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Measuring Political Power: Suspect Class Determinations And The Poor, Bertrall L. Ross, Su Li 2016 University of California - Berkeley

Measuring Political Power: Suspect Class Determinations And The Poor, Bertrall L. Ross, Su Li

Bertrall L Ross

Which classes are considered suspect under equal protection doctrine? The answer determines whether courts will defer to legislatures and other government actors when they single out a group for special burdens, or intervene to protect that group from such treatment. Laws burdening suspect classes receive the strictest scrutiny possible—and under current doctrine, whether a class is suspect turns largely on whether the court views the group as possessing political power.

But how do courts know when a class lacks political power? A liberal plurality of the Supreme Court initially suggested that political power should be measured according to a ...


From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

In 1985, when Kim Cotton became Britain’s first commercial surrogate mother, Europe was exposed to the issue of surrogacy for the first time on a large scale. Three years later, in 1988, the famous case of Baby M drew the attention of the American public to surrogacy as well. These two cases implicated fundamental ethical and legal issues regarding domestic surrogacy and triggered a fierce debate about motherhood, child-bearing, and the relationship between procreation, science and commerce. These two cases exemplified the debate regarding domestic surrogacy - a debate that has now been raging for decades. Contrary to the well-known ...


Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

The last few decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the conceptualization and methodologies of determining legal parentage in the U.S. and other countries in the western world. Through various sociological shifts, growing social openness and bio-medical innovations, the traditional definitions of family and parenthood have been dramatically transformed. This transformation has led to an acute and urgent need for legal and social frameworks to regulate the process of determining legal parentage. Moreover, instead of progressing in a piecemeal, ad-hoc manner, the framework for determining legal parentage should be comprehensive. Only a comprehensive solution will address the differing needs of ...


Maximizing Inclusionary Zoning’S Contributions To Both Affordable Housing And Residential Integration, Tim Iglesias 2015 University of San Francisco, School of Law

Maximizing Inclusionary Zoning’S Contributions To Both Affordable Housing And Residential Integration, Tim Iglesias

Tim Iglesias

Inclusionary zoning is a popular policy that can uniquely serve both affordable housing and fair housing goals at the same time. Assuming the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development finalizes its proposed “Affirmatively Furthering Fair Housing” regulation, inclusionary zoning will become more broadly used. But more extensive use of inclusionary zoning poses both opportunities and risks for housing advocates because of the following three issues: (1) Unacknowledged tradeoffs between affordable housing and fair housing goals in inclusionary zoning design and implementation; (2) Conflicting concepts of residential integration; and (3) Legal challenges to inclusionary zoning. The challenge facing inclusionary ...


Section 1983 Cases Arising From Criminal Convictions, Gail Donoghue 2015 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Section 1983 Cases Arising From Criminal Convictions, Gail Donoghue

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Prosecution Of Excessive Force Cases: Practical Considerations, Stephen M. Ryals 2015 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Prosecution Of Excessive Force Cases: Practical Considerations, Stephen M. Ryals

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Supreme Court 2000-2001 Term: First Amendment Cases, Erwin Chemerinsky 2015 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Supreme Court 2000-2001 Term: First Amendment Cases, Erwin Chemerinsky

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


New Issues Arising Under Section 1983, Martin A. Schwartz 2015 Touro Law Center

New Issues Arising Under Section 1983, Martin A. Schwartz

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Death By Bullying: A Comparative Culpability Proposal, Audrey Rogers 2015 Pace University School of Law

Death By Bullying: A Comparative Culpability Proposal, Audrey Rogers

Pace Law Review

This article explores the possibility and advisability of imposing homicide charges against bullies, a controversial approach because of the serious causation questions it poses. Nonetheless, there is precedent for holding a person criminally culpable for a victim’s suicide. A notorious case involved the head of the Ku Klux Klan who was convicted of murder after the woman he raped killed herself by swallowing poison, “distracted by pain and shame so inflicted upon her.” Some may see her shame as analogous to gay teens who commit suicide after being bullied about their sexual orientation. But perhaps the law should not ...


