Implementing The Lessons From Wrongful Convictions: An Empirical Analysis Of Eyewitness Identification Reform Strategies, 2015 University of Wisconsin-Madison
Implementing The Lessons From Wrongful Convictions: An Empirical Analysis Of Eyewitness Identification Reform Strategies, Keith A. Findley
Keith A Findley
Learning about the flaws in the criminal justice system that have produced wrongful convictions has progressed at a dramatic pace since the first innocent individuals were exonerated by postconviction DNA testing in 1989. Application of that knowledge to improving the criminal justice system, however, has lagged far behind the growth in knowledge. Likewise, while considerable scholarship has been devoted to identifying the factors that produce wrongful convictions, very little scholarly attention has been devoted to the processes through which knowledge about causes is translated into reforms.
Using eyewitness misidentification—one of the leading contributors to wrongful convictions and the most ...
Out Of Breath And Down To The Wire: A Call For Constitution-Focused Police Reform, 2015 Indiana Tech Law School
Out Of Breath And Down To The Wire: A Call For Constitution-Focused Police Reform, Nancy C. Marcus
Nancy C Marcus
This article chronicles a series of breathtakingly disturbing police killings of unarmed black men (and a boy) in a single year’s time, spanning from between July 2014 to July 2015, which have resulted in national outcry and sparked a movement toward police reform across the country. The article details a number of the suggested remedial measures offered to address the problem of excessive lethal police force across the country and concludes that, among the proposed reforms, one of the most important is a renewed emphasis of critical constitutional limitations upon permissible lethal police force and other unjustified treatment of ...
Visualizing Dna Proof, 2015 Indiana University Robert H. McKinney School of Law
Visualizing Dna Proof, Nicholas L. Georgakopoulos
Nicholas L Georgakopoulos
DNA proof inherently involves the use of probability theory, which is often counterintuitive. Visual depictions of probability theory, however, can clarify the analysis and make it tractable. A DNA hit from a large database is a notoriously difficult probability theory issue, yet the visuals should enable courts and juries to handle it. The Puckett facts are an example of a general approach: A search in a large DNA database produces a hit for a cold crime from 1972 San Francisco. Probability theory allows us to process the probabilities that someone else in the database, someone not in the ...
44. Andrews, S.J., Lamb, M.E., & Lyon, T.D. (In Press). The Effects Of Question Repetition On Responses When Prosecutors And Defense Attorneys Question Children Alleging Sexual Abuse In Court. Law & Human Behavior., 2015 University of Southern California
44. Andrews, S.J., Lamb, M.E., & Lyon, T.D. (In Press). The Effects Of Question Repetition On Responses When Prosecutors And Defense Attorneys Question Children Alleging Sexual Abuse In Court. Law & Human Behavior., Thomas D. Lyon
Thomas D. Lyon
This study examined the effects of repeated questions (n=12,169) on 6- to 12-year-olds’ testimony in child sexual abuse cases. We examined transcripts of direct- and cross-examinations of 120 children, categorizing how attorneys asked repeated questions in-court and how children responded. Defense attorneys repeated more questions (33.6% of total questions asked) than prosecutors (17.8%) and repeated questions using more suggestive prompts (38% of their repeated questions) than prosecutors (15%). In response, children typically repeated or elaborated on their answers and seldom contradicted themselves. Self-contradictions were most often elicited by suggestive and option-posing prompts posed by either type ...
43. Rush, E.B., Stolzenberg, S.N., Quas, J.A., & Lyon, T.D. (In Press). The Effects Of The Putative Confession And Parent Suggestion On Children's Disclosure Of A Minor Transgression. Legal And Criminological Psychology., 2015 University of Southern California
43. Rush, E.B., Stolzenberg, S.N., Quas, J.A., & Lyon, T.D. (In Press). The Effects Of The Putative Confession And Parent Suggestion On Children's Disclosure Of A Minor Transgression. Legal And Criminological Psychology., Thomas D. Lyon
Thomas D. Lyon
Purpose: This study examined the effects of the putative confession (telling the child that an adult “told me everything that happened and he wants you to tell the truth”) on children’s disclosure of a minor transgression after questioning by their parents. Methods: Children (N = 188; 4 – 7-year-olds) played with a confederate, and while doing so, for half of the children, toys broke. Parents then questioned their children about what occurred, and half of the parents were given additional scripted suggestive questions. Finally, children completed a mock forensic investigative interview. Results: Children given the putative confession were 1.6 times ...
Common Ignorance: Medical Malpractice Law And The Misconceived Application Of The “Common Knowledge” And “Res Ipsa Loquitur” Doctrines, 2015 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center
Common Ignorance: Medical Malpractice Law And The Misconceived Application Of The “Common Knowledge” And “Res Ipsa Loquitur” Doctrines, Amanda E. Spinner
Touro Law Review
No abstract provided.
