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12,369 full-text articles. Page 1 of 208.

How Context Shapes The Authority Of International Courts, Karen J. Alter, Laurence R. Helfer, Mikael Rask Madsen 2016 Duke Law School

How Context Shapes The Authority Of International Courts, Karen J. Alter, Laurence R. Helfer, Mikael Rask Madsen

Faculty Scholarship

This article provides a novel and provocative framework to assess the varied authority of international courts (ICs). We generate practicable metric that assesses de facto IC authority according to a conjunctive standard — the recognition of an obligation to comply with IC rulings, and the engagement in meaningful actions that push toward giving full effect to IC rulings. We then identify five possible types of IC authority — no authority in fact, narrow, intermediate, extensive, and public authority — that correspond to the different audiences for IC rulings. The goal of this metric is to help the contributors to a symposium on ICs ...


The Process Of International Law-Making: The Relationship Between The International Court Of Justice And The International Law Commission, Marija Dordeska 2015 George Washington University Law School

The Process Of International Law-Making: The Relationship Between The International Court Of Justice And The International Law Commission, Marija Dordeska

Marija Dordeska

When the International Court of Justice (ICJ) resolves disputes between States, it relies on various draft articles of the International Law Commission (ILC), sometimes declaring them to be customary international law. The ICJ thereby elevates some draft articles into the sphere of customary international law, transforming them into instruments binding for the international community as a whole. However, the ICJ tends to rely on the ILC’s work only when the ILC bases its findings on ICJ or Permanent Court of International Justice’s precedents. As an alternative method of international law-making, the relationship between the ICJ and the ILC ...


Agenda: Innovations In Managing Western Water: New Approaches For Balancing Environmental, Social, And Economic Outcomes, University of Colorado Boulder. Getches Wilkinson Center for Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment 2015 University of Colorado Law School

Agenda: Innovations In Managing Western Water: New Approaches For Balancing Environmental, Social, And Economic Outcomes, University Of Colorado Boulder. Getches Wilkinson Center For Natural Resources, Energy, And The Environment

Innovations in Managing Western Water: New Approaches for Balancing Environmental, Social and Economic Outcomes (Martz Summer Conference, June 11-12)

Many aspects of western water allocation and management are the product of independent and uncoordinated actions, several occurring a century or more ago. However, in this modern era of water scarcity, it is increasingly acknowledged that more coordinated and deliberate decision-making is necessary for effectively balancing environmental, social, and economic objectives. In recent years, a variety of forums, processes, and tools have emerged to better manage the connections between regions, sectors, and publics linked by shared water systems. In this event, we explore the cutting edge efforts, the latest points of contention, and the opportunities for further progress.


The Meaning Of The Responsibility To Protect: An Analysis Of The R2p Principle In International Law, 2001-2013, Muditha Halliyadde 2015 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

The Meaning Of The Responsibility To Protect: An Analysis Of The R2p Principle In International Law, 2001-2013, Muditha Halliyadde

Theses and Dissertations

The thesis analyzes the first decade of experience with the principle of the responsibility to protect (R2P), in order to evaluate the status of the R2P principle in contemporary international law. The R2P principle is an important topic because its meaning, as well as its effect, continues to be debated in international law. The thesis examines state practice within the United Nations and beyond after the articulation of the R2P principle in 2001. The analysis includes detailed case studies relevant to R2P: Darfur, Libya, Côte d’Ivoire and Syria. The thesis argues that the R2P principle has not significantly changed ...


Wink, Wink, Nudge Judge: Persuading U.S. Courts To Take Accountants Seriously In Federal Securities Cases With Help From The U.K. Companies Act, Kurt S. Schulzke 2015 Kennesaw State University

Wink, Wink, Nudge Judge: Persuading U.S. Courts To Take Accountants Seriously In Federal Securities Cases With Help From The U.K. Companies Act, Kurt S. Schulzke

Kurt S. Schulzke

The 2008 collapse of Lehman Brothers reopened wounds many thought were healed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) in 2002. The Lehman litigation finally ended in late 2013 with audit firm Ernst & Young paying $99 million to investors who claimed the firm misled them with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and other defendants, including banks, officers, and directors, paying out more than $500 million. The bright line standards of GAAP and SOX were obviously not enough to protect Lehman plaintiffs or defendants. Why not? The 2006 fraud trial of Enron CEO Jeffrey Skilling offers clues. When asked at trial whether U ...


