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Penalty Clauses – What Has Changed?, Bruno Zeller 2018 University of Western Australia, Law School

Penalty Clauses – What Has Changed?, Bruno Zeller

Pace International Law Review

Building on two seminal cases that consider the character of penalty clauses, Paciocco v Australia and New Zealand Banking Group Ltd from Australia and Cavendish Square Holding BV v. Talal El Makdessi from England, this Article sheds a new light on the treatment of fixed sums and argues that the view on whether penalty clauses are governed by the CISG requires new considerations. Importantly, this Article demonstrates a two-step approach to the analysis of penalty clauses: 1) whether the sum in question is penal in nature, and 2) if so, whether the CISG determines the fate of the penalty clause ...


Gmos, International Law And Indigenous Peoples, Casandia Bellevue 2018 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

Gmos, International Law And Indigenous Peoples, Casandia Bellevue

Pace International Law Review

This Article sprung from a desire to discover why—despite scientific uncertainty and the oft-cited precautionary principle in international law—genetically modified organisms are still allowed to spread via international trade and natural ecological cycles. While exploring this topic, it did not take long to come across the environmental justice impacts of genetically modified crops, and their particularly disparate impact upon indigenous peoples across the globe. Not only are GMOs threatening biodiversity and our planet, but also the very existence and cultural foundations of many indigenous groups.

This Article seeks to answer the following questions: What are the international agreements ...


Transparency And Disclosure, Diane Ring 2018 Boston College Law School

Transparency And Disclosure, Diane Ring

Diane M. Ring

Without a stable and adequate tax base, countries lose the financial capacity to provide the infrastructure, social services and development opportunities important to their citizens. In response, the G20 and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) organized the project on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS). Much of the project has been focused on substantive law — the rules and practices that can allow the tax base of a country to be eroded and profits to be shifted out of the country. But the project recognizes that improved substantive tax rules alone are not sufficient to guarantee the tax ...


Assessment And Comparison Of Aviation Manufacturing Industries Throughout Mexico And Brazil, Omar E. Morsi, Kelly A. Whealan-George, Aaron D. Clevenger 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Assessment And Comparison Of Aviation Manufacturing Industries Throughout Mexico And Brazil, Omar E. Morsi, Kelly A. Whealan-George, Aaron D. Clevenger

International Journal of Aviation, Aeronautics, and Aerospace

This literature review serves to provide insight and understanding in regards to the evolving aviation manufacturing industry throughout the globe and more specifically, Mexico and Brazil. Increased demand for aircraft units both in the commercial and private sectors have led to unprecedented expansions in aircraft manufacturing across the industry. In order to illuminate certain potentials and current growth levels of such industries, this review will delve into an array of information and specifications in regards to economic, political, and cultural influences throughout both Mexican and Brazilian markets respectively. In conclusion, the review will identify the transformation of an aviation manufacturing ...


China’S ‘Belt And Road’ Initiative: Mapping The World Trade Normative And Strategic Implications, Julien Chaisse 2018 Chinese University of Hong Kong

China’S ‘Belt And Road’ Initiative: Mapping The World Trade Normative And Strategic Implications, Julien Chaisse

Julien Chaisse

In 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping announced that he wanted to resurrect the legendary Silk Road; he proposed a titanic project to build hundreds of roads, bridges, and railroads to connect China and Europe. In China, the government also speaks of the ‘Belt and Road initiative’ (One Belt, One Road – abbreviated OBOR) to describe the project that will span more than 50 years. OBOR is President Xi Jinping’s most important project and it marks a radical change in China’s foreign policy as it constitutes a new economic model that also aims to strengthen China’s position as an ...


Restoring Trade’S Social Contract, Frank J. Garcia, Timothy Meyer 2018 Boston College Law School

Restoring Trade’S Social Contract, Frank J. Garcia, Timothy Meyer

Frank J. Garcia

As we write, the United States, Canada, and Mexico are meeting in Washington, D.C. to renegotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). These talks—and their possible failure—represent the biggest shift in U.S. economic policy in a generation. Since NAFTA came into force in 1994, it has transformed the North American economy. NAFTA has made possible continent-wide supply chains, in industries like the auto sector, that have reduced costs and allowed American automakers to remain competitive; it has opened markets for American agriculture; it has greatly increased the standard of living in Mexico; and it has ...


