Explaining Comparative Administrative Law: The Standing Of Positive Political Theory, Minhao Benjamin Chen, Zhiyu Li
Minhao Benjamin Chen
Courts may function as “fire alarms” within a principal-agent framework that sees bureaucrats as imperfectly supervised servants of their political masters. In this paper, we compare how the class of plaintiffs authorized to bring suit against governmental bodies has been defined in three countries in which we would expect to find significant barriers to administrative litigation – the People’s Republic of China, Japan, and Singapore. Although these three Asian countries have traditionally been one-party dominated states, we do observe substantial differences in how legislatures and courts have answered the question of standing over time. It is possible to explain these ...
How King V. Burwell Creates Tax Problems For Consumers And What The Treasury Can Do About It, 2015 University of Iowa College of Law
How King V. Burwell Creates Tax Problems For Consumers And What The Treasury Can Do About It, Andy Grewal
Commentators have expressed concern that a government loss in King v. Burwell, which addresses whether taxpayers can enjoy tax credits for policies purchased on federal health care exchanges, will lead to a "death spiral" during future enrollment seasons.
However, this discussion threatens to mask the potential tax problems facing persons who purchase policies this enrollment season. As this short article explains, purchasers may be faced with a surprising tax bill when they complete their 2015 tax returns. Additionally, the government has argued that it can protect customers from surprise tax bills, but it's authority to do so is far ...
Federal Clean Air Act Preemption Of Public Nuisance Claims: The Case For Supreme Court Resolution, 2015 George Mason Univeristy School of Law
Federal Clean Air Act Preemption Of Public Nuisance Claims: The Case For Supreme Court Resolution, Richard O. Faulk
The current circuit-by-circuit and state-by-state approach to the question of preemption precludes any uniform standards for environmental compliance and enforcement, and also vitiates any reliable basis for capital investment, expanded operations, and workforce stability. Because Congress enacted the CAA to promote those goals—as well as jobs and a healthy economy—delaying review prolongs the uncertainty and intensifies the dilemma facing not only the courts, but also the regulated community.
Comments On Public Lands: Title Transfer Proposals, 2015 University of Colorado Law School
Comments On Public Lands: Title Transfer Proposals, Chuck Howe
Challenging Federal Ownership and Management: Public Lands and Public Benefits (October 11-13)
Dilution At The Patent And Trademark Office, 2015 St. John's University
Dilution At The Patent And Trademark Office, Jeremy N. Sheff
Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review
This Article undertakes the first systematic investigation of trademark dilution in registration practice before the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). The Article consists of three distinct descriptive empirical analyses. In the first, I present a new hand-coded dataset of all 453 Trademark Trial and Appeal Board (TTAB) dispositions of dilution claims through June 30, 2014, and report that dilution has been necessary to the PTO’s refusal of exactly three registrations in over a decade. In the second part, I apply algorithmic coding of the recently released PTO Casefiles Dataset to demonstrate that concurrent registration of identical marks to ...
Zoning As Taxidermy: Neighborhood Conservation Districts And The Regulation Of Aesthetics, Anika S. Lemar
Indiana Law Journal
Over the last thirty years, municipalities across the country have embraced neighborhood conservation districts, regulations that impose design standards at the neighborhood level. Despite their adoption in thirty-five states, in municipalities from Boise to Cambridge, neighborhood conservation districts have evaded critical analysis by legal scholars. By regulating features such as architectural style, roof angle, and maximum eave overhang, conservation districts purport to protect “neighborhood character” or “cultural stability.” Implicit in these regulations is the unsupported assumption that the essential feature of a neighborhood’s character is its architectural design at a single point in time. The unfortunate result is zoning ...
Why Does A Powerful Regulatory Regime Fail? An Examination Of The Regulation Of Prepaid Cards In China, Pan Su
Based on in-depth interviews and news materials, this article examines why there is a regulatory failure in China’s regulation of prepaid cards: the regulation has not served for public interests and the compliance level is low. In Western scholarship, several theories have been raised to explain regulatory failure. The most influential theory is regulatory capture, which means that regulatory agencies have been captured by the industries and serve primarily for the industries’ benefit rather than public interests. Compared to Western countries, China, as a non-democratic state, has a different regulatory regime and provides a new perspective for regulatory failure ...
