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Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca 2015 The University of Akron School of Law

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Ryan G. Vacca

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


A Mother Goose Guide To Legal Writing, Jessica Ronay 2014 SelectedWorks

A Mother Goose Guide To Legal Writing, Jessica Ronay

Jessica Ronay

An original substantive poem with footnotes and explanatory paragraphs that provides examples and explanations of legal writing rules, illustrates the nuances of legal writing, and untangles the challenging legal writing concepts for students, professors, scholars, and practitioners.


Decoding Bollywood’S Royalty-Sharing Conundrum, Pralika Jain 2014 SelectedWorks

Decoding Bollywood’S Royalty-Sharing Conundrum, Pralika Jain

Pralika Jain

India’s film making community and business got „industry‟ status only in 2011. However, unlike major industries such as telecom and pharmaceutical, the film industry (popularly known as “Bollywood”) is characterised by a major lack of legal rules and institutions to administer them, the problem being most acute in respect of artists. Consequently, the industry is governed completely by market forces whose successful players wield nearly all the bargaining power. It’s almost baffling that a film industry which is currently worlds second in terms of revenue is so thinly regulated.


New Models And Conflicts In The Interconnection And Delivery, Rob Frieden 2014 SelectedWorks

New Models And Conflicts In The Interconnection And Delivery, Rob Frieden

Rob Frieden

As the Internet has evolved and diversified, interconnection terms and conditions have changed between Internet Service Providers (“ISPs”). These carriers experiment with alternatives to conventional models that classify interconnection as either peering or transiting. The former typically involves interconnection between high capacity carriers whose transoceanic traffic volumes generally match thereby eliminating the need for a transfer of funds. Historically smaller carriers have paid transit fees to larger Tier-1 ISPs for the opportunity to secure upstream links throughout the Internet cloud.

With the growing availability of bandwidth intensive, video content carried via the Internet, traffic volume disparities have increased between ISPs ...


Taming The "Feral Beast": Cautionary Lessons From British Press Reform, Lili Levi 2014 University of Miami

Taming The "Feral Beast": Cautionary Lessons From British Press Reform, Lili Levi

Lili Levi

Abstract: As technology undermines the economic model supporting traditional newspapers, power shifts from the watchdog press to those it watches. Worldwide calls for increased press “responsibility” are one result. Pending British press reform provides a troubling example with far-ranging implications for freedom of the press. Under the guise of modest press self-regulation, the U.K. is currently poised to upend 300 years of press freedom via the recently-approved Royal Charter for Self-Regulation of the Press. The Royal Charter was adopted in response to the moral panic engendered by Britain’s tabloid phone-hacking scandal. An example of 20th Century regulation ...


N.I.G.G.A., Slumdog, Dyke, Jap, And Heeb: Reconsidering Disparaging Trademarks In A Post-Racial Era, Amanda E. Compton 2014 SelectedWorks

N.I.G.G.A., Slumdog, Dyke, Jap, And Heeb: Reconsidering Disparaging Trademarks In A Post-Racial Era, Amanda E. Compton

Amanda E. Compton

Currently registration of disparaging trademarks is prohibited under Section 2(a) of the Lanham Act. Recent events, however, should reinvigorate the debate about the protection and registration of disparaging marks: (1) recent decisions published by the Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) that continue to address and highlight the issues surrounding the registration of disparaging marks; (2) a proposed federal act that would not only specifically bar the registration of any trademark that includes the word “redskins,” but would also retroactively cancel any existing registration that consist of or includes that term; and (3) an amendment to a state act ...


“Meet Me Halfway”: Arm Wrestling And The Law, Thomas M. Byron 2014 Pace University

“Meet Me Halfway”: Arm Wrestling And The Law, Thomas M. Byron

Pace I.P., Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

Most law review articles are very serious, and with good reason. They discuss important, world-changing matters like the role and magnitude of executive power, the limits of Constitutional rights, the boundaries of international law, and the vagaries of civil procedure. This Article has no such world-changing or reverent pretentions; it instead takes a light-hearted view of a fairly marginal legal topic: arm wrestling. To provide a spine for the discussion, the Article leans heavily on the 1980s movie Over the Top – a movie about arm wrestling, trucking, and child custody - to provide examples of arm wrestling content with legal implications ...