Restoring Trade’S Social Contract, Frank J. Garcia, Timothy Meyer 2018 Boston College Law School

Restoring Trade’S Social Contract, Frank J. Garcia, Timothy Meyer

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

As we write, the United States, Canada, and Mexico are meeting in Washington, D.C. to renegotiate the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). These talks—and their possible failure—represent the biggest shift in U.S. economic policy in a generation. Since NAFTA came into force in 1994, it has transformed the North American economy. NAFTA has made possible continent-wide supply chains, in industries like the auto sector, that have reduced costs and allowed American automakers to remain competitive; it has opened markets for American agriculture; it has greatly increased the standard of living in Mexico; and it has ...


International Corporate Obligations, Human Rights, And The Urbaser Standard: Breaking New Ground?, 2017 Selected Works

International Corporate Obligations, Human Rights, And The Urbaser Standard: Breaking New Ground?

Kevin Crow

The December 2016 ICSID Tribunal Award of Urbaser v. Argentina—the latest in the ISDS arbitral saga spawned by the 2001 Argentine financial crisis—has caused quite a stir amongst international human rights lawyers who speculate that the decision may signal an ‘inroad’ to hold corporations liable for human rights violations under public international law. Accordingly, this paper poses the question: What does Urbaser actually change about international arbitral practice? Or put another way, should international lawyers ‘believe the hype’? Through a hypothetical testing of the standards Urbaser sets forth (including an analysis of the mens rea standards Urbaser requires ...


The Rcep: New Asian Regionalism And The Global South, Pasha L. HSIEH 2017 Singapore Management University

The Rcep: New Asian Regionalism And The Global South, Pasha L. Hsieh

Research Collection School Of Law

This article provides an up-to-date examination of the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), which is poised to become the world’s largest free trade agreement (FTA). It argues that the 16-country mega-FTA will galvanize the paradigm shift in Asian regionalism and build a normative foundation for the Global South in international economic law. Based on intertwined theoretical and substantive claims, this article opens an inquiry into the assertive legalism of developing nations in the new regional economic order. By analyzing the converging policies of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), China and India, the article first demonstrates the status ...


A Destination-Based Cash Flow Tax Can Be Structured To Comply With World Trade Organization Rules, Itai Grinberg 2017 Georgetown University Law Center

A Destination-Based Cash Flow Tax Can Be Structured To Comply With World Trade Organization Rules, Itai Grinberg

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

This paper briefly outlines alternative approaches to enacting a destination-based cash flow tax that are more clearly compatible with the World Trade Organization rules than the approach that has previously been described in the literature. The first structural alternative involves expanding the universe of businesses subject to the tax by clearly defining both the base of the new U.S. business tax and its tax nexus requirement as domestic consumption, and thereafter treating foreign importers and other sellers equivalently, rather than imposing a deduction disallowance or an import tax. The second alternative involves adopting a business activities tax, and then ...


The Trans-Pacific Partnership: New Paradigm Or Wolf In Sheep’S Clothing? , Meredith Kolsky Lewis 2017 Selected Works

The Trans-Pacific Partnership: New Paradigm Or Wolf In Sheep’S Clothing? , Meredith Kolsky Lewis

Meredith Kolsky Lewis

The Office of the United States Trade Representative (USTR) is currently negotiating with seven other countries to form a new trade agreement called the Trans-Pacific Partnership (TPP). The TPP has the potential to expand into a Free Trade Agreement of the Asia-Pacific (FTAAP). At present there are several competing models for Asia-Pacific economic integration that exclude the United States entirely. In such an environment, the TPP presents the United States with a welcome opportunity, not only to participate, but also to take a leadership role in establishing the terms for a region-wide agreement. Nevertheless, the USTR must make the TPP ...


