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Prosecuting Rape Victims While Rapists Run Free: The Consequences Of Police Failure To Investigate Sex Crimes In Britain And The United States, Lisa Avalos 2019 University of Arkansas School of Law

Prosecuting Rape Victims While Rapists Run Free: The Consequences Of Police Failure To Investigate Sex Crimes In Britain And The United States, Lisa Avalos

Michigan Journal of Gender and Law

Imagine that a close friend is raped, and you encourage her to report it to the police. At first, she thinks that the police are taking her report seriously, but the investigation does not seem to move forward. The next thing she knows, they accuse her of lying and ultimately file charges against her. You and your friend are in shock; this outcome never entered your minds. This nightmare may seem inconceivable, but it has in fact occurred repeatedly in both the United States and Britain—countries that are typically lauded for their high levels of gender equality. In Britain ...


Social Networking Sites And Learning In International Relations: The Impact Of Platforms, Josh Pallas, Joakim Eidenfalk, Susan N. Engel 2019 University of Wollongong

Social Networking Sites And Learning In International Relations: The Impact Of Platforms, Josh Pallas, Joakim Eidenfalk, Susan N. Engel

Faculty of Law, Humanities and the Arts - Papers

This article reports on a pilot undergraduate subject that incorporated a range of technology-enhanced learning approaches including online lectures, an online site for in and out of class communications, and strong encouragement for students to blog and use Twitter. This paper evaluates student engagement through the social networking sites (SNS), focusing on the online communication and content platform. We examine whether changing from an educationally oriented SNS platform to Facebook impacted on student engagement and feedback. To achieve this, both empirical data and qualitative student feedback were used.


Finding Law, Stephen E. Sachs 2019 Duke Law School

Finding Law, Stephen E. Sachs

Faculty Scholarship

That the judge's task is to find the law, not to make it, was once a commonplace of our legal culture. Today, decades after Erie, the idea of a common law discovered by judges is commonly dismissed -- as a "fallacy," an "illusion," a "brooding omnipresence in the sky." That dismissive view is wrong. Expecting judges to find unwritten law is no childish fiction of the benighted past, but a real and plausible option for a modern legal system.

This Essay seeks to restore the respectability of finding law, in part by responding to two criticisms made by Erie and ...


A. Harold Weber Writing Award, Notre Dame Law School 2019 Notre Dame Law School

A. Harold Weber Writing Award, Notre Dame Law School

Student, Faculty, and Staff Awards

For Excellence in Legal Writing
What will it profit you to know all the law and the prophets if you lack the power to make these clear to others? – Lloyd T. Stryker


#Metoo Meets The Ministerial Exception: Sexual Harassment Claims By Clergy And The First Amendment's Religion Clauses, Ira C. Lupu, Robert W. Tuttle 2019 George Washington University Law School

#Metoo Meets The Ministerial Exception: Sexual Harassment Claims By Clergy And The First Amendment's Religion Clauses, Ira C. Lupu, Robert W. Tuttle

GW Law Faculty Publications & Other Works

In Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & School v. EEOC (2012), the Supreme Court unanimously held that the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment create a “ministerial exception” to certain employment laws. The ministerial exception bars claims by clergy of wrongful dismissal by religious institutions. In the years before Hosanna-Tabor, however, courts had ruled in four prominent decisions – two state, and two federal – that suits by clergy for sexual harassment
based on a pervasively hostile environment could go forward, notwithstanding the ministerial exception. The rise of the #MeToo movement invites new and more detailed consideration of the tension between the policies behind sexual harassment law and the constitutional values protected by the ministerial exception.

Part I describes the contours of the ministerial exception, explains its constitutional provenance, and highlights the issues left open by Hosanna-Tabor. Part II addresses relevant developments in the law of sexual harassment, from the pioneering work of Professor Catherine MacKinnon, through and including the Supreme Court’s decisions in Burlington Industries v. Ellerth and Faragher v. City of Boca Raton.

Part III explores the leading judicial opinions on the relationship between sexual harassment law and the ministerial exception. These include the germinal state court decisions in Black v. Snyder (Minnesota) and McKelvey v. Pierce (New Jersey), and the path breaking 9th Circuit decisions in Bollard v. California Province of the Society of Jesus, and Elvig v. Calvin Presbyterian Church. In the law that has emerged, the ministerial exception bars adverse job action claims by clergy but does not bar hostile environment claims. That brief statement, however, masks the analytical complexities and constitutional concerns arising from the interplay between harassment law and the ministerial exception. The sources of tension include the affirmative defenses, requiring employer-created mechanisms for reasonable prevention and correction in sexual harassment cases, as well as matters of discovery and choice of remedies.

Part IV applies our theoretical and doctrinal insights to the major questions raised by this interplay. We explain why the ministerial exception is constitutionally sound, but nevertheless should not bar damage claims for pervasive, hostile environments based on sex. We offer a tort-based theory of harm as the underpinning of hostile environment doctrine; analyze the tenuous connection between religious belief and sexual harassment of clergy; and unpack constitutional questions of entanglement between church and state that may arise when religious institutions face hostile environment lawsuits. Our analysis should be of interest to scholars of employment law and the Religion Clauses, lawyers litigating such cases, and judges who must decide them.

