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The Universality Of The Human Condition: Theorizing Transportation Inequality Claims By Persons With Disabilities In Canada, Laverne A. Jacobs 2017 University of Windsor, Faculty of Law

The Universality Of The Human Condition: Theorizing Transportation Inequality Claims By Persons With Disabilities In Canada, Laverne A. Jacobs

Laverne Jacobs

Transportation is the lifeline that connects persons with disabilities with the community, facilitating greater opportunities for work, social inclusion and overall independence. Adequate accessible transportation has long been a concern of persons with disabilities. Yet, there is a dearth of sustained research on the law and society implications of transportation inequality for persons with disabilities. This paper contributes to the research on both transportation inequality and equality theory by providing an empirical and theoretical analysis of the human rights tribunal decisions on transportation equality in Canada. In doing so, it examines the issues from the perspective of the voices of ...


Catskill Mountains Chapter Of Trout Unlimited, Inc. V. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Benjamin W. Almy 2017 Alexander Blewitt III School of Law at the University of Montana

Catskill Mountains Chapter Of Trout Unlimited, Inc. V. United States Environmental Protection Agency, Benjamin W. Almy

Public Land and Resources Law Review

Trout Unlimited’s effort to overturn the EPA’s Water Transfers Rule was stifled by the Second Circuit. The court’s comprehensive Chevron analysis determined that while the NPDES Water Transfers Rule may be at odds with the Clean Water Act’s mission, it was based on a reasonable interpretation of the statute’s ambiguous language, and therefore it did not violate the Administrative Procedures Act.


Hastening Harmonization In European Union Patent Law Through A Preliminary Reference Power, Joseph Kenneth Yarsky 2017 Boston College Law School

Hastening Harmonization In European Union Patent Law Through A Preliminary Reference Power, Joseph Kenneth Yarsky

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

The European Union has struggled for decades to establish a streamlined method of uniform patent protection. Its current solution involves both a European Patent of Unitary Effect and the implementation of the Unified Patent Court to adjudicate patent claims. The current proposal, however, does not eliminate the two other routes to patent protection that currently exist: national patent grants and classical European patents. The existence of three possible routes to patent protection could lead to increased fragmentation in the way patents are interpreted across the European Union. Creating a more unified system entails both ensuring that the substantive patent law ...


Integrating Indigenous Rights Into Multilateral Environmental Agreements: The International Whaling Commission And Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling, Chris Wold 2017 Lewis & Clark Law School

Integrating Indigenous Rights Into Multilateral Environmental Agreements: The International Whaling Commission And Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling, Chris Wold

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

Although the international community has addressed whether environmental harm violates human rights norms, only recently has it asked whether international organizations must implement those norms. That changed when Greenland posited that the International Whaling Commission (IWC) has a duty to implement aboriginal subsistence whaling (ASW) in light of customary international human rights norms, including the rights to cultural identity and resources. This article explains why international organizations have an obligation to implement customary international human rights law. Implementation, however, may be challenging because the content of some rights is not clear. In addition, these rights are not absolute. Actions may ...


Food Date Labels And Hunger In America, Gwen B. Thomson 2017 Concordia University School of Law

Food Date Labels And Hunger In America, Gwen B. Thomson

Concordia Law Review

Millions of Americans go hungry, while 40% of the food in the United States is wasted. Research has shown that 43% of the waste occurs in homes and that consumers are making decisions about purchasing and throwing away food without understanding the meaning of the food date labels. One of the most cost-effective ways to begin to effect a change is to eliminate the myriad of confusing food date labels so that individuals do not throw away good food. In May 2016, the Food Date Labeling Act of 2016 was proposed in both houses of Congress. This bicameral bill was ...


Choosing Your Ground On The Endangered Species Act: How Do The Ninth, Tenth, And District Of Columbia Circuit Courts Of Appeal Evaluate Water Management Decisions Made By Federal Water Agencies?, Michael Kinsey 2017 Pace University

Choosing Your Ground On The Endangered Species Act: How Do The Ninth, Tenth, And District Of Columbia Circuit Courts Of Appeal Evaluate Water Management Decisions Made By Federal Water Agencies?, Michael Kinsey

Pace Environmental Law Review

The purpose of this article is twofold. First, federal agencies are responsible for the development and implementation of ESA documents, and knowing what a court will look for and at when that document is challenged can help the agencies to develop a document that can better survive court review. Second, a plaintiff who challenges such a document can benefit from that same knowledge, by knowing which elements of the document to best challenge. The intent of this article is to provide practitioners, both agency and non-, with an introduction to that knowledge, to identify some of those difficulties, dangers, and ...


