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How Context Shapes The Authority Of International Courts, Karen J. Alter, Laurence R. Helfer, Mikael Rask Madsen 2016 Duke Law School

How Context Shapes The Authority Of International Courts, Karen J. Alter, Laurence R. Helfer, Mikael Rask Madsen

Faculty Scholarship

This article provides a novel and provocative framework to assess the varied authority of international courts (ICs). We generate practicable metric that assesses de facto IC authority according to a conjunctive standard — the recognition of an obligation to comply with IC rulings, and the engagement in meaningful actions that push toward giving full effect to IC rulings. We then identify five possible types of IC authority — no authority in fact, narrow, intermediate, extensive, and public authority — that correspond to the different audiences for IC rulings. The goal of this metric is to help the contributors to a symposium on ICs ...


The Commander In Chief's Authority To Combat Climate Change, Mark P. Nevitt 2015 SelectedWorks

The Commander In Chief's Authority To Combat Climate Change, Mark P. Nevitt

Mark P Nevitt

Climate change is the world’s greatest environmental threat. It also is increasingly understood as a threat to domestic and international peace and security. In recognition of this threat, the President has taken the initiative to prepare for climate change’s impact – in some cases drawing sharp objections from Congress. While both the President and Congress have constitutional authorities to address the national security threat posed by climate change, the precise contours of their overlapping powers are not clear. As Commander in Chief, the President has the constitutional authority to repel sudden attacks and take care that the laws are ...


The Process Of International Law-Making: The Relationship Between The International Court Of Justice And The International Law Commission, Marija Dordeska 2015 George Washington University Law School

The Process Of International Law-Making: The Relationship Between The International Court Of Justice And The International Law Commission, Marija Dordeska

Marija Dordeska

When the International Court of Justice (ICJ) resolves disputes between States, it relies on various draft articles of the International Law Commission (ILC), sometimes declaring them to be customary international law. The ICJ thereby elevates some draft articles into the sphere of customary international law, transforming them into instruments binding for the international community as a whole. However, the ICJ tends to rely on the ILC’s work only when the ILC bases its findings on ICJ or Permanent Court of International Justice’s precedents. As an alternative method of international law-making, the relationship between the ICJ and the ILC ...


Agenda: Innovations In Managing Western Water: New Approaches For Balancing Environmental, Social, And Economic Outcomes, University of Colorado Boulder. Getches Wilkinson Center for Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment 2015 University of Colorado Law School

Agenda: Innovations In Managing Western Water: New Approaches For Balancing Environmental, Social, And Economic Outcomes, University Of Colorado Boulder. Getches Wilkinson Center For Natural Resources, Energy, And The Environment

Innovations in Managing Western Water: New Approaches for Balancing Environmental, Social and Economic Outcomes (Martz Summer Conference, June 11-12)

Many aspects of western water allocation and management are the product of independent and uncoordinated actions, several occurring a century or more ago. However, in this modern era of water scarcity, it is increasingly acknowledged that more coordinated and deliberate decision-making is necessary for effectively balancing environmental, social, and economic objectives. In recent years, a variety of forums, processes, and tools have emerged to better manage the connections between regions, sectors, and publics linked by shared water systems. In this event, we explore the cutting edge efforts, the latest points of contention, and the opportunities for further progress.


Compulsory Licenses: Damaging Firm Value In The Short Run?, Daniel E. Mansuri Mr. 2015 Bates College

Compulsory Licenses: Damaging Firm Value In The Short Run?, Daniel E. Mansuri Mr.

Honors Theses

While very few individuals question the validity and necessity of the patent system, the temporary monopolies imposed by patents necessarily reduce access to medication. This becomes especially problematic when dealing with issues of public ordre, such as the aids crisis in the last 30 years. Compulsory licensing, or the power for a government to void a patent and allow a non-patent holder to produce a patented good, aims to remedy this problem. Governments have the ability to issue these in times of epidemics, or other issues of rampant illness. However, even though these licenses are completely legal, pharmaceutical companies meet ...


Conflict Classification In Ukraine: The Return Of The “Proxy War”?, Robert Heinsch 2015 U.S. Naval War College

Conflict Classification In Ukraine: The Return Of The “Proxy War”?, Robert Heinsch

International Law Studies

The article examines the exact conditions for classifying an armed conflict under international humanitarian law against the backdrop of the crisis in Ukraine, taking into account the difficult factual situation on the ground and the involvement of the different parties to the conflict. Apart from dealing with the requirements of an international or a non-international armed conflict, it looks again into the specific circumstances for the “internationalization” of an internal armed conflict. In doing so, the author revisits the various approaches found in the jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice in its 1986 Nicaragua and 2007 Genocide judgments, as ...