Abuse And Harassment Diminish Free Speech, Anita Bernstein 2015 Brooklyn Law School

Abuse And Harassment Diminish Free Speech, Anita Bernstein

Pace Law Review

Owen Fiss focused on “the robustness of public debate” to conclude on his last page: “The autonomy protected by the First Amendment and rightly enjoyed by individuals and the press is not an end in itself, as it might be in some moral code, but is rather a means to further the democratic values underlying the Bill of Rights.”

This article embraces the same values but more conservatively. Whereas Fiss defended state-sponsored coercion, I leave the government mostly outside the descriptions and arguments presented here. Scholars have sought to apply the law—of crimes, torts, intellectual property, and statutory allotments ...


Lane V. Franks: The Supreme Court Clarifies Public Employees’ Free Speech Rights, Thomas A. Schweitzer 2015 Touro Law Center

Lane V. Franks: The Supreme Court Clarifies Public Employees’ Free Speech Rights, Thomas A. Schweitzer

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Transformation: Turning Section 2 Of The Voting Rights Act Into Something It Is Not, J. Christian Adams 2015 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Transformation: Turning Section 2 Of The Voting Rights Act Into Something It Is Not, J. Christian Adams

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


My Ears Hear More Than English: Granting Multilingual Jurors Accommodations And Treating Multilingualism As A Common Type Of Juror Expertise, A. Lee Valentine II 2015 Boston College Law School

My Ears Hear More Than English: Granting Multilingual Jurors Accommodations And Treating Multilingualism As A Common Type Of Juror Expertise, A. Lee Valentine Ii

Boston College Law Review

To find an example of court-sanctioned discrimination against Spanish-speaking prospective jurors, one need not look further than the 2011 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit decision in United States v. Cabrera-Beltran. Three multilingual jurors were struck for cause during voir dire for not agreeing to ignore all Spanish-language evidence that would be presented at trial and adhere solely to the English-language interpretation, even if they detected errors in the interpretation. Although these jurors could have been accommodated, the court upheld the decision to strike them. In other cases, jurors with other types of expertise typically have not ...


“Cracking” The Code: Interpreting Sentence Reduction Requirements In Favor Of Eligibility For Crack Cocaine Offenders Who Avoided A Mandatory Minimum For Their Substantial Assistance To Authorities, Catherine DiVita 2015 Boston College Law School

“Cracking” The Code: Interpreting Sentence Reduction Requirements In Favor Of Eligibility For Crack Cocaine Offenders Who Avoided A Mandatory Minimum For Their Substantial Assistance To Authorities, Catherine Divita

Boston College Law Review

In 2010, the Fair Sentencing Act (“FSA”) increased the quantities triggering mandatory minimums for crack cocaine offenses and directed the U.S. Sentencing Commission (“USSC”) to make similar reductions to the crack cocaine guideline ranges. After the USSC made these changes retroactive, offenders sentenced in accordance with the previous scheme sought sentence reductions. Due to the circuit courts’ differing interpretations of the eligibility requirements for a reduction, similarly situated offenders who avoided a mandatory minimum for performing substantial assistance to authorities have experienced different outcomes. This Note argues that courts should consistently hold such offenders eligible for retroactive sentencing reductions ...


Education Disparities Based On Wealth: Struggles Facing Poor Aspiring Lawyers, Angelica Torres 2015 Golden Gate University School of Law

Education Disparities Based On Wealth: Struggles Facing Poor Aspiring Lawyers, Angelica Torres

Student Publications

This paper will focus on my lack of knowledge about how growing up poor would make my own struggle to become a lawyer – especially a lawyer hoping to one day serve her own community – seem cluttered with unending obstacles. Given the costs of becoming a lawyer, and given that poverty disproportionately affects minorities, it is easy to understand why diversity is still lacking in the legal profession. Furthermore, because of the economic obstacles the poor face from the very beginning, attempting to work in the public interest field can add to the lists of challenges by disincentivizing those who truly ...