The Admissibility Of Confessions Compelled By Foreign Coercion: A Compelling Question Of Values In An Era Of Increasing International Criminal Cooperation, Geoffrey S. Corn, Kevin Cieply
Pepperdine Law Review
This Article proceeds on a simple and clear premise: a confession extracted by torture or cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment should never be admitted into evidence in a U.S. criminal trial. Whether accomplished through extending the Due Process or Self-Incrimination based exclusionary rules to foreign official coercion, or by legislative action, such exclusion is necessary to align evidentiary practice regarding confessions procured by foreign agents with our nation's fundamental values as reflected in the Fifth Amendment and our ratification of the CAT. This outcome is not incompatible with Connelly. Rather, this Article explores the limits of the Court ...
Rules Of Evidence For Your First Federal Or New York Trial, 2015 Columbia, Fordham & NYU Law Schools
Rules Of Evidence For Your First Federal Or New York Trial, Gerald Lebovits
No abstract provided.
42. Stolzenberg, S.N., & Lyon., T.D. (In Press). Repeated Self And Peer-Review Leads To Continuous Improvement In Child Interviewing Performance. Journal Of Forensic Social Work., 2015 University of Southern California
42. Stolzenberg, S.N., & Lyon., T.D. (In Press). Repeated Self And Peer-Review Leads To Continuous Improvement In Child Interviewing Performance. Journal Of Forensic Social Work., Thomas D. Lyon
Thomas D. Lyon
The present study examined whether a training model that focuses on consistent exposure to protocol procedure, self-evaluation, and intensive peer-review sessions could improve interviewers’ ability to adhere to best practices. Law students (N = 19) interviewed 5- to 10-year-old children on a weekly basis as part of a semester-long forensic child interviewing class. They transcribed their interviews, and participated in one-hour self and peer-reviews. The proportion of each question type was calculated (option-posing, Wh-, and open-invitations) within each interview for each interviewer. Across ten weeks of interviews, interviewers consistently improved their performance, decreasing the proportion of option-posing questions by 31% and ...
New Hardware And Software Innovations (For Volumetric Modeling), 2015 University of Colorado Law School
New Hardware And Software Innovations (For Volumetric Modeling), A. Keith Turner
Uncovering the Hidden Resource: Groundwater Law, Hydrology, and Policy in the 1990s (Summer Conference, June 15-17)
19 pages (includes illustrations and maps).
Inmates’ E-Mails With Their Attorneys: Off-Limits For The Government?, 2015 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law
Inmates’ E-Mails With Their Attorneys: Off-Limits For The Government?, Amelia H. Barry
Catholic University Law Review
The attorney-client privilege is vital to inmates who otherwise have limited opportunities for private communications in prison. Traditionally, inmates have only been able to communicate with their attorneys via in-person visits, phone calls, and mailed letters. As federal inmates have begun using e-mail to converse with their attorneys, courts have had to determine if these conversations are protected by the attorney-client privilege. This Comment discusses courts’ approaches to this question, many of which have found that inmates’ e-mail communications with their attorneys are not privileged because by using the federal prison e-mail system, which warns users that conversations can be ...
Disentangling Michigan Court Rule 6.502(G)(2): The "New Evidence" Exception To The Ban On Successive Motions For Relief From Judgment Does Not Contain A Discoverability Requirement, 2015 University of Michigan Law School
Disentangling Michigan Court Rule 6.502(G)(2): The "New Evidence" Exception To The Ban On Successive Motions For Relief From Judgment Does Not Contain A Discoverability Requirement, Claire V. Madill
Michigan Law Review
Michigan courts are engaging in a costly interpretative mistake. Confused by the relationship between two distinct legal doctrines, Michigan courts are conflating laws in a manner that precludes convicted defendants from raising their constitutional claims in postconviction proceedings. In Michigan, a convicted defendant who wishes to collaterally attack her conviction must file a 6.500 motion. The Michigan Court Rules generally prohibit “second or subsequent” motions. Nonetheless, section 6.502(G)(2) permits a petitioner to avoid this successive motion ban if her claim relies on “new evidence that was not discovered” before her original postconviction motion. Misguided by the ...
Rapid Dna Testing, 2015 Santa Barbara College of Law
Rapid Dna Testing, Robert M. Sanger
Robert M. Sanger
In 2010, the FBI began the process of encouraging the development of Rapid DNA testing. Rapid DNA testing involves a fully automated process of developing a “short tandem repeat” (STR) profile from a reference sample. The process consists of automated extraction, amplification, separation, detection and allele calling without human intervention. In other words, it is a quick, hands free method of obtaining a DNA profile.
In this article we will look at this new and expanding area of scientific technology. We will also look at the efforts to regulate it and maintain appropriate scientific standards as well as the issues ...
Obtaining International Judicial Assistance Under The Federal Rules And The Hague Convention On The Taking Of Evidence Abroad In Civil And Commercial Matters: An Exposition Of The Procedures And A Practical Example: In Re Westinghouse Uranium Contract Litigation, 2015 University of Georgia School of Law
Obtaining International Judicial Assistance Under The Federal Rules And The Hague Convention On The Taking Of Evidence Abroad In Civil And Commercial Matters: An Exposition Of The Procedures And A Practical Example: In Re Westinghouse Uranium Contract Litigation, Robert J. Augustine
Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law
No abstract provided.
Summary Of Guitron (Miguel) V. State, 131 Nev. Adv. Op. 27 (May 21, 2015), 2015 Nevada Law Journal
Summary Of Guitron (Miguel) V. State, 131 Nev. Adv. Op. 27 (May 21, 2015), Aleem Dhalla
Nevada Supreme Court Summaries
The Court determined that (1) the State presented sufficient evidence for a jury to convict Guitron of incest and sexual assault, (2) the district court did err by not allowing Guitron to introduce evidence of the victims sexual knowledge, but this error was harmless, (3) the district court did err refusing to give the jury Guitron’s requested inverse elements instruction, but this error was also harmless, and (4) Guitron could not show that the district court erred by denying his Batson challenge.
My Ears Hear More Than English: Granting Multilingual Jurors Accommodations And Treating Multilingualism As A Common Type Of Juror Expertise, A. Lee Valentine Ii
Boston College Law Review
To find an example of court-sanctioned discrimination against Spanish-speaking prospective jurors, one need not look further than the 2011 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit decision in United States v. Cabrera-Beltran. Three multilingual jurors were struck for cause during voir dire for not agreeing to ignore all Spanish-language evidence that would be presented at trial and adhere solely to the English-language interpretation, even if they detected errors in the interpretation. Although these jurors could have been accommodated, the court upheld the decision to strike them. In other cases, jurors with other types of expertise typically have not ...
Systemic Lying, 2015 College of William & Mary Law School
Systemic Lying, Julia Simon-Kerr
William & Mary Law Review
This Article offers the foundational account of systemic lying from a definitional and theoretical perspective. Systemic lying involves the cooperation of multiple actors in the legal system who lie or violate their oaths across cases for a consistent reason that is linked to their conception of justice. It becomes a functioning mechanism within the legal system and changes the operation of the law as written. By identifying systemic lying, this Article challenges the assumption that all lying in the legal system is the same. It argues that systemic lying poses a particular threat to the legal system. This means that ...
Cultural Bias In Judicial Decision Making, 2015 Buchmann Faculty of Law, Tel Aviv University
Cultural Bias In Judicial Decision Making, Masua Sagiv
Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice
This Essay describes the phenomenon of cultural bias in judicial decision making, and examines the use of testimonies and opinions of cultural experts as a way to diminish this bias. The Essay compares the legal regimes of the United States and Israel. Whereas in the United States, the general practice of using cultural experts in courts is well developed and regulated, the Israeli legal procedure has no formal method for admitting cultural expert testimony, and examples of opinions or testimonies of cultural experts in the Israeli legal system are sporadic. The Essay further argues that social science evidence is an ...
41. Ahern, E.C., Stolzenberg, S.N., & Lyon, T.D. (2015). Do Prosecutors Use Interview Instructions Or Build Rapport With Child Witnesses? Behavioral Sciences And The Law, 33, 476-492., 2015 University of Southern California
41. Ahern, E.C., Stolzenberg, S.N., & Lyon, T.D. (2015). Do Prosecutors Use Interview Instructions Or Build Rapport With Child Witnesses? Behavioral Sciences And The Law, 33, 476-492., Thomas D. Lyon
Thomas D. Lyon
This study examined the quality of interview instructions and rapport-building provided by prosecutors to 168 5- to 12-year-old children testifying in child sexual abuse cases, preceding explicit questions about abuse allegations. Prosecutors failed to effectively administer key interview instructions, build rapport, or rely on open-ended narrative producing prompts during this early stage of questioning. Moreover, prosecutors often directed children’s attention to the defendant early in the testimony. The productivity of different types of wh- questions varied, with what/how questions focusing on actions being particularly productive. The lack of instructions, poor quality rapport-building, and closed-ended questioning suggest that children ...
A Criminal Defendant’S First Bite At The Constitutional Apple: The Eleventh Circuit’S Excessively Deferential Conception Of “Adjudication On The Merits” In Childers V. Floyd, 2015 Boston College Law School
A Criminal Defendant’S First Bite At The Constitutional Apple: The Eleventh Circuit’S Excessively Deferential Conception Of “Adjudication On The Merits” In Childers V. Floyd, Chris Skall
Boston College Law Review
On November 13, 2013, in Childers v. Floyd, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit found that Wyon Childers had failed to rebut the presumption that his Confrontation Clause claim was adjudicated on the merits. In this case, and a previous decision that led to it, the court conducted its habeas corpus review using a highly-deferential and vague conception of the threshold “adjudicated on the merits” inquiry. This Comment argues that the Eleventh Circuit and other circuits should reexamine their standards for determining whether federal claims have been adjudicated on the merits by state courts in order ...