Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

381,827 Full-Text Articles 152,132 Authors 142,595,802 Downloads 377 Institutions

All Articles in Law

Faceted Search

381,827 full-text articles. Page 1 of 6626.

Prosecuting Rape Victims While Rapists Run Free: The Consequences Of Police Failure To Investigate Sex Crimes In Britain And The United States, Lisa Avalos 2019 University of Arkansas School of Law

Prosecuting Rape Victims While Rapists Run Free: The Consequences Of Police Failure To Investigate Sex Crimes In Britain And The United States, Lisa Avalos

Michigan Journal of Gender and Law

Imagine that a close friend is raped, and you encourage her to report it to the police. At first, she thinks that the police are taking her report seriously, but the investigation does not seem to move forward. The next thing she knows, they accuse her of lying and ultimately file charges against her. You and your friend are in shock; this outcome never entered your minds. This nightmare may seem inconceivable, but it has in fact occurred repeatedly in both the United States and Britain—countries that are typically lauded for their high levels of gender equality. In Britain ...


Social Networking Sites And Learning In International Relations: The Impact Of Platforms, Josh Pallas, Joakim Eidenfalk, Susan N. Engel 2019 University of Wollongong

Social Networking Sites And Learning In International Relations: The Impact Of Platforms, Josh Pallas, Joakim Eidenfalk, Susan N. Engel

Faculty of Law, Humanities and the Arts - Papers

This article reports on a pilot undergraduate subject that incorporated a range of technology-enhanced learning approaches including online lectures, an online site for in and out of class communications, and strong encouragement for students to blog and use Twitter. This paper evaluates student engagement through the social networking sites (SNS), focusing on the online communication and content platform. We examine whether changing from an educationally oriented SNS platform to Facebook impacted on student engagement and feedback. To achieve this, both empirical data and qualitative student feedback were used.


#Metoo Meets The Ministerial Exception: Sexual Harassment Claims By Clergy And The First Amendment's Religion Clauses, Ira C. Lupu, Robert W. Tuttle 2019 George Washington University Law School

#Metoo Meets The Ministerial Exception: Sexual Harassment Claims By Clergy And The First Amendment's Religion Clauses, Ira C. Lupu, Robert W. Tuttle

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

In Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & School v. EEOC (2012), the Supreme Court unanimously held that the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment create a “ministerial exception” to certain employment laws. The ministerial exception bars claims by clergy of wrongful dismissal by religious institutions. In the years before Hosanna-Tabor, however, courts had ruled in four prominent decisions – two state, and two federal – that suits by clergy for sexual harassment
based on a pervasively hostile environment could go forward, notwithstanding the ministerial exception. The rise of the #MeToo movement invites new and more detailed consideration of the tension between the policies behind sexual harassment law and the constitutional values protected by the ministerial exception.

Part I describes the contours of the ministerial exception, explains its constitutional provenance, and highlights the issues left open by Hosanna-Tabor. Part II addresses relevant developments in the law of sexual harassment, from the pioneering work of Professor Catherine MacKinnon, through and including the Supreme Court’s decisions in Burlington Industries v. Ellerth and Faragher v. City of Boca Raton.

Part III explores the leading judicial opinions on the relationship between sexual harassment law and the ministerial exception. These include the germinal state court decisions in Black v. Snyder (Minnesota) and McKelvey v. Pierce (New Jersey), and the path breaking 9th Circuit decisions in Bollard v. California Province of the Society of Jesus, and Elvig v. Calvin Presbyterian Church. In the law that has emerged, the ministerial exception bars adverse job action claims by clergy but does not bar hostile environment claims. That brief statement, however, masks the analytical complexities and constitutional concerns arising from the interplay between harassment law and the ministerial exception. The sources of tension include the affirmative defenses, requiring employer-created mechanisms for reasonable prevention and correction in sexual harassment cases, as well as matters of discovery and choice of remedies.

Part IV applies our theoretical and doctrinal insights to the major questions raised by this interplay. We explain why the ministerial exception is constitutionally sound, but nevertheless should not bar damage claims for pervasive, hostile environments based on sex. We offer a tort-based theory of harm as the underpinning of hostile environment doctrine; analyze the tenuous connection between religious belief and sexual harassment of clergy; and unpack constitutional questions of entanglement between church and state that may arise when religious institutions face hostile environment lawsuits. Our analysis should be of interest to scholars of employment law and the Religion Clauses, lawyers litigating such cases, and judges who must decide them.

In Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & School v. EEOC (2012), the Supreme Court unanimously held that the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment create a “ministerial exception” to certain employment laws. The ministerial exception bars claims by clergy of wrongful dismissal by religious institutions. In the years before Hosanna-Tabor, however, courts had ruled in four prominent decisions – two state, and two federal – that suits by clergy for sexual harassment
based on a pervasively hostile environment could go forward, notwithstanding the ministerial exception. The rise of the #MeToo movement invites new and more detailed consideration of the tension between the policies behind sexual harassment law and the constitutional values protected by the ministerial exception.

Part I describes the contours of the ministerial exception, explains its constitutional provenance, and highlights the issues left open by Hosanna-Tabor. Part II addresses relevant developments in the law of sexual harassment, from the pioneering work of Professor Catherine MacKinnon, through and including the Supreme Court’s decisions in Burlington Industries v. Ellerth and Faragher v. City of Boca Raton.

Part III explores the leading judicial opinions on the relationship between sexual harassment law and the ministerial exception. These include the germinal state court decisions in Black v. Snyder (Minnesota) and McKelvey v. Pierce (New Jersey), and the path breaking 9th Circuit decisions in Bollard v. California Province of the Society of Jesus, and Elvig v. Calvin Presbyterian Church. In the law that has emerged, the ministerial exception bars adverse job action claims by clergy but does
not bar hostile environment claims. That brief statement, however, masks the analytical complexities and constitutional concerns arising from the interplay between harassment law and the ministerial exception. The sources of tension include the affirmative defenses, requiring employer-created mechanisms for reasonable prevention and correction in sexual harassment cases, as well as matters of discovery and choice of remedies.

Part IV applies our theoretical and doctrinal insights to the major questions raised by this interplay. We explain why the ministerial exception is constitutionally sound, but nevertheless should not bar damage claims for pervasive, hostile environments based on sex. We offer a tort-based theory of harm as the underpinning of hostile environment doctrine; analyze the tenuous connection between religious belief and sexual harassment of clergy; and unpack constitutional questions of entanglement between church and state that may arise when religious institutions face hostile environment lawsuits. Our ...


Finding Law, Stephen E. Sachs 2019 Duke Law School

Finding Law, Stephen E. Sachs

Faculty Scholarship

That the judge's task is to find the law, not to make it, was once a commonplace of our legal culture. Today, decades after Erie, the idea of a common law discovered by judges is commonly dismissed -- as a "fallacy," an "illusion," a "brooding omnipresence in the sky." That dismissive view is wrong. Expecting judges to find unwritten law is no childish fiction of the benighted past, but a real and plausible option for a modern legal system.

This Essay seeks to restore the respectability of finding law, in part by responding to two criticisms made by Erie and ...


Clinical And Experiential Learning In Canadian Law Schools: Current Perspectives, Gemma Smyth, Samantha Hale, Neil Gold 2018 Faculty of Law, University of Windsor

Clinical And Experiential Learning In Canadian Law Schools: Current Perspectives, Gemma Smyth, Samantha Hale, Neil Gold

Law Publications

What are some of the challenges and possibilities animating modern Canadian clinical and experiential learning in law? This question was the starting point for our research, which examined two sets of data. In the first part of this project, we analyzed available information on existing clinical and experiential learning programs in Canadian law schools. This data revealed a growing quantity and variety of programs across the country. We then held qualitative interviews with deans, professors, and clinicians across Canada regarding their views of clinical and experiential learning. While the interviews suggested that many of the same financial and curricular challenges ...


How Irrational Actors In The Ceo Suite Affect Corporate Governance, Renee M. Jones 2018 Boston College Law School

How Irrational Actors In The Ceo Suite Affect Corporate Governance, Renee M. Jones

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


A Study Of Transformational Leadership Practices To Police Officers' Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment, John P. Decker 2018 Seton Hall University

A Study Of Transformational Leadership Practices To Police Officers' Job Satisfaction And Organizational Commitment, John P. Decker

Seton Hall University Dissertations and Theses (ETDs)

This study is based upon Bass and Riggio’s (2006) Augmentation Model on Transactional and Transformational Leadership, in which this quantitative study sought to identify the amount of variance in police officer job satisfaction and organizational commitment that can be explained by police chiefs’ transformational leadership behaviors above and beyond the influence of transactional behaviors. A total of 166 police officers were surveyed in five central New Jersey police departments in relation to their job satisfaction and organizational commitment, as well as the leadership behaviors in which their police chiefs engaged, utilizing Bass and Avolio’s (2004) Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire ...