El Derecho Laboral Y Las Personas Con Discapacidad En El Perú: Estándares Internacionales Y Análisis De Las Implicancias De La Ley General De La Persona Con Discapacidad Y Su Reglamento, Elard Ricardo Bolaños Salazar 2015 Miembro del Centro de Estudios de Derechos Humanos y Alumno de la Facultad de Derecho de la Universidad de San Martín de Porres

El Derecho Laboral Y Las Personas Con Discapacidad En El Perú: Estándares Internacionales Y Análisis De Las Implicancias De La Ley General De La Persona Con Discapacidad Y Su Reglamento, Elard Ricardo Bolaños Salazar

Elard Ricardo Bolaños Salazar

El presente trabajo aborda un tema que no ha sido muy debatido en el Perú a pesar de su gran importancia. El desempeño de las personas con discapacidad en el ámbito laboral cobra un realce superlativo cuando nos damos cuenta que este grupo en situación de vulnerabilidad también necesita satisfacer necesidades propias de desarrollo y crecimiento, en efecto, es a través de un trabajo que la persona con discapacidad puede volverse realmente independiente y, en consecuencia, ser ella misma hacedor de su propio destino. En tal sentido, este artículo abordará cuales son la implicancias de la nueva ley general de ...


Regulating Hostilities In Non-International Armed Conflicts: Thoughts On Bridging The Divide Between The Tadić Aspiration And Conflict Realities, Geoffrey S. Corn 2015 U.S. Naval War College

Regulating Hostilities In Non-International Armed Conflicts: Thoughts On Bridging The Divide Between The Tadić Aspiration And Conflict Realities, Geoffrey S. Corn

International Law Studies

International Humanitarian Law (IHL) evolved to strike a rational balance between the necessity of using combat power to defeat enemy opponents, and the humanitarian interest of mitigating the human suffering resulting from armed conflict. Ironically, however, the “type” of conflict most comprehensively regulated by this law—international or inter-State (IACs)—is not the “type” of armed conflict that has been most notable for producing humanitarian suffering since the end of World War II. Instead, non-international armed conflicts (NIACs)—conflicts between States and organized non-State belligerent groups, or even between multiple non-State belligerent groups—have been notorious for their brutality, indifference ...


Treaty-Protected Investment Agreements: Of Umbrella Clauses And Privity Of Contract, Raul Henrique Pereira de Souza Fleury 2015 American University Washington College of Law

Treaty-Protected Investment Agreements: Of Umbrella Clauses And Privity Of Contract, Raul Henrique Pereira De Souza Fleury

Raul Henrique Pereira de Souza Fleury

Seemingly the most controversial standard present in investment treaties, the umbrella clause have been stressing parties and arbitrators since 2003 when the issue of its scope was brought up in SGS v. Pakistan. Through the umbrella clause investors have sought to elevate breaches arising out of instruments other than the investment treaty itself, such as contracts and legislations. However, the umbrella clause has another feature. Investors have also relied on the umbrella clause to pursue, under the investment treaty, contractual claims with sub-state entities or, to pursue their subsidiaries’ contractual claims with the State. Also, investors have relied on the ...


The Role Of The Andean Court In Consolidating Regional Integration Efforts, Edwin P. Lochridge 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

The Role Of The Andean Court In Consolidating Regional Integration Efforts, Edwin P. Lochridge

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Latin American Development Process And The New Legislative Trends, Enrique E. Bledel 2015 Inter-American Bar Association

The Latin American Development Process And The New Legislative Trends, Enrique E. Bledel

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Jus Et Societas: Essays In Tribute To Wolfgang Friedmann. Eds. G. Wilner & Martinus Nijhoff. The Hague, Boston, London, 1979., Seymour J. Rubin 2015 American University

Book Review: Jus Et Societas: Essays In Tribute To Wolfgang Friedmann. Eds. G. Wilner & Martinus Nijhoff. The Hague, Boston, London, 1979., Seymour J. Rubin

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Obtaining International Judicial Assistance Under The Federal Rules And The Hague Convention On The Taking Of Evidence Abroad In Civil And Commercial Matters: An Exposition Of The Procedures And A Practical Example: In Re Westinghouse Uranium Contract Litigation, Robert J. Augustine 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

Obtaining International Judicial Assistance Under The Federal Rules And The Hague Convention On The Taking Of Evidence Abroad In Civil And Commercial Matters: An Exposition Of The Procedures And A Practical Example: In Re Westinghouse Uranium Contract Litigation, Robert J. Augustine

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Exculpatory Effect Of Self-Defense In State Responsibility, Gamal Moursi Badr 2015 Office of Legal Affairs, United Nations Secretariat