“Not Reasonably Debatable”: The Problems With Single-Judge Decisions By The Court Of Appeals For Veterans Claims, 2015 George Washington University
“Not Reasonably Debatable”: The Problems With Single-Judge Decisions By The Court Of Appeals For Veterans Claims, James Ridgway
James D. Ridgway
The U.S. Court of Appeals for Veterans Claims (CAVC) has statutory authority—unique among the federal appellate courts—to allow individual judges to decide appeals. As the CAVC completes the first quarter century of operations since its creation, this article examines the court’s use of this authority. Based upon two years of data developed and analyzed by the authors, this article concludes that outcome variance in single-judge decisions is a serious problem at the CAVC. Not only is there a substantial difference in the outcomes of appeals assigned to the different judges, but there are clear examples of ...
Regulation Of Chemical Risks: Lessons For Reform Of The Toxic Substances Control Act From Canada And The European Union, Adam D.K. Abelkop, John D. Graham
Pace Environmental Law Review
The purpose of this Article is to compare the regulatory systems in Canada and the EU, and use comparative insights to draw some lessons that may be of interest to U.S. policy makers engaged in TSCA reform. CEPA and REACH are seen by stakeholders as state of the art in chemicals assessment and management, and thus the U.S. may draw useful insights from them. Indeed, the European Union and Canada have each been urging other countries to join in a globalization of the REACH or Canadian programs, respectively. Regardless of what TSCA reformers choose to learn from the ...
Western Watersheds Project V. Jewell, 2015 Alexander Blewett III School of at the Law University of Montana
Western Watersheds Project V. Jewell, Hannah S. Cail
Public Land and Resources Law Review
The Idaho District Court granted WWP’s motion for summary judgment and denied those of the BLM and intervener Cattle Associations. WWP alleged the BLM failed to protect sage grouse in some 600 grazing permit decisions issued by the Burley Field Office. The court found the decisions insufficient under NEPA because the BLM did not consider the cumulative impacts of grazing permit renewals on sage grouse.
Transatlantic Perspective On Judicial Deference In Administrative Law, 2015 University of Warsaw
Transatlantic Perspective On Judicial Deference In Administrative Law, Maciej Bernatt
The U.S. concept of judicial deference in administrative law limits the scope of judicial review of administrative agencies’ actions in the light of agencies’ superior expertise and separation of powers arguments. It may serve as an interesting point of reference for the European discussion about adequate institutional balance between administration and courts.
The paper analyzes whether there are grounds for the validity of the concept of judicial deference in Continental Europe and in what areas (law, facts or both). As a starting point it is observed that it remains generally accepted in Europe that it is a role of ...
Underground Environmental Regulations: Regulations Imposed As Mitigation Measures Under Ceqa Violate The California Administrative Procedure Act, Jonathan Wood
What happens when an agency adopts a regulation under the California Environmental Quality Act as mitigation for a program’s environmental impact, without complying with the procedural requirements of the California Administrative Procedure Act? According to a recent California Court of Appeal decision – Center for Biological Diversity v. Department of Fish and Wildlife – these mitigation measures, which this article refers to as underground environmental regulations, are invalid. This article defends that interpretation and addresses its consequences for agencies and the regulated public. Although these additional procedural protections benefit regulated parties in a variety of ways, they can also burden them ...
Evolving Contours Of Immigration Federalism: The Case Of Migrant Children, 2015 University of Baltimore School of Law
Evolving Contours Of Immigration Federalism: The Case Of Migrant Children, Elizabeth Keyes
In a unique corner of immigration law, a significant reallocation of power over immigration has been occurring with little fanfare. States play a dramatic immigration gatekeeping role in the process for providing protection to immigrant youth, like many of the Central American children who sought entry to the United States in the 2014 border “surge.” This article closely examines the history of this Special Immigrant Juvenile Status provision, enacted in 1990, which authorized a vital state role in providing access to an immigration benefit. The article traces the series of shifts in allocation of power between the federal government and ...
The Privacy Dilemma In Digital Arrestee Mug Shots Under The Foia 7(C) And State And Local Policy Recommendations, 2015 University of Illinois College of Law
The Privacy Dilemma In Digital Arrestee Mug Shots Under The Foia 7(C) And State And Local Policy Recommendations, Ahad Syed
This Article examines the purpose and interpretation by courts of Freedom of Information Act’s 7(C) Exemption. Specifically, the Article sets out to unravel the current federal circuit court split over Exemption 7(C) by examining its application to the digital privacy dilemma as applied to arrestee photographs, commonly known as “mug shots.” Automated data-scraping programs continuously scour the internet, reaping, replicating, and reposting photographs of arrestees who may or may not have had charges dismissed in order to shame them into paying website owners for removal. While other commentators have argued for state law penalizing pay-to-remove mug shot ...