In Hosanna-Tabor Evangelical Lutheran Church & School v. EEOC (2012), the Supreme Court unanimously held that the Religion Clauses of the First Amendment create a “ministerial exception” to certain employment laws. The ministerial exception bars claims by clergy of wrongful dismissal by religious institutions. In the years before Hosanna-Tabor, however, courts had ruled in four prominent decisions – two state, and two federal – that suits by clergy for sexual harassment
based on a pervasively hostile environment could go forward, notwithstanding the ministerial exception. The rise of the #MeToo movement invites new and more detailed consideration of the tension between the policies behind sexual harassment law and the constitutional values protected by the ministerial exception.

Part I describes the contours of the ministerial exception, explains its constitutional provenance, and highlights the issues left open by Hosanna-Tabor. Part II addresses relevant developments in the law of sexual harassment, from the pioneering work of Professor Catherine MacKinnon, through and including the Supreme Court’s decisions in Burlington Industries v. Ellerth and Faragher v. City of Boca Raton.

Part III explores the leading judicial opinions on the relationship between sexual harassment law and the ministerial exception. These include the germinal state court decisions in Black v. Snyder (Minnesota) and McKelvey v. Pierce (New Jersey), and the path breaking 9th Circuit decisions in Bollard v. California Province of the Society of Jesus, and Elvig v. Calvin Presbyterian Church. In the law that has emerged, the ministerial exception bars adverse job action claims by clergy but does
not bar hostile environment claims. That brief statement, however, masks the analytical complexities and constitutional concerns arising from the interplay between harassment law and the ministerial exception. The sources of tension include the affirmative defenses, requiring employer-created mechanisms for reasonable prevention and correction in sexual harassment cases, as well as matters of discovery and choice of remedies.

Part IV applies our theoretical and doctrinal insights to the major questions raised by this interplay. We explain why the ministerial exception is constitutionally sound, but nevertheless should not bar damage claims for pervasive, hostile environments based on sex. We offer a tort-based theory of harm as the underpinning of hostile environment doctrine; analyze the tenuous connection between religious belief and sexual harassment of clergy; and unpack constitutional questions of entanglement between church and state that may arise when religious institutions face hostile environment lawsuits. Our ...


Mmu: 12/11/17 - 12/17/17, Notre Dame Law School 2018 Notre Dame Law School

Mmu: 12/11/17 - 12/17/17, Notre Dame Law School

Monday Morning Update

The Monday Morning Update, or MMU as it is referred to by students, is a weekly email newsletter of news, events, and opportunities of special interest to Notre Dame Law School students.


Clinical And Experiential Learning In Canadian Law Schools: Current Perspectives, Gemma Smyth, Samantha Hale, Neil Gold 2018 Faculty of Law, University of Windsor

Clinical And Experiential Learning In Canadian Law Schools: Current Perspectives, Gemma Smyth, Samantha Hale, Neil Gold

Law Publications

What are some of the challenges and possibilities animating modern Canadian clinical and experiential learning in law? This question was the starting point for our research, which examined two sets of data. In the first part of this project, we analyzed available information on existing clinical and experiential learning programs in Canadian law schools. This data revealed a growing quantity and variety of programs across the country. We then held qualitative interviews with deans, professors, and clinicians across Canada regarding their views of clinical and experiential learning. While the interviews suggested that many of the same financial and curricular challenges ...


Highly Skilled Immigration In The United States In An Age Of Globalization: An Institutional And Agency Approach, Marcela F. González 2018 The Graduate Center, City University of New York

Highly Skilled Immigration In The United States In An Age Of Globalization: An Institutional And Agency Approach, Marcela F. González

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

My dissertation proposes an institutional and agency approach in order to answer a new question to a new set of conditions, processes, and architecture of the new immigration trend for highly skilled immigration in the United States that emerged in the 1990s. The complexification of visa policies for highly skilled immigrants since the 1990s forces many immigrants to follow a multi-step legal pathway to acquire legal permanent residency: first, immigrants have a variety of temporary legal statuses or no legal status, and in a subsequent stage they achieve legal permanent residency. The central question that organizes the dissertation has two ...


Editor's Note, Erica Seig 2018 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Editor's Note, Erica Seig

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Out Of The “Serbonian Bog”1 Surrounding Government Acquisition Of Third-Party Cell Site Location Information: “Get A Warrant” †, Glenn Williams 2018 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Out Of The “Serbonian Bog”1 Surrounding Government Acquisition Of Third-Party Cell Site Location Information: “Get A Warrant” †, Glenn Williams

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


The Land Of The Free?: The Allow Act And Economic Liberty From Occupational Licensing, Erica Sieg 2018 Washington and Lee University School of Law

The Land Of The Free?: The Allow Act And Economic Liberty From Occupational Licensing, Erica Sieg

Washington and Lee Journal of Civil Rights and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


How Irrational Actors In The Ceo Suite Affect Corporate Governance, Renee M. Jones 2018 Boston College Law School

How Irrational Actors In The Ceo Suite Affect Corporate Governance, Renee M. Jones

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents, 2018 University of Missouri School of Law

Table Of Contents

Journal of Dispute Resolution

No abstract provided.