Don’T Get Slammed Into Nefer Nefer Land: Complaints In The Civil Forfeiture Of Cultural Property, Victoria A. Russell 2014 Pace University

Don’T Get Slammed Into Nefer Nefer Land: Complaints In The Civil Forfeiture Of Cultural Property, Victoria A. Russell

Pace I.P., Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

The Saint Louis Art Museum, known as SLAM, acquired the mask of Ka-Nefer-Nefer in 1998. Eight years later, the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities called for its return on the grounds that it had been stolen from the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. SLAM refused. In 2011, the case went before the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri to determine the ownership of the mask. Perhaps to the surprise of many, the court decided that the mask belongs in Saint Louis.

This Article will explain how this case was properly decided, albeit on a legal technicality. It ...


New York’S Taxable Lap Dancing …At A Strip Club Near You!, Harvey Gilmore 2014 Pace University

New York’S Taxable Lap Dancing …At A Strip Club Near You!, Harvey Gilmore

Pace I.P., Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

In today’s difficult economic times, state governments are more hard pressed than ever to come up with new sources of revenue to at least stay revenue neutral. Leave it to the perpetually money-hungry State of New York to come up with this gem of an idea for generating tax revenues: In 2005, the New York State Department of Taxation and Finance attempted to impose sales tax on a nightclub’s offering of exotic dancing to its customers. This resulted in one nightclub instigating a legal challenge to the state’s attempt to impose sales taxes on exotic dancing. This ...


Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum, Volume 4, Issue 1, Winter 2014, 2014 Pace University

Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum, Volume 4, Issue 1, Winter 2014

Pace I.P., Sports & Entertainment Law Forum

Thank you for downloading the first digital edition of the Pace Intellectual Property, Sports & Entertainment Law Forum. As you scroll through the pages of this issue, you may notice the Forum has a new look. Recognizing the significant advancements in technology that have revolutionized the legal field in the past few years, the Volume 4 Editorial Board sought to update and adapt the Forum to be accessible digitally, formatting the issue for tablets and e-readers. As you read, take advantage of clickable Tables of Contents and links to online sources throughout the issue.


Post-Myriad Genetics Copyright Of Synthetic Biology And Living Media, Michael D. Murray 2014 Valparaiso University

Post-Myriad Genetics Copyright Of Synthetic Biology And Living Media, Michael D. Murray

Michael D. Murray

This Article addresses copyright as a viable form of intellectual property protection for living, organic creations of science and art. The United States Supreme Court’s decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc.[1] narrowed patent-eligible protection over living components of humans or other organisms. Synthetic biologists are expected to look with renewed focus on copyright law for the intellectual property protection of biological creations. The contribution of this Article is to reveal that the same issues are raised with regard to the copyrightability of the works of synthetic biology as are raised by pictorial, graphic, and ...


Reconciling Original With Secondary Creation: The Subtle Incentive Theory Of Copyright Licensing, Yafit Lev-Aretz 2014 University of Pennsylvania - Biostatistics

Reconciling Original With Secondary Creation: The Subtle Incentive Theory Of Copyright Licensing, Yafit Lev-Aretz

Yafit Lev-Aretz

Copyright literature has been long familiar with the lack of licensing choices in various creative markets. In the absence of a lawful licensing alternatives, consumers of works as well as secondary creators wishing to use protected elements of preexisting works are often left with no choice but to either infringe on the copyright of the rightholder or refrain from the use. As further creation is regularly impeded, the dearth of licensing greatly conflicts with the utilitarian foundation of copyright and its constitutional goal to promote creative progress. Legal scholarship has submitted various recommendations in response to the licensing failure, homing ...


Cracking The Cable Conundrum: Government Regulation Of A La Carte Models In The Cable Industry, Jade Brewster 2014 SelectedWorks

Cracking The Cable Conundrum: Government Regulation Of A La Carte Models In The Cable Industry, Jade Brewster

Jade Brewster

No abstract provided.


Conception To Distribution: Vertical Integration In The Television Production And Isp Industry , Megan Sieffert 2014 Pepperdine University

Conception To Distribution: Vertical Integration In The Television Production And Isp Industry , Megan Sieffert

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

The intersecting regulations of agencies, stemming from the duties of the FCC, the FTC, and the DOJ to protect competition and television consumers, have been innovative in permitting two goals. First, allowing companies to pursue these integrations and, second, placing conditions on integrations to prevent potential harms that could come from developing media giants. As the market continues to consolidate, with companies having more access to the ability to distribute through alternative middlemen, and as they have the opportunity to gain popularity through social media networks and word of mouth, the healthy competition seen in the former entertainment industry is ...