International Law In Antiquity, Caique Tomaz Leite da Silva, João Paulo de Almeida Lenardon 2015 University of Coimbra

International Law In Antiquity, Caique Tomaz Leite Da Silva, João Paulo De Almeida Lenardon

Caique Tomaz Leite da Silva

International law binds the construction of its classical paradigm to the Peace Treaties of Westphalia (1648). However, we can find numerous institutes related to international relations in antiquity. In the Middle East, Greece and Rome, treaties were celebrated with expected penalties in case of noncompliance, the wars were limited and diplomatic relations with other people were object of high political concern. Diplomacy and alliances between peoples obeyed some guidelines that had solidified long before the Westphalian paradigm. It was also found indications that parity between the peoples and “balance of power”, usually associated with Jean Bodin’s work, has directed ...


Demanding Individual Rights And Civil Liberties: An Iranian Approach, Zahra Takhshid 2015 George Washington University Law School (Student)

Demanding Individual Rights And Civil Liberties: An Iranian Approach, Zahra Takhshid

Zahra Takhshid

Iran has a long history of social movements and revolutions. The 1906 Constitutional Revolution led to the recognition of individual rights as part of Iran’s first Constitution. With the Islamic Revolution of 1979, a new constitution was enacted, which devoted one chapter to “the Rights of the Nation.”

The Constitution has introduced several methods to protect the recognized rights: the Guardian Council, the Tribunal of Administrative Justice, and the Commission of Article 90.

In addition to the institutions introduced in the Constitution, the Legislature and the Executive branch proposed new safeguarding procedures and adopted new statutes, which recognized broader ...


Traditional Knowledge Rights And Wrongs, Sean Pager 2015 Michigan State University College of Law

Traditional Knowledge Rights And Wrongs, Sean Pager

Sean Pager

Should the intangible heritage of indigenous cultures be subject to intellectual property rights? After years of effort, international delegates are poised to complete a pair of ambitious treaties that would accomplish this goal. This Article provides the first detailed analysis and critique of the draft treaties, which provide for exclusive rights in traditional knowledge and cultural expression, respectively. Proponents of such protection often invoke both cultural integrity and economic justice rationales. Yet, these rationales dictate conflicting imperatives. To resolve these conflicts, the Article argues for greater differentiation between the two draft treaties based on subject matter. Just as copyright and ...


Hardship: A Remedy For Changed Circumstances In International Commercial Contracts, Raul Henrique Pereira de Souza Fleury 2015 American University Washington College of Law

Hardship: A Remedy For Changed Circumstances In International Commercial Contracts, Raul Henrique Pereira De Souza Fleury

Raul Henrique Pereira de Souza Fleury

Long-term commercial transactions can transform into an agreement far different than the anticipated by the parties due to unforeseeable circumstances. In the international field such possibility is greater. This places a hard burden to business persons around the globe, since their mutual purpose is to see their business transaction achieve its goal. In trying to assess and manage the potential negative effects of changed circumstances, international business practice had developed the hardship clause. This article focus on the historical origin and development of the hardship clause, its requirements, the adoption of similar remedies by domestic legislation, and how it has ...


Regulating Jolly Roger: The Existing And Developing Law Governing The Classification Of Underwater Cultural Heritage As "Pirate-Flagged", Peter Hershey 2015 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Regulating Jolly Roger: The Existing And Developing Law Governing The Classification Of Underwater Cultural Heritage As "Pirate-Flagged", Peter Hershey

University of Massachusetts Law Review

This article explores the existing law governing Underwater Cultural Heritage (UCH) which is classified as “pirate-flagged.” First, this article discusses the discovery of the Whydah Galley, an 18th century slave trader vessel, which was captured by pirate Captain Samuel Bellamy and transformed into the flagship of his pirate fleet, and the subsequent discoveries of additional “pirate-flagged” shipwrecks, including the international regulatory scheme governing ownership of the property on these sunken vessels. This article discusses both 20th century international conventions which define piracy and historic case law which clarifies these definitions. Then, the article analyzes both the early American and contemporary ...


The Elephant In The Room, Troy B. Albert 2015 Lewis & Clark Law School

The Elephant In The Room, Troy B. Albert

Troy B Albert

Every 15 minutes, a poacher kills an elephant for its ivory. If this rate continues, the African elephant could become extinct in 20 years. Although federal law has strictly regulated the ivory market for several decades, the United States remains one of the largest markets for illegal wildlife products in the world. Because there are little to no enforcement mechanisms or verification processes by which to definitively distinguish legal from illegal ivory after reaching domestic markets, illegal ivory is easily mixed in with legal stocks. New regulations have been promulgated but are they enough?


