Federal Enforcement Of Police Reform, 2014 University of Illinois College of Law
Federal Enforcement Of Police Reform, Stephen Rushin
Congress passed 42 U.S.C. § 14141 in an effort to combat police misconduct and incentivize proactive reform in local law enforcement agencies. The statute gives the Attorney General the power to initiate structural reform litigation against local police departments engaged in a pattern or practice of unconstitutional behavior. While academics initially praised the law’s passage, many have since worried that the Department of Justice (DOJ) has not effectively administered the measure. No research has empirically analyzed how the DOJ has used its authority to initiate structural police reform. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, I fill ...
Absolute Immunity: General Principles And Recent Developments, 2014 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center
Absolute Immunity: General Principles And Recent Developments, Erwin Chemerinsky
Touro Law Review
No abstract provided.
Congress's (Limited) Power To Represent Itself In Court, 2014 College of William & Mary Law School
Congress's (Limited) Power To Represent Itself In Court, Tara Leigh Grove, Neal Devins
Scholars and jurists have long assumed that, when the executive branch declines to defend a federal statute, Congress may intervene in federal court to defend the law. When invalidating the Defense of Marriage Act, for example, no Supreme Court Justice challenged the authority of the House of Representatives to defend federal laws in at least some circumstances. At the same time, in recent litigation over the Fast and Furious gun-running case, the Department of Justice asserted that the House could not go to court to enforce a subpoena against the executive. In this Article, we seek to challenge both claims ...
The Unintended Consequences Of Safety Regulation, 2014 SelectedWorks
The Unintended Consequences Of Safety Regulation, Sherzod Abdukadirov
This study examines how risk trade-offs undermine safety regulations. Safety regulations often come with unintended consequences in that regulations attempting to reduce risk in one area may increase risks elsewhere. The increases in countervailing risks may even exceed the reduction in targeted risks, leading to a policy that does more harm than good. The unintended consequences could be avoided or their impacts minimized through more careful analysis, including formal risk trade-off analysis, consumer testing, and retrospective analysis. Yet agencies face strong incentives against producing better analysis; increased awareness of risk trade-offs would force agencies to make unpalatable and politically sensitive ...
Building A Framework For Governance: Retrospective Review And Rulemaking Petitions, Reeve T. Bull
Reeve T Bull
Of the various regulatory reform efforts advocated by legal scholars and politicians in recent years, perhaps none holds greater promise than retrospective review of agency regulations, whereby agencies revisit existing rules to determine whether they remain appropriate in light of changed circumstances. The Obama Administration has embraced the principles of retrospective review, issuing three executive orders on the subject, and it has trumpeted billions of dollars in economic savings resulting from those efforts. Nevertheless, numerous scholars have criticized these initiatives, contending that agencies reviewing their own regulations are unlikely to repeal or fundamentally overhaul existing rules. This article addresses the ...
The Fourth Zone Of Presidential Power: Analyzing The Debt-Ceiling Standoff Through The Prism Of Youngstown Steel, Chad Deveaux
In this Article, I use the Youngstown Steel Seizure Case to assess the reoccurring debt-ceiling standoffs between Congress and the White House. If the Treasury reaches the debt limit and Congress fails to act, the president will be forced to choose between three options: (1) cancel programs, (2) borrow funds in excess of the debt limit, or (3) raise taxes. Each of these options violates a direct statutory command. In Youngstown, Justice Jackson asserted that “[p]residential powers are not fixed but fluctuate, depending upon their disjunction or conjunction with those of Congress.” He offered his famous three-zone template which ...
Why Should We Care About An Agency’S Special Insight?, 2014 Notre Dame Law School
Why Should We Care About An Agency’S Special Insight?, Stephen M. Degenaro
Notre Dame Law Review
This Note offers some additional thoughts on the outer limits of Seminole Rock deference. Part I discusses the three concerns associated with unchecked Seminole Rock deference that comprise the self-delegation problem—violation of constitutional norms, exploitation of a statutory loophole, and perverse incentives. It explores the potential for abuse they create and recommends what the limitations should look like in order to avoid this potential. Part II explains the two rationales for Seminole Rock deference: the pragmatic and originalist rationales. It describes how the two rationales relate to each other, explains how courts use pragmatic and originalist arguments in their ...