“Hurdling” Gender Identity Discrimination: The Implications Of State Participation Policies On Transgender Youth Athletes’ Ability To Thrive, Kayla L. Acklin 2017 Boston College Law School

“Hurdling” Gender Identity Discrimination: The Implications Of State Participation Policies On Transgender Youth Athletes’ Ability To Thrive, Kayla L. Acklin

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

The number of students, in grades kindergarten through high school, who identify as transgender has steadily increased during the last decade. These students seek the same opportunities as their cisgender peers, but are often denied participation in athletic activities because of their non-conforming gender-behavior. Currently, there is no federal law governing transgender participation in sports, which has resulted in an inconsistency among state athletic associations’ participation policies; the vast majority of states restricts participation. These states are limiting transgender students’ ability to receive the benefits that sports provide. To solve this inconsistency and provide equal opportunity for transgender students, this ...


Unsafe Harbor: The European Union's Demand For Heightened Data Privacy Standards In Schrems V. Irish Data Protection Commissioner, Christina Lam 2017 Boston College Law School

Unsafe Harbor: The European Union's Demand For Heightened Data Privacy Standards In Schrems V. Irish Data Protection Commissioner, Christina Lam

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

In 1995, the European Union adopted the Data Protection Directive to govern the processing, use, and exchange of personal data. The United States refused to enact similar legislation, consequently jeopardizing ongoing and future data transfers with the European Union. To prevent economic catastrophe, the United States negotiated with the European Union to reach the Safe Harbor Agreement and, on July 26, 2000, the European Commission formally recognized the agreement as compliant with the Data Protection Directive in its Safe Harbor Decision. In 2013, U.S. data protection standards were once again placed under the microscope when Edward Snowden leaked information ...


Obesity Prevention Policies At The Local Level: Tobacco's Lessons, Paul A. Diller 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Obesity Prevention Policies At The Local Level: Tobacco's Lessons, Paul A. Diller

Maine Law Review

For at least a decade, commentators have speculated that obesity is the next tobacco, a public health scourge that might nonetheless offer a gold mine to ambitious plaintiffs’ lawyers. Successful lawsuits, as in the tobacco context, might spur the food industry to reform its practices so as to help reduce the alarmingly high national obesity rate. The obesity narrative, however, has not played out accordingly to the same script as tobacco. Relatively quick action by most state legislatures immunized the food industry to tort lawsuits seeking obesity-related damages, and the scant judicial opinions on the issue have skeptically assessed plaintiffs ...


Fuhrmann V. Staples Office Superstore East, Inc.: A Split In The Law Court As To The Definition Of "Employer" Demonstrates The Need For Legislative Action To Amend The Maine Human Rights Act In Order To Protect Maine Employees, Stephen B. Segal 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Fuhrmann V. Staples Office Superstore East, Inc.: A Split In The Law Court As To The Definition Of "Employer" Demonstrates The Need For Legislative Action To Amend The Maine Human Rights Act In Order To Protect Maine Employees, Stephen B. Segal

Maine Law Review

In Fuhrmann v. Staples Office Superstore East, Inc., Jamie Fuhrmann submitted a complaint to the Maine Human Rights Commission (Commission) against her former employer, Staples Office Superstore East, Inc. (Staples), and four of her individual supervisors. After the Commission granted her right to sue, she filed a complaint in court alleging whistleblower retaliation under the Whistleblowers’ Protection Act (WPA) and the Maine Human Rights Act (MHRA), as well as sex discrimination under the MHRA. The Superior Court granted Staples’ motion for summary judgment on all counts, and granted the four supervisors’ motions to dismiss on the grounds that individual supervisor ...


Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition V. Fola Coal Company, Llc, Emily A. Slike 2017 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Ohio Valley Environmental Coalition V. Fola Coal Company, Llc, Emily A. Slike

Public Land and Resources Law Review

Disregarding CWA regulations, WVDEP allowed for a state coal mining company, Fola, to discharge pollutants into the Stillhouse Branch without regard for water quality violations. Fola claimed that because it held a WV/NPDES permit, it was shielded from any liability so long as the company followed the permit’s provisions, even if its discharge violated CWA water quality standards.


Hawkes Co. V. United States Army Corps Of Engineers, Sarah M. Danno 2017 University of Montana School of Law

Hawkes Co. V. United States Army Corps Of Engineers, Sarah M. Danno

Public Land and Resources Law Review

A peat mining company will not be required to obtain a permit under the Clean Water Act to discharge dredged and fill material into wetlands. The United States District Court for the District of Minnesota held that the United States Army Corps of Engineers fell short in its attempts to establish jurisdiction over the wetlands by twice failing to show a significant nexus existed between the wetlands and navigable waters. Further, the district court enjoined the Corps from asserting jurisdiction a third time because it would force the mining company through a “never ending loop” of administrative law.


