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Double-Tap Warfare: Should President Obama Be Investigated For War Crimes?, Samuel Alexander 2018 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Double-Tap Warfare: Should President Obama Be Investigated For War Crimes?, Samuel Alexander

Florida Law Review

A “double-tap” drone strike involves bombing a target, waiting a period of five to twenty minutes, often during which first responders arrive, and then bombing the target a second or even third time. This Note argues that such attacks, by virtue of their indiscriminate nature, are likely serious violations of Common Article 3 of the Geneva Conventions of 1949, which prohibits targeting civilians, the wounded, or those placed hors de combat. Thus, such attacks are likely war crimes under international law and under the War Crimes Act of 1996, a U.S. law that criminalizes carrying out, or ordering to ...


Litigating Genocide: A Consideration Of The Criminal Court In Light Of The German Jew's Legal Response To Nazi Persecution, 1933-1941, Jody M. Prescott 2018 University of Maine School of Law

Litigating Genocide: A Consideration Of The Criminal Court In Light Of The German Jew's Legal Response To Nazi Persecution, 1933-1941, Jody M. Prescott

Maine Law Review

After years of negotiation, a majority of the nations of the world have agreed to create an International Criminal Court. It will be given jurisdiction over three core types of offenses: genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. With regard to war crimes, however, nations that join the court may take advantage of an “opt-out” procedure, whereby the court's jurisdiction over these offenses may be rejected for seven years after the court comes into existence. For various reasons, a small number of nations, including the United States, have refused to sign the treaty creating the court. While heralded as ...


Silent War: Applicability Of The Jus In Bello To Military Space Operations, Kubo Mačák 2018 University of Exeter

Silent War: Applicability Of The Jus In Bello To Military Space Operations, Kubo Mačák

International Law Studies

There are no molecules of air that could carry sound waves in the vacuum of outer space. Accordingly, space warfare may well become the first type of war whose signature sound would be—silence. But does the law of armed conflict (jus in bello) fall silent in times of Silent War? This article addresses the uncertainty at the heart of this issue. First, it delineates the relevant conceptual framework by examining the factual notion of “military space operations,” and its relationship with the legal concept of “armed conflict,” as well as the overlap between the potentially applicable bodies of law ...


Technical Fouls: Adjudicating Statutory Violations With Equitable Resolutions, Antonio G. Fraone 2018 Boston College Law School

Technical Fouls: Adjudicating Statutory Violations With Equitable Resolutions, Antonio G. Fraone

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

In Weinberger v. Romero-Barcelo, the United States Supreme Court allowed for an equitable resolution to a lawsuit seeking immediate enforcement, by injunction, of the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (“FWPCA”). In this case, the United States Navy violated the FWPCA by discharging munitions—a pollutant as defined by the statute—during training exercises into the waters surrounding the Island of Vieques. The Navy also failed to obtain a National Pollution Discharge Elimination System permit, which would have made the discharge lawful under the statute. The people of Puerto Rico sought to enjoin the training exercises through the FWPCA. The Navy ...


International Coalitions And Non-Militarily Contributing Member States: A Perspective From Panama’S Practice And The Law Of Neutrality, Alonso E. Illueca 2018 University of Miami Law School

International Coalitions And Non-Militarily Contributing Member States: A Perspective From Panama’S Practice And The Law Of Neutrality, Alonso E. Illueca

University of Miami Inter-American Law Review

The military actions of an International Coalition and the role of its non-military contributing member States is yet another fundamental example of international practice concerning conflation between jus ad bellum and jus in bello. Although International Law proscribes the use of force in international relations, membership in an International Coalition engaged in military operations does not come without a cost. Non-military contributing member States may be regarded as co-belligerents or neutral States violating the laws of neutrality. This article argues that mere membership in a coalition does not amount to co-belligerency. Nevertheless, it claims that membership could entail a violation ...


U.S. War Powers And The Potential Benefits Of Comparativism, Curtis A. Bradley 2018 Duke Law School

U.S. War Powers And The Potential Benefits Of Comparativism, Curtis A. Bradley

Faculty Scholarship

There is no issue of foreign relations law more important than the allocation of authority over the use of military force. This issue is especially important for the United States given the frequency with which it is involved in military activities abroad. Yet there is significant uncertainty and debate in the United States over this issue — in particular, over whether and to what extent military actions must be authorized by Congress. Because U.S. courts in the modern era have generally declined to review the legality of military actions, disputes over this issue have had to be resolved, as a ...