University Technology Transfer - Profit Centers Or Black Holes: Moving Toward A More Productive University Innovation Ecosystem Policy, 2015 University of Tennessee - Knoxville
University Technology Transfer - Profit Centers Or Black Holes: Moving Toward A More Productive University Innovation Ecosystem Policy, Brian K. Krumm
Brian K Krumm
A great deal has been written over the years commenting on the strengths and weaknesses of the current system by which federal research funding has not produced the ideal results in terms of commercialization of inventions which are developed from such funding. The Bayh-Doyle Act was enacted in an attempt to provide a single uniform national policy which would cut through the government bureaucracy and encourage collaboration between universities and private industry to ensure that federally funded, commercially viable inventions were brought to market in an efficient manner. The question remains however, with the myriad of competing political and economic ...
Take It To The Limit: The Illegal Regulation Prohibiting The Take Of Any Threatened Species Under The Endangered Species Act, 2015 Pacific Legal Foundation
Take It To The Limit: The Illegal Regulation Prohibiting The Take Of Any Threatened Species Under The Endangered Species Act, Jonathan Wood
The Endangered Species Act forbids the “take” – any activity that adversely affects – any member of an endangered species, but only endangered species. The statute also provides for the listing of threatened species, i.e. species that may become endangered, but protects them only by requiring agencies to consider the impacts of their projects on them. Shortly after the statute was adopted, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and National Marine Fisheries Service reversed Congress’ policy choice by adopting a regulation that forbids the take of any threatened species. The regulation is not authorized by the Endangered Species Act, but ...
Democratizing Startups, 2015 Illinois Institute of Technology
Democratizing Startups, Seth C. Oranburg
Seth C Oranburg
The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 intends to “help entrepreneurs raise the capital they need to put Americans back to work and create an economy that’s built to last.” The goal is to “democratize startups” by making capital available to diverse entrepreneurs in new geographies. Yet the net effect of securities regulations and market conditions is the opposite. Startup companies are encouraged to stay private so capital is consolidating in large, mature firms instead of recycling into new startups. Evidence of consolidation is that once-rare “Unicorns” (billion-dollar startups) now number over 111. More money is going into ...
High Country Conservation Advocates V. United States Forest Service, 52 F. Supp. 3d 1174 (D. Colo. 2014), 2015 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana
High Country Conservation Advocates V. United States Forest Service, 52 F. Supp. 3d 1174 (D. Colo. 2014), Kathryn S. Ore
Public Land and Resources Law Review
High Country Conservation Advocates v. United States Forest Service concerns the United States Forest Service’s and the Bureau of Land Management’s authorizations of on-the-ground mining exploration activities in the Sunset Roadless Area of western Colorado. The United States District Court for the District of Colorado’s holding has far-reaching consequences for federal agencies’ analysis and disclosure of impacts on the climate under the National Environmental Policy Act (“NEPA”). In addition to bolstering the Plaintiffs’ recent successes at establishing legal standing to challenge federal agencies’ disclosures and analyses of impacts on the climate under NEPA, High Country is the ...
Millennial Pivot: Sustainability-Purposed Performance Zoning Guidelines In Urban Commercial Development, 2015 Arizona Summit Law School
Millennial Pivot: Sustainability-Purposed Performance Zoning Guidelines In Urban Commercial Development, Michael N. Widener
Michael N Widener
This paper argues that economic competitiveness requires cities and towns to reimagine their zoning regulations, leveraging technology advances to address challenges revealed by demands for sustainability in building urban projects. The optimal means to accomplish this is to use performance zoning, a method encouraging creative solutions to problems caused by increasing development densities. Performance zoning consists of a series of standards addressing specific sub-optimal neighborhood or community impacts of commercial development; these standards can be negative or positive expressions of municipal goals for sustainability and environmental justice. Pivoting to performance zoning is desirable because the development community has a firmer ...
How Are Law Enforcement Efforts To Address Mental Illness Changing The Path To Incarceration?, 2015 Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
How Are Law Enforcement Efforts To Address Mental Illness Changing The Path To Incarceration?, D'Andre Devon Lampkin
D'Andre Devon Lampkin
The purpose of this research project is the introduce readers to how law enforcement agencies across the United States are addressing mental illness and improving response to incidents involving subjects with mental illnesses. The paper also discusses training, and the collaborations taking place between mental health professionals and policing agencies wanting to combine judicial supervision with community based mental health treatment.