Law Review

Under current federal law, a majority of jurisdictions decline to extend Title VII protections based on sexual orientation; however, a growing number of circuits have reversed precedent and held that Title VII prohibits discrimination sexual orientation discrimination. The Second Circuit’s en banc decision in Zarda v. Altitude Express reached the conclusion that sexual orientation discrimination is as a cognizable claim under Title VII because in order to discriminate against a person sexual orientation, you naturally first have to take their gender into account. The Supreme Court granted certiorari and has now heard oral arguments.

Part I of this note ...


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