Justice Against Sponsors Of Terrorism: Why Suing Terrorists May Not Be The Most Effective Way To Advance United States Foreign Policy Objectives, Drew Watkins 2018 University of Kentucky College of Law

Justice Against Sponsors Of Terrorism: Why Suing Terrorists May Not Be The Most Effective Way To Advance United States Foreign Policy Objectives, Drew Watkins

Kentucky Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Whatever Happened To Military Good Order And Discipline?, Colonel Jeremy S. Weber 2017 United States Air Force

Whatever Happened To Military Good Order And Discipline?, Colonel Jeremy S. Weber

Cleveland State Law Review

Discipline is often called “the soul of an army.” If this is so, the United States military seems to be experiencing a spiritual crisis. Article 134 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) allows commanders to punish acts prejudicial to “good order and discipline,” but the reach of this provision has been increasingly limited in recent years. Appellate courts have repeatedly overturned convictions of conduct charged as prejudicial to good order and discipline, and in recent years, the military’s high court has issued a series of decisions limiting the reach of the UCMJ’s “general article.” Congress has ...


Neutrality And Outer Space, Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg 2017 Europa-Universität Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany

Neutrality And Outer Space, Wolff Heintschel Von Heinegg

International Law Studies

This article discusses the law of neutrality as it pertains to belligerent operations in and through outer space as well as belligerent outer space operations involving the territory and national airspace of neutral States. As far as the latter is concerned, the traditional law of neutrality is fully applicable. Accordingly, international law prohibits belligerents from launching space objects from neutral territory or through neutral national airspace. While neutral States may not provide belligerents with outer space assets or the use of communications infrastructure located in their territories, they are not obliged to prevent their nationals from providing any of the ...


From War To Home: The Systematic Issues Operation Enduring And Iraqi Freedom Veterans Face Transitioning With Ptsd, Tiffany D. Ware 2017 Brandman University

From War To Home: The Systematic Issues Operation Enduring And Iraqi Freedom Veterans Face Transitioning With Ptsd, Tiffany D. Ware

Dissertations

Purpose: The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the perceptions of Operation Enduring and Iraqi Freedom veterans with PTSD, who are transitioning from active duty to civilian life, regarding their participation in the Disabled Transition Assistance Program.

Methodology: The methodology for this research study will be qualitative from a phenomenological perspective. When thinking of research as it pertains to qualitative methods, it is appropriate to use when a researcher is trying to study the lived experiences of individuals (Flipp, 2014; Patton, 2015). This method will describe perceptions of Operation Enduring and Iraqi Freedom veterans with PTSD, who are ...


The Justice Against Sponsors Of Terrorism Act: An Infringement On Executive Power, Dan Cahill 2017 Boston College Law School

The Justice Against Sponsors Of Terrorism Act: An Infringement On Executive Power, Dan Cahill

Boston College Law Review

In the more than sixteen years since September 11, 2001, the United States has resolved, through policy at home and abroad, to vindicate the heroes and victims of that attack. From the creation of the Department of Homeland Security, to the raid that resulted in the death of Osama Bin Laden, the shockwaves of 9/11 have reverberated through America’s domestic and foreign policy ever since. In the only veto override of the Obama presidency, the 114th U.S. Congress brought the Justice Against Sponsors of Terrorism Act (“JASTA”) into force, intending to provide U.S. citizens with a ...


Individual, Not Collective: Justifying The Resort To Force Against Members Of Non-State Armed Groups, Anthony Dworkin 2017 European Council on Foreign Relations

Individual, Not Collective: Justifying The Resort To Force Against Members Of Non-State Armed Groups, Anthony Dworkin

International Law Studies

This article proposes an alternative to the conventional way of deciding when a State may target or detain members of an armed group. Instead of asking whether there is an armed conflict between the State and the group, this article argues that we should look at the State’s justification for the use of force against the group or its members. In a non-international context, this justification is rooted in human rights law. For this reason, the authorization for the resort to force operates on an individual basis, and the State is only justified in using force against individual members ...


The United States Smallpox Bioterrorism Preparedness Plan: Rational Response Or Potemkin Planning, Edward P. Richards III 2017 Selected Works

The United States Smallpox Bioterrorism Preparedness Plan: Rational Response Or Potemkin Planning, Edward P. Richards Iii

Edward P. Richards

No abstract provided.