Impact Of Owners’ Early Decisions On Project Performance And Dispute Occurrence In Public Highway Projects, Sogand Hasanzadeh, Behzad Esmaeili, Ghada M. Gad, Douglas D. Gransberg 2018 University of Nebraska - Lincoln

Impact Of Owners’ Early Decisions On Project Performance And Dispute Occurrence In Public Highway Projects, Sogand Hasanzadeh, Behzad Esmaeili, Ghada M. Gad, Douglas D. Gransberg

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Disputes are common in the construction industry and lead to unnecessary cost and schedule overruns in projects. It is commonly believed that owners’ early decisions regarding the selection of delivery methods, procurement methods, and contract types affect the frequency and severity of project disputes; however, no previous study has empirically tested this hypothesis, particularly in highway public projects. Therefore, this study empirically investigated the effect of owners’ early decisions regarding project organization (i.e., delivery methods, procurement, and contract types) on performance measures (e.g., cost and schedule growth), specifically dispute performance metrics (e.g., frequency and severity of disputes ...


A Bibliography Of Faculty Scholarship, Law Library 2018 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

A Bibliography Of Faculty Scholarship, Law Library

Scholarly Articles and Other Contributions

The purpose of this bibliography is to record in one place the substantial body of scholarship produced by the current faculty at the Catholic University, Columbus School of Law. From its humble beginnings under the tutelage of founding Dean William Callyhan Robinson, through its adolescent period when, like so many other American law schools, it was trying to define its pedagogical niche, to its eventual merger with the Columbus University Law School in 1954, the law school at Catholic University has always retained a scholarly and remarkably productive faculty. The sheer quantity of writing, the breadth of research and the ...


Evaluating The Influences Of Domestic Violence Training On The Attitudes And Perceptions Of Police Recruits At The East Tennessee Regional Law Enforcement Academy, Jeffrey T. Gazzo Mr. 2018 East Tennessee State University

Evaluating The Influences Of Domestic Violence Training On The Attitudes And Perceptions Of Police Recruits At The East Tennessee Regional Law Enforcement Academy, Jeffrey T. Gazzo Mr.

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A sample of recruits attending the East Tennessee Regional Law Enforcement Academy were surveyed about attitudes relating to a variety of topics, including their perceived role as police officers, domestic violence, its victims, perpetrators, and police interactions with domestic violence. The recruits completed the survey during their first week at the academy. The recruits completed the identical survey on the last week of academy training. No significant change in attitudes were found following the completion of the Regional Law Enforcement Academy training program. Conclusively, the results of this study show that the training provided at the East Tennessee Regional Law ...


Medico-Legal Collaboration Regarding The Sex Offender: Othering And Resistance, Mary Lay Schuster, Brian Larson, Amy D. Propen 2018 University of Minnesota - Twin Cities

Medico-Legal Collaboration Regarding The Sex Offender: Othering And Resistance, Mary Lay Schuster, Brian Larson, Amy D. Propen

Brian Larson

We examined medico-legal collaboration regarding dangerous sex offenders where state legislators have adopted statutes that determine the criteria for commitment to and discharge from civil commitment programs. The application of these statutes relies on medical diagnoses of pathologies such as paraphilia, anti-social personality disorder, and pedophilia along with prognoses for cure or recidivism. In our study, we examined court opinions from commitment hearings and observed a trial in federal court on the constitutionality of these commitments. We found that one result of this medico-legal collaboration is the marginalization or othering of sex offenders by essentializing, dividing, shaming, and impeaching them ...


Move It Or Lose It: Washington State’S Mobile Home Park Conversion Process And Its Failures, Lauren Malpica 2018 Seattle University School of Law

Move It Or Lose It: Washington State’S Mobile Home Park Conversion Process And Its Failures, Lauren Malpica

Seattle Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Shots Fired: Examining Cues In Polic Use Of Force Encounters, Ronald Gaines Jr. 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

Shots Fired: Examining Cues In Polic Use Of Force Encounters, Ronald Gaines Jr.

