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Silent Similarity, Jessica Litman 2015 SelectedWorks

Silent Similarity, Jessica Litman

Jessica Litman

From 1909 to 1930, U.S. courts grappled with claims by authors of prose works claiming that works in a new art form -- silent movies -- had infringed their copyrights. These cases laid the groundwork for much of modern copyright law, from their broad expansion of the reproduction right, to their puzzled grappling with the question how to compare works in dissimilar media, to their confusion over what sort of evidence should be relevant to show copyrightability, copying and infringement. Some of those cases – in particular, Nichols v. Universal Pictures – are canonical today. They are not, however, well-understood. In particular, the ...


Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca 2015 University of Akron

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Akron Law Publications

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca 2015 University of Akron

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Ryan G. Vacca

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


E-Books, Collusion, And Antitrust Policy: Protecting A Dominant Firm At The Cost Of Innovation, Nicholas Timchalk 2014 Seattle University School of Law

E-Books, Collusion, And Antitrust Policy: Protecting A Dominant Firm At The Cost Of Innovation, Nicholas Timchalk

Seattle University Law Review

Amazon’s main rival, Apple, went to great lengths and took major risks to enter the e-book market. Why did Apple simply choose not to compete on the merits of its product and brand equity (the iPad and iBookstore) as it does with its other products? Why did Apple decide not to continue to rely on its earlier success of situating its products differently in the market than other electronics and working hard to be different and cutting-edge with its e-book delivery? This Note argues that the combination of Amazon’s 90% market share, network externalities, and an innovative technology ...


Prisoners Of War: Nazi-Era Looted Art And The Need For Reform In The United States, Jessica Schubert 2014 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Prisoners Of War: Nazi-Era Looted Art And The Need For Reform In The United States, Jessica Schubert

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Refugee Law In Context: Natural Law, Legal Positivism And The Convention, Isaac Kfir 2014 Syracuse University

Refugee Law In Context: Natural Law, Legal Positivism And The Convention, Isaac Kfir

Isaac Kfir

The contemporary international refugee system was product of a desire to provide protection and assistance to those who have a well-founded fear of persecution, a somewhat sophistic term in the twenty-first century, which may explain why the system has become cumbersome, incoherent and divisive. One explanation for the tension within the refugee regime is that states—mainly western states—seek to reduce refugee applications while adhering and upholding their international obligations. Another explanation is that it is tensions between two legal traditions—natural law and legal positivism—that are shape the international refugee law that have led to the crisis ...


For Sale--One Level 5 Barbarian For 94,800 Won: The International Effects Of Virtual Property And The Legality Of Its Ownership, Alisa B. Steinberg 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

For Sale--One Level 5 Barbarian For 94,800 Won: The International Effects Of Virtual Property And The Legality Of Its Ownership, Alisa B. Steinberg

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Balancing The First Amendment And Child Protection Goals In Legal Approaches To Restricting Children's Access To Violent Video Games: A Comparison Of Germany And The United States, Laura Tate Kagel 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

Balancing The First Amendment And Child Protection Goals In Legal Approaches To Restricting Children's Access To Violent Video Games: A Comparison Of Germany And The United States, Laura Tate Kagel

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Digital Music Sampling And Copyright Policy - A Bittersweet Symphony? Assessing The Continued Legality Of Music Sampling In The United Kingdom, The Netherlands, And The United States, Melissa Hahn 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

Digital Music Sampling And Copyright Policy - A Bittersweet Symphony? Assessing The Continued Legality Of Music Sampling In The United Kingdom, The Netherlands, And The United States, Melissa Hahn

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Lord Of The Reels: Can Georgia Learn From Canada's Success To Rescue Its Film Industry?, Woodrow W. Ware III 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

Lord Of The Reels: Can Georgia Learn From Canada's Success To Rescue Its Film Industry?, Woodrow W. Ware Iii

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


"Disillusioned Words Like Bullets Bark": Incitement To Genocide, Music, And The Trial Of Simon Bikindi, Robert H. Snyder 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

"Disillusioned Words Like Bullets Bark": Incitement To Genocide, Music, And The Trial Of Simon Bikindi, Robert H. Snyder

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Google Art Project: An Analysis From A Legal And Social Perspective On Copyright Implications, Katrina Wu 2014 SelectedWorks

The Google Art Project: An Analysis From A Legal And Social Perspective On Copyright Implications, Katrina Wu

Katrina Wu

The Google Art Project is an ambitious attempt by Google to curate worldwide artwork online in the highest resolution possible. Google accomplishes this by partnering with museums where museums provide access to art collections and Google provides the technology to capture high quality images. Under this existing model, Google places the burden of copyright clearances on museums and removes images from online if requested by copyright owners. An endeavor like the Google Art Project is not unprecedented however, when Google attempted to put the world’s books online under the Google Books Project, scanning millions of titles and offering snippets ...


Internet Protocol Television And The Challenge Of “Mission Critical” Bits, Rob Frieden 2014 SelectedWorks

Internet Protocol Television And The Challenge Of “Mission Critical” Bits, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

The Internet increasingly provides an alternative distribution medium for video and other types of high value, bandwidth intensive content. Many consumers have become “technology agnostic” about what kind of wireline or wireless medium provides service. However, they expect carriers to offer access anytime, anywhere, via any device and in any format. These early adopters of new technologies and alternatives to “legacy” media have no patience with the concept of “appointment television” that limits access to a specific time, on a single channel and in only one presentation format.

This paper assesses whether and how Internet Service Providers (“ISPs”) can offer ...