Rule Of Law In The Age Of The Drone: Requiring Transparency And Disqualifying Clandestine Actors—The Cia And The Joint Special Operations Command, Thomas Michael McDonnell 2017 University of Miami Law School

Rule Of Law In The Age Of The Drone: Requiring Transparency And Disqualifying Clandestine Actors—The Cia And The Joint Special Operations Command, Thomas Michael Mcdonnell

University of Miami Law Review

Since shortly after 9/11, weaponized drones have become part of the fabric of United States policy and practice in countering Islamic terrorist organizations and personnel. Although many diplomats, UN officials, and scholars have criticized the widespread use of this weapon system for “targeted killing,” drones are here to stay. But how much investigation and oversight must a democratic country carry out over such a program, and more critically, how can a country do so effectively when the Executive has handed primary responsibility for drone targeted killing attacks to its clandestine forces, the Central Intelligence Agency and the Joint Special ...


Where Have All The Soldiers Gone Ii: Military Veterans In Congress And The State Of Civil-Military Relations, Donald N. Zillman 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Where Have All The Soldiers Gone Ii: Military Veterans In Congress And The State Of Civil-Military Relations, Donald N. Zillman

Maine Law Review

In a 1997 essay in these pages, I reported on the fact that a declining number of senators and members of the House of Representatives were veterans of military service. At the height of the Vietnam War, roughly 70% of the members of Congress were veterans. By 1991, the Congress that approved the use of force against Iraq in Operation Desert Storm had only slightly more veterans than non-veterans. Three Congresses later, the percentage of veterans had dropped to 32%. The explanation for the decline is almost certainly not that the American voter no longer likes to elect veterans to ...


Contrasting Perspectives And Preemptive Strike: The United States, France, And The War On Terror, Sophie Clavier 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Contrasting Perspectives And Preemptive Strike: The United States, France, And The War On Terror, Sophie Clavier

Maine Law Review

A few years ago, Samuel P. Huntington's article in Foreign Affairs, "The Clash of Civilizations?" described a "West vs. the Rest" conflict leading to the assumption of an essentially unified Western civilization settling "[g]lobal political and security issues ... effectively ... by a directorate of the United States, Britain and France" and centered around common core values "using international institutions, military power and economic resources to run the world in ways that will . . . protect Western interests . . . .” Against the West, the specter of disorder and fundamentalism was looming and would precipitate conflicts. This widely accepted dichotomy fails to take into account ...


Unilateral And Multilateral Preventive Self-Defense, Stéphanie Bellier 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Unilateral And Multilateral Preventive Self-Defense, Stéphanie Bellier

Maine Law Review

The governing principle of the collective security system created by the United Nations Charter in 19451 is the rule prohibiting the use of force in Article 2(4), which provides that "All Members shall refrain in their international relations from the threat or use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any state, or in any other manner inconsistent with the Purpose of the United Nations." This rule prohibiting the use of force was considered revolutionary at the time because it transformed into international law ideas which had for centuries, if not millennia, preoccupied the minds of ...


Trending @ Rwu Law: Professor David Coombs's Post: The Immigrant Veteran: Service And Honor 11-14-2017, David Coombs 2017 Roger Williams University School of Law

Trending @ Rwu Law: Professor David Coombs's Post: The Immigrant Veteran: Service And Honor 11-14-2017, David Coombs

Law School Blogs

No abstract provided.


An Empirical Look At Commander Bias In Sexual Assault Cases, Eric R. Carpenter 2017 FIU College of Law

An Empirical Look At Commander Bias In Sexual Assault Cases, Eric R. Carpenter

Eric R. Carpenter

In response to the American military’s perceived inability to handle sexual assault cases, the Uniform Code of Military Justice is undergoing its most significant restructuring since its creation in 1950. Critics point to the high rates of sexual assault case attrition as a sign that the system is failing sexual assault victims. The theory is that commanders are predisposed to believe the offenders and to blame the victims. This bias then causes high levels of attrition as the commanders undervalue the cases and divert them from the legal process. This study tests that causal inference. It measures the attrition ...


Law Library Blog (November 2017): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School of Law 2017 Roger Williams University

Law Library Blog (November 2017): Legal Beagle's Blog Archive, Roger Williams University School Of Law

Law Library Newsletters/Blog

No abstract provided.


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