The Evolution Of The Digital Millennium Copyright Act; Changing Interpretations Of The Dmca And Future Implications For Copyright Holders, Hillary A. Henderson 2014 SelectedWorks

The Evolution Of The Digital Millennium Copyright Act; Changing Interpretations Of The Dmca And Future Implications For Copyright Holders, Hillary A. Henderson

Hillary A Henderson

Copyright law rewards an artificial monopoly to individual authors for their creations. This reward is based on the belief that, by granting authors the exclusive right to reproduce their works, they receive an incentive and means to create, which in turn advances the welfare of the general public by “promoting the progress of science and useful arts.”

Copyright protection subsists . . . in original works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression, now known or later developed, from which they can be perceived, reproduced, or otherwise communicated, either directly or with the aid of a machine or device . . . . In no ...


Emerging Technologies And Dwindling Speech, Jorge R. Roig 2014 Charleston School of Law

Emerging Technologies And Dwindling Speech, Jorge R. Roig

Jorge R Roig

Inspired in part by the recent holding in Bland v. Roberts that the use of the “Like” feature in Facebook is not covered by the Free Speech Clause, this article makes a brief foray into the approach that courts have taken in the recent past towards questions of First Amendment coverage in the context of emerging technologies. Specifically, this article will take a closer look at how courts have dealt with the issue of functionality in the context of First Amendment coverage of computer source code. The analysis of this and other recent experiences, when put in a larger context ...


The Sound Recording Performance Rights At A Crossroads: Will Market Rates Prevail?, Jeffrey A. Eisenach 2014 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

The Sound Recording Performance Rights At A Crossroads: Will Market Rates Prevail?, Jeffrey A. Eisenach

CommLaw Conspectus: Journal of Communications Law and Technology Policy

Starting in the 1990s, Federal policy has moved in the direction of a market-oriented approach towards sound recording rights, beginning with Congress’ decision to create a sound recording performance copyright in 1995. In 1998, Congress provided that most statutory royalty rates, including the rates paid by webcasters like Pandora Radio, would be set using a market-based “willing buyer, willing seller” (“WBWS”) standard. Since then, the WBWS standard has been applied in several rate setting proceedings, but complaints from webcasters that the rates were “too high” have led to Congressional intervention and, ultimately, to adoption of rates below market levels. Now ...


Copyright Without Creators, Jonathan M. Barnett 2013 BLR

Copyright Without Creators, Jonathan M. Barnett

University of Southern California Law and Economics Working Paper Series

Copyright is typically justified by the rationale that profits induce authors and other artists to invest resources in cultural production. This rationale is vulnerable to the objection that some artists have intrinsic incentives to invest in cultural production and do not require significant capital to do so. Even accepting this objection, copyright is justified by an alternative rationale: it supports the profit-motivated intermediaries that bear the high costs and risks involved in evaluating, distributing and marketing content in mass-cultural markets. This “authorless” rationale is consistent with the intermediated structure of mature mass-cultural markets and accounts for long-standing features of copyright ...


Private Copyright Reform, Kristelia A. García 2013 University of Michigan Law School

Private Copyright Reform, Kristelia A. García

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

The government is not the only player in copyright reform, and perhaps not even the most important. Left to free market negotiation, risk averse licensors and licensees are contracting around the statutory license for certain types of copyright-protected content, and achieving greater efficiency via private ordering. This emerging phenomenon, herein termed “private copyright reform,” presents both adverse selection and distributive justice concerns: first, circumvention of the statutory license goes against legislative intent by allowing for the reduction, and even elimination, of statutorily mandated royalties owed to non-parties. In addition, when presented without full term disclosure, privately determined royalty rates can ...


Getting Down To (Tattoo) Business: Copyright Norms And Speech Protections For Tattooing, Alexa L. Nickow 2013 University of Michigan Law School

Getting Down To (Tattoo) Business: Copyright Norms And Speech Protections For Tattooing, Alexa L. Nickow

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

What level of First Amendment protection should we afford tattooing? General public consensus formerly condemned tattoos as barbaric, but the increasingly diverse clientele of tattoo shops suggests that tattoos have become more mainstream. However, the law has struggled to adjust. The recent proliferation of municipal near-bans on tattooing has brought tattooing to the forefront of First Amendment debates, with cases such as Anderson and Coleman leading the way toward recognizing tattooing as pure speech. Tensions between formal and informal copyright norms in the tattoo industry further highlight the collaborative and expressive nature of the artist-customer relationship and its resulting products ...


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