A Critical Evaluation Of How Free Trade Zones And Maritime Activities Impact On Port Development: A Case Study Of The Port Of Kingston, Nicolas Kareem Spence 2017 World Maritime University

A Critical Evaluation Of How Free Trade Zones And Maritime Activities Impact On Port Development: A Case Study Of The Port Of Kingston, Nicolas Kareem Spence

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


Developing Key Performance Indicators For Imo Member States In The Context Of Imo Member State Audit Scheme, Sang Ho Kim 2017 World Maritime University

Developing Key Performance Indicators For Imo Member States In The Context Of Imo Member State Audit Scheme, Sang Ho Kim

World Maritime University Dissertations

No abstract provided.


The Geopolitics Of Rare Earth Elements: Emerging Challenge For U.S. National Security And Economics, Bert Chapman 2017 Purdue University

The Geopolitics Of Rare Earth Elements: Emerging Challenge For U.S. National Security And Economics, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research

Rare earth elements (REE) contain unique chemical and physical properties such as lanthanum, are found in small concentrations, need extensive precise processes to separate, and are critical components of modern technologies such as laser guidance systems, personal electronics such as IPhones, satellites, and military weapons systems as varied as Virginia-class fast attack submarines, DDG- 51 Aegis destroyers, the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, and precision guided munitions. The U.S. has some rare earth resources, but is heavily dependent on access to them from countries as varied as Afghanistan, Bolivia, and China. Losing access to these resources would have significant adverse ...


Naftthe Road To Free Trade: Chilean Accession, James E. Etri 2017 US Securities & Exchange Commission

Naftthe Road To Free Trade: Chilean Accession, James E. Etri

Law and Business Review of the Americas

No abstract provided.


Development Of Inter-State Cooperation In The Asia Pacific Region: Considerations For Regional Trade Compacts, Yoshi Kodama 2017 Ministry of Foreign Affairs for Japan

Development Of Inter-State Cooperation In The Asia Pacific Region: Considerations For Regional Trade Compacts, Yoshi Kodama

Law and Business Review of the Americas

No abstract provided.


Geopolitics Of Rare Earth Elements, Bert Chapman 2017 Purdue University

Geopolitics Of Rare Earth Elements, Bert Chapman

Libraries Faculty and Staff Presentations

Rare earth elements (REE) contain unique chemical physical properties such as lanthamum, are found in small concentrations, need extensive precise properties to separate, and are critical components of modern technologies such as laser guidance systems, personal electronics such as IPhones, satellites, and military weapons systems as varied as Virginia-class fast attack submarines, DDG-51 Aegis destroyers, the F-35 Joint Strike Fighter, and precision guided munitions. The U.S. has some rare earth resources, but is heavily dependent on access to them from countries as varied as Afghanistan, Bolivia, and China. Losing access to these resources would have significant adverse economic, military ...


Small Sustainability Supply: How Small Business And Lean Manufacturing Can Change Supply Chains, Carlos Lopez 2017 American University Washington College of Law

Small Sustainability Supply: How Small Business And Lean Manufacturing Can Change Supply Chains, Carlos Lopez

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Benefitting From Sustainable Development, Victoria Frappaolo 2017 American University Washington College of Law

Benefitting From Sustainable Development, Victoria Frappaolo

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

No abstract provided.


Batteries Included: Incentivizing Energy Storage, Lindsay Breslau, Michael Croweak, Alan Witt 2017 American University Washington College of Law

Batteries Included: Incentivizing Energy Storage, Lindsay Breslau, Michael Croweak, Alan Witt

Sustainable Development Law & Policy

Distributed Energy Storage (“DES”) technologies that allow households and businesses to store substantial amounts of electricity on site are rapidly advancing and could soon have dramatic impacts on the nation’s electricity generation, transmission, and distribution markets. These technologies could provide numerous benefits, including enhanced energy security, grid stability, and greater support for renewable generation technologies, but several obstacles are slowing their adoption throughout the country. Among these obstacles are stubbornly high manufacturing costs and the potential impacts of DES development on utilities and the traditional energy regulatory framework. Fortunately, policymakers in California, New York, Hawaii, and some other states ...


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