Cultural Bias In Judicial Decision Making, Masua Sagiv 2015 Buchmann Faculty of Law, Tel Aviv University

Cultural Bias In Judicial Decision Making, Masua Sagiv

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

This Essay describes the phenomenon of cultural bias in judicial decision making, and examines the use of testimonies and opinions of cultural experts as a way to diminish this bias. The Essay compares the legal regimes of the United States and Israel. Whereas in the United States, the general practice of using cultural experts in courts is well developed and regulated, the Israeli legal procedure has no formal method for admitting cultural expert testimony, and examples of opinions or testimonies of cultural experts in the Israeli legal system are sporadic. The Essay further argues that social science evidence is an ...


Piecemeal Freedom: Why The Headscarf Ban Remains In Place In Turkey, Kerime Sule Akoglu 2015 Boston College Law Review

Piecemeal Freedom: Why The Headscarf Ban Remains In Place In Turkey, Kerime Sule Akoglu

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

The intersection of religion and politics has always been a volatile subject in Turkey. From the first years of the Republic to the present day, political leaders have had to balance the secular interests of the state with the religious beliefs of the public. Historically, it has been the religious public who has carried the brunt of this balancing act, specifically women. For decades, Muslim women wearing headscarves for religious reasons were fenced out of the public sphere because of a belief that their outwardly manifested religious beliefs threatened the secular structure of the Republic. They could not attend schools ...


Compromising Equality: An Analysis Of The Religious Exemption In The Employment Non-Discrimination Act And Its Impact On Lgbt Workers, Erik S. Thompson 2015 Boston College Law School

Compromising Equality: An Analysis Of The Religious Exemption In The Employment Non-Discrimination Act And Its Impact On Lgbt Workers, Erik S. Thompson

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

On November 7, 2013, the U.S. Senate passed the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (“2013 ENDA”), a bill that attempted to incorporate both sexual orientation and gender identity as protected classes under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The 2013 ENDA was an important initiative that addressed a long history of employment discrimination against gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered employees. The bill, however, provided a broad exemption for religiously affiliated organizations operating in secular fields. This religious exemption excluded a significant number of organizations hiring secular-in-function employees from the bill’s prohibition of discriminatory practices. Although Congress dismissed ...


Behind The Venire: Rationale, Rewards And Ramifications Of Heightened Scrutiny And The Ninth Circuit’S Extension Of Equal Protection To Gays And Lesbians During Jury Selection In Smithkline V. Abbott, James Lobo 2015 Boston College Law School

Behind The Venire: Rationale, Rewards And Ramifications Of Heightened Scrutiny And The Ninth Circuit’S Extension Of Equal Protection To Gays And Lesbians During Jury Selection In Smithkline V. Abbott, James Lobo

Boston College Law Review

On January 21, 2014, in SmithKline v. Abbott, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that heightened scrutiny applies to classifications based on sexual orientation, and equal protection forbids striking jurors because they are gay or lesbian. The Ninth Circuit interpreted the Supreme Court’s recent analysis in United States v. Windsor as applying heightened scrutiny, rather than rational basis review that has historically been used to assess issues surrounding sexual orientation. The Ninth Circuit also reasoned that given the historical exclusion and pervasive discrimination of gays and lesbians, this group requires equal protection. This Comment ...


A Fourth Amendment Framework For The Fee Exercise Clause, Adam Lamparello 2015 Indiana Tech Law School

A Fourth Amendment Framework For The Fee Exercise Clause, Adam Lamparello

Adam Lamparello

This article proposes a paradigm for resolving disputes under the free exercise clause that is analogous to the framework used by the court under the fourth amendment when balancing privacy rights against investigatory powers of law enforcement. In its Fourth Amendment jurisprudence, the Court provides varying degrees of protection to privacy – and imposes different evidentiary requirements on law enforcement – depending on the context in which privacy is affected, the intrusiveness of a particular search, and the asserted governmental interests. For example, privacy receives the strongest protections in areas such as the home, thus requiring law enforcement to have probable cause ...


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