The Commander In Chief's Authority To Combat Climate Change, Mark P. Nevitt 2015 SelectedWorks

The Commander In Chief's Authority To Combat Climate Change, Mark P. Nevitt

Mark P Nevitt

Climate change is the world’s greatest environmental threat. It also is increasingly understood as a threat to domestic and international peace and security. In recognition of this threat, the President has taken the initiative to prepare for climate change’s impact – in some cases drawing sharp objections from Congress. While both the President and Congress have constitutional authorities to address the national security threat posed by climate change, the precise contours of their overlapping powers are not clear. As Commander in Chief, the President has the constitutional authority to repel sudden attacks and take care that the laws are ...


International Law - Employment Discrimination. Japanese Corporation Formed Under United States Law Must Comply With Terms Of Title Vii Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964. Avagliano V. Sumitumo Shoji America, Inc., - U.S. -, 102 S. Ct. 2374 (1982)., Henry Cyrus 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

International Law - Employment Discrimination. Japanese Corporation Formed Under United States Law Must Comply With Terms Of Title Vii Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964. Avagliano V. Sumitumo Shoji America, Inc., - U.S. -, 102 S. Ct. 2374 (1982)., Henry Cyrus

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


United States - Mexican Relations - 1981 Convention For Recovery And Return Of Stolen Vehicles And Aircraft - Agreement Replaces 1936 Convention And Clarifies Process For Recovery Of Stolen Vehicles, J. Kennard Neal 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

United States - Mexican Relations - 1981 Convention For Recovery And Return Of Stolen Vehicles And Aircraft - Agreement Replaces 1936 Convention And Clarifies Process For Recovery Of Stolen Vehicles, J. Kennard Neal

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


International Liability And Primary Rules Of Obligation: An Application To Acid Rain In The United States And Canada, John B. Lyle 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

International Liability And Primary Rules Of Obligation: An Application To Acid Rain In The United States And Canada, John B. Lyle

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


International Copyright: Domestic Barriers To United States Participation In The Rome Convention On Neighboring Rights, Eric T. Johnson 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

International Copyright: Domestic Barriers To United States Participation In The Rome Convention On Neighboring Rights, Eric T. Johnson

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


From The Shoals Of Ras Kaboudia To The Shores Of Tripoli: The Tunisia/Libya Continental Shelf Boundary Delimitation, Donna R. Christie 2015 Florida State University

From The Shoals Of Ras Kaboudia To The Shores Of Tripoli: The Tunisia/Libya Continental Shelf Boundary Delimitation, Donna R. Christie

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Unchecked Political Question Doctrine: Judicial Ethics At The Dawn Of A Second Nuclear Arms Race, Daniel T. Rust 2015 Vermont Law School

Unchecked Political Question Doctrine: Judicial Ethics At The Dawn Of A Second Nuclear Arms Race, Daniel T. Rust

Daniel T Rust

This paper examines The Republic of the Marshall Islands v. The United States of America et al., the grounds for its dismissal, and recommendations for how it should be appealed and ultimately judged. The Marshall Islands sued alleging noncompliance with the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), seeking declaratory and injunctive relief. At issue are concepts of legality and ethics behind the “Political Question Doctrine” defense that the United States provides, in addition to whether or not the Marshall Islands has standing. When noncompliance with a valid, legal treaty causes real harm, Political Question Doctrine should not be allowed to the extent ...


Shared Responsibility Regulation Model For Cross-Border Reproductive Transactions, Sharon Bassan 2015 Tel Aviv University

Shared Responsibility Regulation Model For Cross-Border Reproductive Transactions, Sharon Bassan

Sharon Bassan

The term “cross-border reproductive transactions” refers to the phenomenon of tens of thousands of people who travel from one country to another to purchase reproductive services, in order to have a child. The foci of this paper are the lion share of cross-border reproductive transactions, specifically between consumers, i.e., intended parents from affluent countries, and suppliers of reproductive services, egg sellers and surrogate mothers, the majority of whom are from lower middle-income countries. Strong concerns regarding the morality of consumers’ states’ policy arise when a country nationally restricts or bans commercial surrogacy, while accepting the results of cross-border reproductive ...


Verboten: Forbidden Homeschooling In Germany And Its Conflict With International Religious Freedom., Jacob A. Aschmutat 2015 Emory University

Verboten: Forbidden Homeschooling In Germany And Its Conflict With International Religious Freedom., Jacob A. Aschmutat

Jacob A Aschmutat

Germany maintains strict compulsory education laws that prevent families from educating their children at home. Germany strictly enforces these laws, with little regard to the families’ incentives to remove their children from the public schools. As such, these laws contain no exemption for families interested in homeschooling for religious purposes. The absence of such an exemption seems to contradict the internationally recognized right to religious freedom, a right concretely granted through three international treaties that Germany has both signed and ratified.

Several decisions by the European Court of Human Rights give little to no credence to the notion of religious ...


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