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Officer-involved shootings lead to a costly process where lives are lost, careers are ruined, and taxpayer dollars are spent on investigation and litigation costs. The purpose of this study was to examine the cues that are associated with incidents that resulted in a police officer’s use of lethal as opposed to less than lethal force to increase awareness, enhance police safety, and improve training and supervision. Through the current quantitative correlational study, the researcher aimed to add to the discussion on police use of force. The researcher collected and analyzed preexisting sets of data from tactical response reports obtained ...


Examining Police Officer Resistance To Change And Body-Worn Cameras, Wayne Jakobitz Jr. 2018 Olivet Nazarene University

Examining Police Officer Resistance To Change And Body-Worn Cameras, Wayne Jakobitz Jr.

Scholar Week 2016 - present

Police departments are adopting the body-worn camera as an important tool in the restoration of trust and accountability for police officers. Although body-worn cameras can be beneficial to their work, police officers might resist the use of cameras. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether experiences with technology or the perceived usefulness of body-worn cameras predict resistance to the cameras in order to determine where resistance to body-worn cameras possibly exists. The current study employed a quantitative design that examined 48 (n = 48) police officers’ responses about resistance to body-worn cameras in relationship to the following variables ...


The Property Question.Pdf, William A. Edmundson 2018 Georgia State University College of Law

The Property Question.Pdf, William A. Edmundson

William A. Edmundson

The “property question” is the constitutional question whether a society’s basic resources are to be publicly or privately owned; that is, whether these basic resources are to be available to private owners, perhaps subject to tax and regulation, or whether instead they are to be retained in joint public ownership, and managed by democratic processes.  James Madison’s approach represents a case in which prior holdings are taken for granted, and the property question itself is kept off of the political agenda.  By contrast, John Rawls approach abstracts from any actual pattern of holdings, while putting the property question ...


Implications Of The Private Search Doctrine In A Digital Age: Advocating For Limitations On Warrantless Searches Through Adoption Of The Virtual File Approach, Brianna M. Espeland 2018 UIdaho Law

Implications Of The Private Search Doctrine In A Digital Age: Advocating For Limitations On Warrantless Searches Through Adoption Of The Virtual File Approach, Brianna M. Espeland

Idaho Law Review

No abstract provided.


An End To Arbitrary And Capricious Federal Sentencing Guidelines, Henry D. Stegner 2018 UIdaho Law

An End To Arbitrary And Capricious Federal Sentencing Guidelines, Henry D. Stegner

Idaho Law Review

No abstract provided.


Til It Happens To You: Providing Victims Of Sexual Assault With Their Own Legal Representation, Erin J. Heuring 2018 UIdaho Law

Til It Happens To You: Providing Victims Of Sexual Assault With Their Own Legal Representation, Erin J. Heuring

Idaho Law Review

No abstract provided.


Title Ix Violations Arising From Title Ix Investigations: The Snake Is Eating Its Own Tail, Joe Dryden, David Stader, Jeanne L. Surface 2018 UIdaho Law

Title Ix Violations Arising From Title Ix Investigations: The Snake Is Eating Its Own Tail, Joe Dryden, David Stader, Jeanne L. Surface

Idaho Law Review

In 2011, the Department of Education Office of Civil Rights published a Dear Colleague Letter (DCL) detailing the department’s views on the roles and responsibilities of colleges and universities under Title IX specifically as they relate to allegations of sexual assault. Numerous studies conclude that close to 1 in 5 college women are sexually assaulted while enrolled in institutions of higher education. Many of these studies are flawed yet they are being used as the justification for administrative overreach. Despite not having the legal authority, the DCL changed the legal standard to be applied when conducting sexual assault investigations ...


One Of Five: Reflections On Jim Jones' Jurisprudential Impact In His Twelve Years On The Idaho Supreme Court, Hillary Smith 2018 UIdaho Law

One Of Five: Reflections On Jim Jones' Jurisprudential Impact In His Twelve Years On The Idaho Supreme Court, Hillary Smith

Idaho Law Review

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress