Inefficient Evidence, 2015 SelectedWorks
Inefficient Evidence, Alex Stein
Why set up evidentiary rules rather than allow factfinders to make decisions by considering all relevant evidence? This fundamental question has been the subject of unresolved controversy among scholars and policymakers since it was raised by Bentham at the beginning of the nineteenth century. This Article offers a surprisingly straightforward answer: An economically minded legal system must suppress all evidence that brings along a negative productivity-expense balance and is therefore inefficient. Failure to suppress inefficient evidence will result in serious diseconomies of scale. To operationalize this idea, I introduce a “signal-to-noise” method borrowed from statistics, science, and engineering. This method ...
Systemic Lying, 2015 SelectedWorks
Systemic Lying, Julia Simon-Kerr
This Article offers the foundational account of systemic lying from a definitional and theoretical perspective. Systemic lying involves the cooperation of multiple actors in the legal system who lie or violate their oaths across cases for a consistent reason that is linked to their conception of justice. It becomes a functioning mechanism within the legal system and changes the operation of the law as written. By identifying systemic lying, this Article challenges the assumption that all lying in the legal system is the same. It argues that systemic lying poses a particular threat to the legal system. This means that ...
Criminal Corporate Character, 2014 University of Florida Levin College of Law
Criminal Corporate Character, Robert E. Wagner
Florida Law Review
In the last few years, corporations have been accused of crimes ranging from environmental pollution on an unprecedented scale, to manslaughter, to election tampering, to large-scale antitrust violations. Many of these accused companies had previously committed similar acts or even the exact same offense. Unfortunately, the rules of evidence in the federal system and in virtually every state system prohibit the use of this information in a prosecution for such crimes. The reasons for this prohibition are based in historical anomalies, a mistaken understanding of corporate function, and a misplaced anthropomorphism of the corporation. This combination of errors has resulted ...
39. Evans, A. D., Stolzenberg, S., Lee, K., & Lyon, T. D. (In Press). Young Children's Difficulty With Indirect Speech Acts: Implications For Questioning Child Witnesses. Behavioral Sciences & The Law., 2014 USC Gould School of Law
39. Evans, A. D., Stolzenberg, S., Lee, K., & Lyon, T. D. (In Press). Young Children's Difficulty With Indirect Speech Acts: Implications For Questioning Child Witnesses. Behavioral Sciences & The Law., Thomas D. Lyon
Thomas D. Lyon
Prior research suggests that infelicitous choice of questions can significantly underestimate children’s actual abilities, independently of suggestiveness. One possibly difficult question type is indirect speech acts such as “Do you know…” questions (DYK, e.g., “Do you know where it happened?”). These questions directly ask if respondents know, while indirectly asking what respondents know. If respondents answer “yes,” but fail to elaborate, they are either ignoring or failing to recognize the indirect question (known as pragmatic failure). Two studies examined the effect of indirect speech acts on maltreated and non-maltreated 2- to 7-year-olds’ post-event interview responses. Children were read ...
Crime Control, Due Process, & Evidentiary Exclusion: When Exceptions Become The Rule, 2014 Roger Williams University
Crime Control, Due Process, & Evidentiary Exclusion: When Exceptions Become The Rule, Elizabeth H. Kaylor
Proceedings of the New York State Communication Association
This paper uses the dichotomy between Herbert Packer’s (1968) two models of criminal justice advocacy – “crime control” and “due process” – as a rhetorical paradigm for understanding policy debate about the exclusion of relevant evidence at trial. Understanding the opposition between crime control and due process advocates as a rhetorical controversy, in which commonly-used ideographs camouflage dramatically different constructions of the concepts at stake, helps to illuminate the way each side mobilizes public support for their narrative of doing . While both the exclusionary rule (which prohibits the use of illegally-obtained evidence in criminal cases) and the “fruit of the poisonous ...
Dna Analysis And The Confrontation Clause: “Special Needs” Category For Dna Testimonial Evidence, 2014 Golden Gate University School of Law
Dna Analysis And The Confrontation Clause: “Special Needs” Category For Dna Testimonial Evidence, Colleen Clark
Golden Gate University Law Review
This Comment examines three recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions dealing with forensic evidence and how its use is affected by the Confrontation Clause. The Confrontation Clause provides a defendant with the right to confront adverse witnesses. Notably, in Williams v. Illinois, Justice Breyer pointed out that the Court has explicitly not addressed the “outer limits of the “testimonial statements” rule set forth in Crawford v. Washington.” Specifically, Justice Breyer asked how “the Confrontation Clause [applies] to the panoply of crime laboratory reports and underlying technical statements written by (or otherwise made by) laboratory technicians?” This question, while left unanswered ...
Technology And Family Law Hearings, 2014 Western University
Technology And Family Law Hearings, Ron S. Foster, Lianne M. Cihlar
Western Journal of Legal Studies
Technological innovations are changing the practice of law. Lawyers need to be aware of both the advantages of new technologies and the novel concerns that arise in the digital age. This article discusses eight issues that lawyers should be aware of with respect to technological advances within the legal field: (1) cloud technology, (2) the privacy implications that arise from new technology, (3) data storage technology, (4) electronic trials and hearings, (5) demonstrative evidence, (6) digital exhibit books, (7) internet searches and witnesses, and (8) video conference testimony.
When Skeletons Come Out Of The Closet: Implications Of The Bosnian Genocide Decision For Serbia's Eventual Eu Accession, 2014 University of Georgia School of Law
When Skeletons Come Out Of The Closet: Implications Of The Bosnian Genocide Decision For Serbia's Eventual Eu Accession, Edina Slomic
Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law
No abstract provided.
Visual Rhetoric: Topics Of Invention And Arrangement And Tropes Of Style, 2014 Valparaiso University
Visual Rhetoric: Topics Of Invention And Arrangement And Tropes Of Style, Michael D. Murray
Michael D. Murray
This Article discusses the rhetorical value of visual-graphical devices in legal discourse. Rhetoric, the art of persuasive communication, studies the available means to communicate with an audience in an effective, persuasive manner so as to achieve the author’s purpose in the context of a rhetorical situation. This Article joins a rapidly growing conversation on visual rhetoric—the use of graphic and pictorial imagery for effective, persuasive communication.
This Article will discuss the communicative power of visual-graphical works as rhetorical topics of invention and arrangement and tropes of style within contemporary legal rhetoric and modern argument theory. This work will ...
Section 6: Criminal, 2014 College of William & Mary Law School
Section 6: Criminal, Institute Of Bill Of Rights Law At The College Of William & Mary School Of Law
Supreme Court Preview
No abstract provided.
Please Provide The Entire Electronic Medical Record, 2014 SelectedWorks
Please Provide The Entire Electronic Medical Record, Jonathan H. Lomurro Esq. Llm
Jonathan H. Lomurro Esq. LLM
No abstract provided.
38. Gordon, H. M., Lyon, T. D., & Lee, K. (In Press) Social And Cognitive Factors Associated With Children's Secret-Keeping For A Parent. Child Development., Thomas D. Lyon
Thomas D. Lyon
This study examines children’s secret-keeping for a parent and its relationship to trust, theory of mind, secrecy endorsement, and executive functioning (EF). Findings highlight the importance of both social and cognitive factors in secret-keeping development.
Gay Panic And The Case For Gay Shield Laws, 2014 SelectedWorks
Gay Panic And The Case For Gay Shield Laws, Kelly Strader, Molly Selvin, Lindsey Hay
In a highly publicized “gay panic” case, Brandon McInerney shot and killed Larry King in their middle school classroom. King was a self-identified gay student who sometimes wore jewelry and makeup to school and, according to those who knew him, was possibly transgender. Tried as an adult for first-degree murder, McInerney asserted a heat of passion defense based upon King’s alleged sexual advances. The jury deadlocked, with a majority accepting McInerney’s defense.
Drawing largely upon qualitative empirical research, this article uses the Larry King murder case as a prism though which to view the doctrinal, theoretical, and policy ...
Avoiding Mock Trial By Ambush: A Trial Advocacy Competition Primer, 2014 Charleston School of Law
Avoiding Mock Trial By Ambush: A Trial Advocacy Competition Primer, Todd Bruno, Kathryn Sheely
This work is intended as a short but complete introduction to law school trial advocacy competition. Specifically, it is intended as a road map for students and coaches who have taken the plunge into mock trial competitions. There is currently a lack of introductory material for beginning trial advocacy students. This article does not seek to replace the valuable tomes on trial advocacy by Thomas Mauet, the National Institute for Trial Advocacy, Larry Pozner and Roger Dodd, or Terence MacCarthy. Rather, it is offered to bridge the gap between these large works for individual trial advocates and the needs of ...
Hiding The Elephant (How The Psychological Techniques Of Magicians Can Be Used To Manipulate Witnesses At Trial), 2014 Lincoln Memorial University - Duncan School of Law
Hiding The Elephant (How The Psychological Techniques Of Magicians Can Be Used To Manipulate Witnesses At Trial), Sydney A. Beckman
Sydney A. Beckman
In 1917 Harry Houdini performed a single, yet incredible, illusion; “[u]nder the bright spotlights of New York’s Theatre Hippodrome, he made a live elephant disappear.” In 1983 David Copperfield made the Statue of Liberty Disappear in front of both a live and a national television audience. To be sure, neither the elephant nor Lady Liberty actually disappeared. But from the perspective of the audience they did, indeed, disappear. So which is correct? Did they, or didn’t they?
Trial Lawyers and Magicians share many of the same talents and skills. Misdirection, misinformation, selective-attention, ambiguity, verbal manipulation, body language ...
Litigation Technology For The Modern Practitioner, 2014 SelectedWorks
Litigation Technology For The Modern Practitioner, Jonathan H. Lomurro Esq. Llm, Christopher T. Campbell Esq, Matthew K. Blaine Esq, Stephanie L. Lomurro Esq, Christina V. Harvey Esq
Jonathan H. Lomurro Esq. LLM
No abstract provided.
Breaking The Ice: How Plaintiffs May Establish Premises Liability In "Black Ice" Cases Where The Dangerous Condition Is By Definition Not Visible Or Apparent To The Property Owner, Hon. Mark C. Dillon
Hon. Mark C. Dillon
Plaintiffs that are injured as a result of encounters with "black ice," as distinguished from regular ice, face peculiar difficulties in establishing liability against property owners for the dangerous icy conditions on their premises. Black ice results from a unique process under certain conditions by which air bubbles are expelled from water during the freezing process, rendering the ice virtually invisible to the naked eye. Property owners therefore are not typically on actual or constructive notice of black ice conditions as to become subject to the legal requirement of undertaking measures to remedy the conditions. This article explores the law ...
Summary Of Leavitt V. Siems, 130 Adv. Nev. Op. 54, 2014 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law
Summary Of Leavitt V. Siems, 130 Adv. Nev. Op. 54, Michael Paretti
Nevada Supreme Court Summaries
The Court concluded that: (1) expert alternative causation testimony is permissible; (2) ex parte communication, even when improper, only warrants a new trial when prejudice is established; and, (3) an employee’s default may not be used against an employer codefendant contesting liability.
Symposium: Criminal Law At The Crossroads: Turn To Accuracy, Dan Simon
University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series
Given the pressing societal need to punish criminal behavior and the solemn nature of depriving people of their liberty and even life, one would expect that the accuracy of these fateful determinations would be the paramount goal of the criminal justice process. This article critically examines the system’s low prioritization of the accuracy of the verdicts it produces, and focuses on four key factors that hinder the attainment of accuracy: problems with the reliability of the evidence produced by police investigations, the opacity of criminal investigations, the intensity of the adversarial process, and the muddled understanding of the system ...
The Religion Of Alcoholics Anonymous (Aa): Applying The Clergy Privilege To Certain Aa Communications, 2014 Cornell Law Library
The Religion Of Alcoholics Anonymous (Aa): Applying The Clergy Privilege To Certain Aa Communications, Ari J. Diaconis
Cornell Law Library Prize for Exemplary Student Research Papers
In the debate about AA’s status as a religion for clergy privilege purposes, there has been a lack of accurate information.315 AA originated from among the most evangelic of Christian movements, the Oxford Group. AA’s 12 Step program is so centered on a higher power as to preclude an atheist from moving beyond Step 2, let alone complete the entire 12 Step program.
AA’s historical origins and program of recovery are so faith based as to render it a religion under virtually any First Amendment definition.Indeed, courts have already defined AA as a religion in ...