Willful Blindness Or Deliberate Indifference: The United States' Abdication Of Legal Responsibility To Refugees, Abed A. Ayoub, Yolanda C. Rondon 2017 Barry University School of Law

Willful Blindness Or Deliberate Indifference: The United States' Abdication Of Legal Responsibility To Refugees, Abed A. Ayoub, Yolanda C. Rondon

Barry Law Review

No abstract provided.


Pepperdine University School Of Law Legal Summaries, Jee (Jane) Seo 2017 Pepperdine University

Pepperdine University School Of Law Legal Summaries, Jee (Jane) Seo

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Farmers Plead The Fifth: Is The Plea Against The Mandate To Reserve Raisins In Horne V. Department Of Agriculture Legitimate?, Jee (Jane) Seo 2017 Pepperdine University

Farmers Plead The Fifth: Is The Plea Against The Mandate To Reserve Raisins In Horne V. Department Of Agriculture Legitimate?, Jee (Jane) Seo

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

This note addresses the relevant issues and arguments that are presented in Horne. Part II presents the historical background of the RAC, the Takings Clause of the U.S. Constitution's Fifth Amendment, and other relevant information surrounding the Raisin Administrative Committee marketing order. Part III focuses on the facts of Horne, and Part IV discusses the procedural history of the case. The majority, concurring, and dissenting opinions are analyzed in Part V. The impact of Horne is presented in Part VI, followed by concluding thoughts on Horne in Part VII.


The Administrative State: Problems Associated With Congressional Intent, Statutory Interpretation, And The Powers Granted To Administrative Agencies, Serje Havandjian 2017 Pepperdine University

The Administrative State: Problems Associated With Congressional Intent, Statutory Interpretation, And The Powers Granted To Administrative Agencies, Serje Havandjian

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

While reading this article, two questions should be kept in mind: (1) why the Court held that the TSA promulgated whistleblowing regulation was not considered to have the force and effect of law, and how that effects other regulations, and (2) how should the Supreme Court respond if a conflict of congressional intent and statutory interpretation arises within another regulatory or administrative agency's internal scheme for regulating such issues? With a careful analysis of statutory interpretation and determining congressional intent, and some luck, this article will try to answer these questions. Ultimately, what we will find is that although ...


Modernizing Illinois State Government: Transcript Of Press Conference Announcing Creation Of A Central Panel And Copy Of Executive Order, Bruce Rauner 2017 Pepperdine University

Modernizing Illinois State Government: Transcript Of Press Conference Announcing Creation Of A Central Panel And Copy Of Executive Order, Bruce Rauner

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


The Rowley Enigma: How Much Weight Is Due To Idea State Administrative Proceedings In Federal Court?, Daniel W. Morton-Bentley 2017 Pepperdine University

The Rowley Enigma: How Much Weight Is Due To Idea State Administrative Proceedings In Federal Court?, Daniel W. Morton-Bentley

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

In this article, I argue that the phrase "due weight" incorporates a deferential review standard equivalent to the clear error or substantial evidence standard, a conclusion reached by a minority of the circuit courts of appeal. I further argue that, consistent with Rowley, federal courts must afford due weight to administrative officers' substantive or educational conclusions, but no weight to their procedural or non-educational conclusions. Part II offers a general outline of the IDEA, giving special attention to its judicial review provisions. In Part III, I provide a general discussion of judicial review of administrative adjudication. Part IV is devoted ...


Sturgeon V. Frost: A Limited Holding Reveals An Environmentally Hesitant Post-Scalia Court, Michael O'Loughlin 2017 Boston College Law School

Sturgeon V. Frost: A Limited Holding Reveals An Environmentally Hesitant Post-Scalia Court, Michael O'Loughlin

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

The first environmental case before the United States Supreme Court after the death of Justice Antonin Scalia, Sturgeon v. Frost, involved the National Park Service’s authority to regulate hovercraft use over a segment of river running through lands under its authority pursuant to the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. The plaintiff sought to show that the State held title to navigable waters within the State, and that, therefore, the National Park Service did not have authority to enforce its regulation. The parties invoked precedent and argued for textual analysis of the at-issue statute, but the United States Court ...


An Examination Of New York’S Martin Act As A Tool To Combat Climate Change, Ashley Poon 2017 Boston College Law School

An Examination Of New York’S Martin Act As A Tool To Combat Climate Change, Ashley Poon

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

Environmental statutes and regulations in the United States have largely failed to comprehensively control the human activities that cause climate change. This Note examines a novel approach to the matter in the form of an investigation led by New York Attorney General Eric Schneiderman to discover how ExxonMobil incorporates its climate change research into its corporate governance, accounting, and business planning. Schneiderman’s investigation relies on the New York securities fraud statute, the Martin Act, to determine if the company has internally reached one conclusion about climate change in its research while promoting another to investors. ExxonMobil initially cooperated with ...


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