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The Commander In Chief's Authority To Combat Climate Change, Mark P. Nevitt 2015 SelectedWorks

The Commander In Chief's Authority To Combat Climate Change, Mark P. Nevitt

Mark P Nevitt

Climate change is the world’s greatest environmental threat. It also is increasingly understood as a threat to domestic and international peace and security. In recognition of this threat, the President has taken the initiative to prepare for climate change’s impact – in some cases drawing sharp objections from Congress. While both the President and Congress have constitutional authorities to address the national security threat posed by climate change, the precise contours of their overlapping powers are not clear. As Commander in Chief, the President has the constitutional authority to repel sudden attacks and take care that the laws are ...


Closing The Door To Lost Earnings Under The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act Of 1986, Aaron M. Levin 2015 The George Washington University Law School

Closing The Door To Lost Earnings Under The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act Of 1986, Aaron M. Levin

Aaron M Levin

After a wave of lawsuits against vaccine manufacturers hindered the profitability and production of life-saving vaccines, Congress enacted The National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986. The Act offers an incentive for individuals to get vaccinated in order to mitigate the population’s exposure to disease, while encouraging the continued production of these serums by pharmaceutical companies. Although imperfect, the Vaccine Act fosters promise in filtering out frivolous claims and provides a central route for due process to the individuals who suffer from a vaccine-related injury. By removing a potential state tort issue to the Federal Circuit, Congress created a ...


What Should Restatement (Fourth) Say About Treaty Interpretation?, Jean Galbraith 2015 University of Pennsylvania Law School

What Should Restatement (Fourth) Say About Treaty Interpretation?, Jean Galbraith

Faculty Scholarship

Restatement (Second) and Restatement (Third) of Foreign Relations Law took notably different approaches to treaty interpretation, reflecting intervening changes in the legal landscape. This symposium contribution identifies five developments in international and domestic law since Restatement (Third). It then considers their import for the forthcoming Restatement (Fourth). Most importantly, it argues that Restatement (Fourth) should fully incorporate two articles on treaty interpretation from the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties into its black-letter provisions. Since the time of Restatement (Third), these articles have become central to international practice on treaty interpretation, and the principles they set forth are broadly ...


Death Squads And Death Lists: Targeted Killing And The Character Of The State, Jeremy Waldron 2015 NYU School of Law

Death Squads And Death Lists: Targeted Killing And The Character Of The State, Jeremy Waldron

New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers

The intention of this paper is to urge critical reflection upon current US practices of targeted killing by considering not just whether acts of targeted killing can be legally justified but also what sort of state we are turning into when we organize the use of lethal force in this way -- maintaining a list of named enemies of the state who are to be eliminated in this way. My paper uses the unpleasant terminology of "death lists" and "death squads" to jolt us into this reflection. Of course, there are differences between the activities of death squads in (say) El ...


The President's Wartime Detention Authority : What History Teaches Us, Anirudh Sivaram 2015 Yale University

The President's Wartime Detention Authority : What History Teaches Us, Anirudh Sivaram

Harvey M. Applebaum ’59 Award

This thesis examines the extent of the President’s wartime detention authority over citizens (in particular, detention authority pursuant to Article II of the U.S. Constitution) through a legal-historical lens. Some Presidents (Abraham Lincoln, Franklin Roosevelt, George W. Bush) have historically relied on Article II authority for detention, while others (Ulysses Grant, Barack Obama) have disclaimed the notion that such authority exists. Clarifying the scope and source of the Presidential detention authority over citizens bears both theoretical and real-world relevance. Theoretically, it lies at the confluence of two central American constitutional traditions – the separation of powers, and the protection ...


Trade Promotional Authority: Evaluating The Necessity Of Congressional Oversight And Accountability, Margaret M. Kim 2015 American University Washington College of Law

Trade Promotional Authority: Evaluating The Necessity Of Congressional Oversight And Accountability, Margaret M. Kim

Margaret M. Kim

On April 16, 2015, legislation to reauthorize Trade Promotion Authority (TPA) was introduced as the Bipartisan Congressional Trade Priorities and Accountability Act of 2015 (TPA-2015 or the Legislation) in the House and the Senate. TPA, formerly known as the fast-track authority, refers to “[the] authority of the U.S. president to negotiate international agreements that Congress can approve or disapprove, but not amend or filibuster.” TPA was last renewed under the Trade Act of 2002 during the George W. Bush Administration. Until it expired on July 1, 2007, eleven Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) were implemented under the supervision of President ...


Unpacking Eme Homer: Cost, Proportionality, And Emissions Reductions, Daniel A. Farber 2015 University of California Berkeley School of Law

Unpacking Eme Homer: Cost, Proportionality, And Emissions Reductions, Daniel A. Farber

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

Interstate air pollution can prevent even the most diligent downwind state from attaining the air quality levels required by federal law. Allocating responsibility for emissions cuts when multiple upwind states contribute to downwind air quality violations presents a particularly difficult problem. Justice Ginsburg’s opinion for the Court in EPA v. EME Homer City Generator, L.P., gives EPA broad discretion to craft regulatory solutions for this problem. Although the specific statutory provision at issue was deceptively simple, the underlying problem was especially complex because of the large number of states involved. Indeed, neither the majority opinion nor the dissent ...


The Architecture Of Constitutional Time, Richard Alexander Izquierdo 2015 College of William & Mary Law School

The Architecture Of Constitutional Time, Richard Alexander Izquierdo

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Bruce Ackerman’s account in his We the People series urges the legal recognition of constitutional amendments enacted outside of Article V as part of a larger descriptive project concerning the creation of distinct republics within the Constitution of 1787. One of its limitations is that he and other scholars have not fully appreciated the way in which the original institutional design of the Constitution has facilitated—and perhaps even anticipated—the construction of subregimes during extraordinary times. This Article presents constitutional time and presidential incentives for a lasting legacy as the most important factors influencing constitutional meaning. It is ...


The Problem Of Presidential Inability—Will Congress Ever Solve It?, John D. Feerick 2015 Fordham University School of Law

The Problem Of Presidential Inability—Will Congress Ever Solve It?, John D. Feerick

Fordham Law Review

One of the most critical and intriguing constitutional questions ever presented for solution is: What happens when the President of the United States becomes incapable of discharging the powers and duties of his office? Does the Vice-President "become President" for the remainder of the term or does he merely "act as President" during the period of the inability? The Constitution is not explicit..


Access To National Security Information Under The U.S. Freedom Of Information Act, Stephen J. Schulhofer 2015 NYU School of Law

Access To National Security Information Under The U.S. Freedom Of Information Act, Stephen J. Schulhofer

New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers

Nations throughout the world permit executive officials to maintain secrecy in matters touching “national security.” And secrecy’s potential for eroding democratic values is growing as conceptions of national security expand. The U.S. Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) offers tools to resist that trend. The present paper, prepared for an International Symposium on “Freedom of Information and Governmental Transparency,” examines FOIA practice in national-security cases. Although U.S. courts do not always pursue their FOIA responsibilities aggressively, they frequently succeed in forcing the release of significant, previously classified material. An active judicial check on national security secrecy therefore is ...


Prosecuting Beyond The Rule Of Law: Corporate Mandates Imposed Through Pretrial Diversion Agreements, Jennifer Arlen 2015 NYU School of Law

Prosecuting Beyond The Rule Of Law: Corporate Mandates Imposed Through Pretrial Diversion Agreements, Jennifer Arlen

New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers

U.S. corporate criminal enforcement policy encourages prosecutors to substitute pretrial diversion agreements (PDAs) for formal conviction and allows them to use PDAs to impose corporate reform mandates on firms, often without ex ante guidance or ex post review from the DOJ. This article finds that the discretion that prosecutors currently enjoy to use PDAs to impose corporate mandates violates the rule of law. The rule of law requires that government actors exercise their power over others for the public’s good; they should not be free to serve personal aims or exercise authority to achieve personal conceptions of the ...


Human Rights Violations At Guantánamo Bay: How The United States Has Avoided Enforcement Of International Norms, Samantha Pearlman 2015 Seattle University School of Law

Human Rights Violations At Guantánamo Bay: How The United States Has Avoided Enforcement Of International Norms, Samantha Pearlman

Seattle University Law Review

Guantánamo Bay has become a symbol of the United States’ approach to the War on Terror. The detention center is globally known for the human rights violations committed there; yet, the international community has failed to take actions to successfully close the facility through either the use of pressure on the U.S. government or by utilizing enforcement mechanisms against the United States as it would any other nation committing proportional human rights violations. The United States’ actions at Guantánamo Bay violate its obligations under the Third Geneva Convention, the International Covenant for Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), the Convention ...


Beyond Transparency: Rethinking Election Reform From An Open Government Perspective, Michael Halberstam 2015 Seattle University School of Law

Beyond Transparency: Rethinking Election Reform From An Open Government Perspective, Michael Halberstam

Seattle University Law Review

During the past decade, “transparency” has become a focus of democratic governance. Open government and right-to-know regimes have been around at least since the 1970s. They include measures like open meeting laws, campaign finance disclosure, lobbying registration, and freedom of information laws. But the Open Government projects— variously referred to as e-democracy, Open Data, or Government 2.0— have evolved into something new and different. They view transparency not primarily as a right to know, but as a condition for a more efficient, intelligent, and cooperative form of democratic government. This Article considers how various election reform projects fit with ...