The Exculpatory Effect Of Self-Defense In State Responsibility, Gamal Moursi Badr

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Palermo Protocol: Why It Has Been Ineffective In Reducing Human Sex Trafficking, Christina A. Seideman 2015 Pepperdine University

The Palermo Protocol: Why It Has Been Ineffective In Reducing Human Sex Trafficking, Christina A. Seideman

Global Tides

This paper analyzes why the UN’s efforts against human trafficking, specifically regarding the Palermo Protocol, have been ineffective in preventing the spread of, and reducing, the human sex trafficking network. It concludes that the broad wording of the Palermo Protocol and the UN’s lack of ability to enforce its legislation, along with statistical irregularities due to self-reporting problems, have made the Palermo Protocol ineffective, and that destination countries (countries that victims are trafficked to) have a large share of the burden to create effective legislation against trafficking. Proposed solutions include holding Palermo Protocol signatory countries accountable to change ...


Preclusion Of Remedies Under Article 16(3) Of The Uncitral Model Law, Nata Ghibradze 2015 Pace University

Preclusion Of Remedies Under Article 16(3) Of The Uncitral Model Law, Nata Ghibradze

Pace International Law Review

In search of actual consequences of (mis)use of the available remedies, Chapter II of the foregoing article starts by exploring whether the Model Law implies “choice of remedies” policy by examining its travaux préparatoires (hereinafter “travaux”). It also seeks to determine existence of “alternative system of defences” at cross-border level between remedies at the seat of arbitration and in the enforcement country. Chapter III engages in a determination of general framework of preclusions under the Model Law by analyzing specific provisions such as Article 4, 13 and 16(2).

Chapter IV, by analyzing the travaux, determines the primary purpose ...


Reflections Of The World Bank’S Report On The Treatment Of The Insolvency Of Natural Persons In The Newest Consumer Bankruptcy Laws: Colombia, Italy, Ireland, Jason J. Kilborn 2015 John Marshall Law School

Reflections Of The World Bank’S Report On The Treatment Of The Insolvency Of Natural Persons In The Newest Consumer Bankruptcy Laws: Colombia, Italy, Ireland, Jason J. Kilborn

Pace International Law Review

In 2011, the World Bank initiated its first-ever examination of the policies and characteristics of effective insolvency systems for individuals (natural persons). This paper describes the two-year process that led to the publication of the World Bank’s landmark Report on the Treatment of the Insolvency of Natural Persons. After examining the key content and three major themes of the Report, three of the most recent new personal insolvency regimes are introduced with an eye to identifying the ways in which the themes of the Report are reflected in these new laws. The personal insolvency provisions in Colombian law most ...


Contractual Excuse Under The Cisg: Impediment, Hardship, And The Excuse Doctrines, Larry A. DiMatteo 2015 Warrington College of Business Administration

Contractual Excuse Under The Cisg: Impediment, Hardship, And The Excuse Doctrines, Larry A. Dimatteo

Pace International Law Review

This article will examine the law of excuse as espoused in the Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). It will examine the relevant case law applying the doctrine of impediment found in CISG Article 79. The question posed in this analysis is whether the word “impediment” relates only to the occurrences of force majeure, impossibility and frustration of purpose events or if it also includes changed circumstances, impracticability and hardship events. For purposes of simplicity, the first set of excuse or exemption doctrines will be analyzed under the heading of “impossibility” and the second set will ...


The Conformity Of The Goods To The Contract In International Sales, Villy de Luca 2015 Maastricht University, European Private Law Institute

The Conformity Of The Goods To The Contract In International Sales, Villy De Luca

Pace International Law Review

The present article aims to provide a general overview on the issue of conformity of the goods to the contract as regulated by Article 35 of the Convention on Contracts for the International Sales of Goods (“CISG”).

The analysis will focus on Article 35 CISG and, after having retraced the history that led to the current formulation of the provision, will concentrate on the implications following the adoption of a “unitary” notion of conformity. The evaluation will proceed focusing on the single express and implied conformity obligations covered, respectively, in the first and second paragraphs of Article 35 CISG.

The ...


Is The Albert H Kritzer Database Telling Us More Than We Know?, Thomas Neumann 2015 Aarhus University, School of Business and Social Sciences

Is The Albert H Kritzer Database Telling Us More Than We Know?, Thomas Neumann

Pace International Law Review

This article is the first in a series of articles attempting to provide a geographical and temporal overview of the application practice of the United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods (CISG). In this first article, the success of CISG is explored. The article develops the idea of using the Albert H. Kritzer Database to achieve an overview of the success of the Convention in practice. It is argued that the success of the Convention is useful to measure by its uniformity in practice, and therefore a set of criteria relating to the Convention’s application ...


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