The Unitary Executive And The Plural Judiciary: On The Potential Virtues Of Decentralized Judicial Power, 2014 Notre Dame Law School
The Unitary Executive And The Plural Judiciary: On The Potential Virtues Of Decentralized Judicial Power, Ronald J. Krotoszynski, Jr.
Notre Dame Law Review
The federal judiciary features a highly decentralized system of courts. The Supreme Court of the United States reviews only a few dozen cases each year. Meanwhile, regional U.S. courts of appeals operate independently of each other; district courts further divide and separate the exercise of federal judicial power. The role of the state courts in enforcing federal law further subdivides responsibility for the adjudication of federal law claims. Indeed, the Office of Chief Justice itself incorporates and reflects this vesting of the judicial power of the United States exclusively in collegial institutions—literally in a multiplicity of hands—effectively ...
Bypassing Congress On Federal Debt: Executive Branch Options To Avoid Default, Steven L. Schwarcz
Even a “technical” default by the United States on its debt, such as a delay in paying principal or interest due to Congress’s failure to raise the federal debt ceiling, could have serious systemic consequences, destroying financial markets and undermining job creation, consumer spending, and economic growth. The ongoing political gamesmanship between Congress and the Executive Branch has been threatening — and even if temporarily resolved, almost certainly will continue to threaten — such a default. The various options discussed in the media for averting a default have not been legally and pragmatically viable. This article proposes new options for avoiding ...
Private Control Over Access To Public Law: The Perplexing Federal Regulatory Use Of Private Standards, 2014 University of Michigan Law School
Private Control Over Access To Public Law: The Perplexing Federal Regulatory Use Of Private Standards, Nina A. Mendelson
To save resources and build on private expertise, federal agencies have incorporated privately drafted standards into thousands of federal regulations — but only by “reference.” These standards range widely, subsuming safety, benefits, and testing standards. An individual who seeks access to this binding law generally cannot freely read it online or in a governmental depository library, as she can the U.S. Code or the Code of Federal Regulations. Instead, she generally must pay a significant fee to the drafting organization, or else she must travel to Washington, D.C., to the Office of the Federal Register’s reading room. This ...
The Ordinary Remand Rule And The Judicial Toolbox For Agency Dialogue, 2014 SelectedWorks
The Ordinary Remand Rule And The Judicial Toolbox For Agency Dialogue, Christopher J. Walker
Christopher J. Walker
When a court concludes that an agency’s decision is erroneous, the ordinary rule is to remand to the agency to consider the issue anew (as opposed to the court deciding the issue itself). Despite that the Supreme Court first articulated this ordinary remand rule in the 1940s and has rearticulated it repeatedly over the years, little work has been done to understand how the rule works in practice, much less whether it promotes the separation-of-powers values that motivate the rule. This Article is the first to conduct such an investigation—focusing on judicial review of agency immigration adjudications and ...
Export Controls: A Contemporary History, 2013 Purdue University
Export Controls: A Contemporary History, Bert Chapman
Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations
Provides highlights of my recently published book Export Controls: A Contemporary History. Describes the roles played by multiple U.S. Government agencies and congressional oversight committees in this policymaking arena including the Commerce, Defense, State, and Treasury Departments. It also reviews the roles played by international government organizations such as the Missile Technology Control Regime, export oriented businesses, and research intensive universities.
Whose Secrets?, 2013 Cornell Law Library
Whose Secrets?, Josh Chafetz
Cornell Law Faculty Publications
No abstract provided.
Brief Of Political Scientists And Historians As Amici Curiae In Support Of Respondent, National Labor Relations Board, Petitioner V. Noel Canning, No. 12-1281, United States Supreme Court (Nov. 25, 2013), 2013 Cleveland State University
Brief Of Political Scientists And Historians As Amici Curiae In Support Of Respondent, National Labor Relations Board, Petitioner V. Noel Canning, No. 12-1281, United States Supreme Court (Nov. 25, 2013), David F. Forte, Hadley P. Arkes, Joseph M. Bessette, Nelson Lund, Jeremy A. Rabkin, Ralph A. Rossum
The Recess Appointments Clause does not permit the unilateral appointments to the NLRB made by the President in this case. Those appointments - made during a three-day “intra-session” break when the Senate was meeting pro forma - are unique in the history of the Republic. They are also the culmination of unnecessary and inappropriate Executive overreaching. This overreaching has undermined a valuable Senate prerogative in a manner unfathomable to the Founders and inconsistent with the design of the Constitution.