The Natural Born Citizens Clause As Originally Understood, Mary Brigid McManamon 2015 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

The Natural Born Citizens Clause As Originally Understood, Mary Brigid Mcmanamon

Catholic University Law Review

Article II of the Constitution requires that the President be a “natural born Citizen.” The phrase is derived from English common law, and the Supreme Court requires examination of that law to ascertain the phrase’s definition. This piece presents the pertinent English sources, combined with statements by early American jurists. Based on a reading of these materials, the article concludes that, in the eyes of the Framers, a presidential candidate must be born within the United States. The article is important because there has been a candidate who “pushed the envelope” on this question in many elections over the ...


Guaranteeing Republics To The Confederate States: A Guarantee Clause Justification For Lincoln’S Response To Civil War, Michael Morea 2015 Pepperdine University

Guaranteeing Republics To The Confederate States: A Guarantee Clause Justification For Lincoln’S Response To Civil War, Michael Morea

Pepperdine Law Review

There has been substantial debate over the constitutionality of Lincoln’s response to secession and his role as executive during the Civil War. While many historians and legal experts accept the theory that Lincoln, as president, was vested by Article II with power to act decisively in suppressing secession in an effort to preserve the Union, there is branch of libertarian thought that remains unconvinced that his tactics were constitutional. For example, three-time presidential candidate Ron Paul, in an interview with “Meet the Press,” stated that Lincoln should not have gone to war, arguing that Lincoln’s actions were motivated ...


Fair Trade: The President’S Power To Recover Captured U.S. Servicemembers And The Recent Prisoner Exchange With The Taliban, Celidon Pitt 2015 Fordham University School of Law

Fair Trade: The President’S Power To Recover Captured U.S. Servicemembers And The Recent Prisoner Exchange With The Taliban, Celidon Pitt

Fordham Law Review

The Obama Administration’s controversial exchange of five Taliban detainees for a captured U.S. soldier in May 2014 reignited a heated debate over the proper scope of wartime executive authority. From a legal perspective, the primary issue centers on the constitutional balance of power between congressional appropriations and the President’s power as Commander in Chief. A complete analysis incorporates both judicial and historical precedent to evaluate the conflict within the broader context of prisoner recovery efforts.

This Note argues that, regardless of the validity of legislative restrictions on the transfer of Guantánamo detainees, the President possessed sufficient authority ...


The Elephant In The Room, Troy B. Albert 2015 Lewis & Clark Law School

The Elephant In The Room, Troy B. Albert

Troy B Albert

Every 15 minutes, a poacher kills an elephant for its ivory. If this rate continues, the African elephant could become extinct in 20 years. Although federal law has strictly regulated the ivory market for several decades, the United States remains one of the largest markets for illegal wildlife products in the world. Because there are little to no enforcement mechanisms or verification processes by which to definitively distinguish legal from illegal ivory after reaching domestic markets, illegal ivory is easily mixed in with legal stocks. New regulations have been promulgated but are they enough?


Regan V. Wald, The Supreme Court Defers To Presidential Authority In Matters Of Foreign Policy By Upholding Travel Restrictions To Cuba, Thomas M. Mashburn 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

Regan V. Wald, The Supreme Court Defers To Presidential Authority In Matters Of Foreign Policy By Upholding Travel Restrictions To Cuba, Thomas M. Mashburn

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Very Specialized United States Generalized System Of Preferences: An Examination Of Renewal Changes And Analysis Of Their Legal Effect, Gregory C. Dorris 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

The Very Specialized United States Generalized System Of Preferences: An Examination Of Renewal Changes And Analysis Of Their Legal Effect, Gregory C. Dorris

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Partisan Balance Requirements In The Age Of New Formalism, Ronald J. Krotoszynski 2015 University of Alabama School of Law

Partisan Balance Requirements In The Age Of New Formalism, Ronald J. Krotoszynski

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article considers the constitutional status of mandatory partisan balance requirements for presidential appointments to independent federal agencies. Since the 1880s, Congress routinely has included partisan balance requirements, along with fixed terms of office and “good cause” limitations on the President’s removal power, as standard design elements in its template for independent federal agencies. Until recently, both federal courts and most legal scholars have assumed the constitutionality of such restrictions on the President’s appointment power—and with good reason, given the ubiquity of partisan balance requirements and the executive branch’s historical acquiescence to them. However, the Supreme ...


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