What’S New In The Network Neutrality Debate, Rob Frieden 2014 SelectedWorks

What’S New In The Network Neutrality Debate, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

For over ten years, academics, practitioners, policy makers, consumers and other stakeholders have debated whether and how governments should regulate the Internet with an eye toward promoting accessibility, affordability and neutrality. This issue has triggered grave concerns about the Internet’s ability to continue generating substantial and widespread benefits. Advocates for various outcomes have vastly different assessments about many baseline subjects including the viability of sustainable competition and self-regulation. Consumers become agitated and confused by different framing of the issues, particularly when participants in the Internet ecosystem cannot reach closure on interconnection and compensation issues. Increasingly these disputes trigger temporary ...


Trademark Law And The Prickly Ambivalence Of Post-Parodies, Charles E. Colman 2014 NELLCO

Trademark Law And The Prickly Ambivalence Of Post-Parodies, Charles E. Colman

New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers

This Essay examines what I call "post-parodies" in apparel. This emerging genre of do-it-yourself fashion is characterized by the appropriation and modification of third-party trademarks — not for the sake of dismissively mocking or zealously glorifying luxury fashion, but rather to engage in more complex forms of expression. I examine the cultural circumstances and psychological factors giving rise to post-parodic fashion, and conclude that the sensibility causing its proliferation is one grounded in ambivalence.

Unfortunately, current doctrine governing trademark "parodies" cannot begin to make sense of post-parodic goods; among other shortcomings, that doctrine suffers from crude analytical tools and a cramped ...


Copyright And The Tragedy Of The Common, Tracy Reilly 2014 SelectedWorks

Copyright And The Tragedy Of The Common, Tracy Reilly

Tracy L Reilly

In his 1968 article, The Tragedy of the Commons, biologist Garret Hardin first described his theory on the ecological unsustainability of collective human behavior, claiming that commonly held real property interests would not ultimately be supportable due to the competing individual interests of all who use the property. In the legal field, Hardin’s article is frequently cited to support various theories related to real property and environmental law issues such as ownership, redistribution of wealth, pollution, over population, and global warming. Most scholars claim that a tragedy of the commons does not exist in intellectual property-related goods due to ...


Linking To Liability: When Linking To Leaked Films, Scripts, And Television Shows Is Copyright Infringement,, Kimberlianne Podlas 2014 SelectedWorks

Linking To Liability: When Linking To Leaked Films, Scripts, And Television Shows Is Copyright Infringement,, Kimberlianne Podlas

Kimberlianne Podlas

This article examines the problem of movies, scripts, and other entertainment works being leaked online, and whether news and fan sites that link to such works are liable for copyright infringement. In the past few months alone, The Expendables 3, next week’s Doctor Who Series 8 premier, and Quentin Tarantino’s The Hateful Eight screenplay have all been leaked online. Internet leaks are uniquely problematic, as it is often not possible to identify the source of leak, traditional contract and tort remedies may not apply, or the greatest harm may be due to third parties’ linking to the work ...


The Costs And Benefits Of Regulatory Intervention In Internet Service Provider Interconnection Disputes: Lessons From Broadcaster-Cable Retransmission Consent Negotiations, Rob Frieden 2014 SelectedWorks

The Costs And Benefits Of Regulatory Intervention In Internet Service Provider Interconnection Disputes: Lessons From Broadcaster-Cable Retransmission Consent Negotiations, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

This paper considers what limited roles the FCC may lawfully assume to ensure timely and fair interconnection and compensation agreements in the Internet ecosystem. The paper examines the FCC’s limited role in broadcaster-cable television retransmission consent negotiations with an eye toward assessing the applicability of this model. The FCC explicitly states that it lacks jurisdiction to prescribe terms, or to mandate binding arbitration. However, it recently interpreted its statutory authority to ensure “good faith” negotiations as allowing it to constrain broadcaster negotiating leverage by prohibiting multiple operators, having the largest market share, from joining in collective negotiations with cable ...


Internet Protocol Television And The Challenge Of “Mission Critical” Bits., Rob Frieden 2014 SelectedWorks

Internet Protocol Television And The Challenge Of “Mission Critical” Bits., Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

The Internet increasingly provides an alternative distribution medium for video and other types of high value, bandwidth intensive content. Many consumers have become “technology agnostic” about what kind of wireline or wireless medium provides service. However, they expect carriers to offer access anytime, anywhere, via any device and in any format. These early adopters of new technologies and alternatives to “legacy” media have no patience with the concept of “appointment television” that limits access to a specific time, on a single channel and in only one presentation format.

This paper assesses whether and how Internet Service Providers (“ISPs”) can offer ...


A European Solution To America’S Basketball Problem: Reforming Amateur Basketball In The United States, Jaimie K. McFarlin, Joshua Lee 2014 SelectedWorks

A European Solution To America’S Basketball Problem: Reforming Amateur Basketball In The United States, Jaimie K. Mcfarlin, Joshua Lee

Jaimie K. McFarlin

The system of amateur and collegiate basketball in America is flawed, as every year, thousands of young men and women pursue their basketball dreams under the shadow of a multi-million dollar, predatory business model. Integral to telling the history of the NCAA and AAU organizations are recruiting horror stories and other examples of young talents who were taken advantage of by unscrupulous actors, both of which continue today. The commercialization and professionalization of amateur basketball has fed an ecosystem of exploitation in which private actors and institutions capitalize on the American mantra of "amateurism." The European system of amateur athletics ...


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