Title Page, 2018 University of Missouri School of Law

Title Page

Journal of Dispute Resolution

No abstract provided.


The First Amendment, The University And Conflict: An Introduction To The Symposium, Christina E. Wells 2018 University of Missouri School of Law

The First Amendment, The University And Conflict: An Introduction To The Symposium, Christina E. Wells

Journal of Dispute Resolution

This Symposium addresses our continuing issues with campus speech conflicts. It aims to help us recognize that speech conflicts are not abstract disputes between ideas – Justice Holmes’s famous rhetoric notwithstanding. Rather our words and ideas represent underlying conflicts between very real people and groups. The speech we use may cause, exacerbate, or resolve conflicts. Sometimes the Supreme Court’s free speech doctrine can aid our understanding and resolution of these conflicts. Other times it cannot. Regardless, simply relying on a First Amendment frame – i.e., claiming that it is one’s right to express oneself in a par-ticular way ...


Resolving Conflict On Campus: A Case Study On Free Speech And Controversial Speakers, Benson Clayton T., J. Huff 2018 University of Missouri School of Law

Resolving Conflict On Campus: A Case Study On Free Speech And Controversial Speakers, Benson Clayton T., J. Huff

Journal of Dispute Resolution

By their very charge, institutions of higher education are intended to serve as venues for exploring personal ideologies, promoting intellectual curiosity, and en-couraging vigorous debate about contested issues. However, when an institution and its core values come into direct conflict with viewpoints that are fundamentally inconsistent with those values, the dissonance created by the clash of perspectives can be profound. Fundamental differences in perspective on highly charged issues and topics have become recurring themes for universities in the United States. From campus speakers, to speaker protests, to demonstrations in support of free speech and a range of other inclusion and ...


Generating A Dissolution Process At The University Of Missouri: A Student Perspective, Evonnia S. Woods 2018 University of Missouri School of Law

Generating A Dissolution Process At The University Of Missouri: A Student Perspective, Evonnia S. Woods

Journal of Dispute Resolution

Although student protests and campus politics during the Fall of 2015 on the University of Missouri’s flagship campus were far more complex than depicted in the media, the point remains that student protests revealed many shortcomings of the University. One of these shortcomings was the lack of a policy-driven dissolution process which, amongst other things, resulted in national critique of how student protests and student demands were handled.


Free Speech Conflict: What We Learned At Middlebury College, Baishakhi Taylor 2018 University of Missouri School of Law

Free Speech Conflict: What We Learned At Middlebury College, Baishakhi Taylor

Journal of Dispute Resolution

On February 16, Middlebury’s President, Dr. Laurie L. Patton, received an invitation from a student group called the American Enterprise Institute Club (AEI) to give opening remarks at a lecture by a speaker they had invited to campus. The Club was Middlebury’s student chapter of the AEI,8 a conservative think-tank based in Washington, D.C., which has student clubs all across the coun-try. The speaker was Dr. Charles Murray, an American political scientist who is now an AEI emeritus scholar. This was not Dr. Murray’s first visit to the College. He had previously visited the campus ...


Beyond The Narratives: How Free Speech In Higher Education Is Truly Restricted, Azhar Majeed 2018 University of Missouri School of Law

Beyond The Narratives: How Free Speech In Higher Education Is Truly Restricted, Azhar Majeed

Journal of Dispute Resolution

Over the past year, much of the national conversation surrounding freedom of speech on college campuses has focused on controversial speakers, including those invited by students or student groups as well as those appearing on campus without an invitation. The debate continues to rage on as to whether university communities should allow allegedly offensive speakers to come to campus and spew their hateful views; whether universities have an obligation to foot the bill for the security they deem necessary to host such an event; and whether disruptions of speaker events are indicative of decreased tolerance on the part of today ...


Our Obligation: Protecting Free Speech And Fostering Inclusive Environments, Patricia Telles-Irvin 2018 University of Missouri School of Law

Our Obligation: Protecting Free Speech And Fostering Inclusive Environments, Patricia Telles-Irvin

Journal of Dispute Resolution

There is much discussion and debate these days on college campuses on how to protect freedom of expression while, at the same time, cultivate an inclusive en-vironment that promotes learning for all members of the community. While it is clear that freedom of expression is fundamental to the mission of an institution of higher education, creating an inclusive community can be challenging when toxic speech, under the protection of the First Amendment, aims only to demean and marginalize groups of individuals with no true redeeming value to advance knowledge. If our core mission is to educate by allowing the expression ...


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