The primary purpose of this brief is to show that adhering to the original meaning of the Recess Appointments Clause has not and ...
The American Dream: Daca, Dreamers, And Comprehensive Immigration Reform, 2013 Seattle University School of Law
The American Dream: Daca, Dreamers, And Comprehensive Immigration Reform, Heather Fathali
Seattle University Law Review
On June 15, 2012, President Obama made an announcement that changed the lives of millions. Effective immediately, the Obama administration would implement a new program—what would come to be known as Deferred Action for Child-hood Arrivals (DACA)—offering eligible undocumented young people both a two-year respite from the haunting possibility of deportation as well as the eligibility to apply for employment authorization. While millions were elated by the President’s announcement, he also faced harsh criticism. Many claimed that his action exceeded federal statutory limits, exceeded his Executive powers, and usurped congressional authority. Still others, anxious to see comprehensive ...
The Appointment And Removal Of William J. Marbury And When An Office Vests, 2013 Notre Dame Law School
The Appointment And Removal Of William J. Marbury And When An Office Vests, Saikrishna Bangalore Prakash
Notre Dame Law Review
Scholars have ignored the most important question in one of the most famous constitutional law cases, obscuring the machinations that spawned the dispute. This Article sheds light on the events that precipitated Marbury v. Madison and also explains when an appointment vests. Thomas Jefferson famously refused to deliver a commission to William J. Marbury, causing the latter to seek a writ of mandamus from the Supreme Court. The received wisdom supposes that Jefferson’s refusal rested on the grounds that Marbury had not been appointed a justice of the peace precisely because he never had received a commission. In fact ...
Book Review Of Arnold H. Leibowitz, An Historical-Legal Analysis Of The Impeachments Of Presidents Andrew Johnson, Richard Nixon, And William Clinton: Why The Process Went Wrong, 2013 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center
Book Review Of Arnold H. Leibowitz, An Historical-Legal Analysis Of The Impeachments Of Presidents Andrew Johnson, Richard Nixon, And William Clinton: Why The Process Went Wrong, Jeffrey B. Morris
Touro Law Review
No abstract provided.
Regulating The Family: The Impact Of Pro-Family Policy Making Assessments On Women And Non-Traditional Families, Robin S. Maril
Robin S. Maril
Beginning in the 1980s, pro-family advocates lobbied the Reagan administration to take a stronger, more direct role in enforcing traditional family norms through agency rulemaking. In 1986 the White House Working Group on the Family published a report entitled, The Family: Preserving America’s Future, detailing what its authors perceived to be the biggest threats to the “American household of persons related by blood, marriage or adoption – the traditional . . . family.” These threats included a lax sexual culture carried over from the 1960s, resulting in rising divorce rates, children born “out of wedlock,” and increased acceptance of “alternative lifestyles.” The Report ...
How Behavioral Economics Trims Its Sails And Why, 2013 NELLCO
How Behavioral Economics Trims Its Sails And Why, Ryan Bubb, Richard Pildes
New York University Law and Economics Working Papers
This article argues that the preference of behavioral law and economics (BLE) for regulatory approaches that preserve “freedom of choice” has led to incomplete policy analysis and ineffective policy. BLE has been broadly regarded as among the most promising new developments in public policymaking theory and practice. As social science, BLE offers hope that better understanding of actual human behavior will provide a sounder foundation for the design of regulation. As politics, BLE offers a possible political consensus built around minimalist forms of government action commonly known as nudges that preserve freedom of choice. But these two seductive dimensions of ...
The Apocalyptic Presidential Right Of Publicity, 2013 Northeastern University
The Apocalyptic Presidential Right Of Publicity, Michael G. Bennett
Michael G. Bennett
The Apocalyptic Presidential Right of Publicity
Michael G Bennett Associate Professor Northeastern School of Law
This article critically examines publicity rights doctrine as applied to celebrity political figures. It is particularly concerned with the prominence of science fictional concepts, theoretical frameworks and tropes in cases that mark the extreme scope of the doctrine and in the scholarship that aims to render case law rationally meaningful. And it situates President Obama and the difficult doctrinal issues his candidacy and subsequent election highlighted at the center of its analysis.
Part one of the article briefly describes the right of publicity and ...