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In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, Brendan M. Conner Esq. 2016 Streetwise and Safe

In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, Brendan M. Conner Esq.

Brendan M. Conner

The accompanying Article provides the first critical analysis of safe harbor laws, which rely on custodial arrests to prosecute or divert youth arrested for or charged with prostitution related offenses under criminal or juvenile codes to court supervision under state child welfare, foster care, or dependency statutes. This subject is a matter of intense debate nationwide, and on January 27, 2015 the House of Representatives passed legislation that would give preferential consideration for federal grants to states that have enacted a law that “discourages the charging or prosecution” of a trafficked minor and encourages court-ordered treatment and institutionalization. Nearly universally ...


From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

In 1985, when Kim Cotton became Britain’s first commercial surrogate mother, Europe was exposed to the issue of surrogacy for the first time on a large scale. Three years later, in 1988, the famous case of Baby M drew the attention of the American public to surrogacy as well. These two cases implicated fundamental ethical and legal issues regarding domestic surrogacy and triggered a fierce debate about motherhood, child-bearing, and the relationship between procreation, science and commerce. These two cases exemplified the debate regarding domestic surrogacy - a debate that has now been raging for decades. Contrary to the well-known ...


Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

The last few decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the conceptualization and methodologies of determining legal parentage in the U.S. and other countries in the western world. Through various sociological shifts, growing social openness and bio-medical innovations, the traditional definitions of family and parenthood have been dramatically transformed. This transformation has led to an acute and urgent need for legal and social frameworks to regulate the process of determining legal parentage. Moreover, instead of progressing in a piecemeal, ad-hoc manner, the framework for determining legal parentage should be comprehensive. Only a comprehensive solution will address the differing needs of ...


Historic Lessons: Gender Inequity In Middle And High School, Kathryn Behan-Homer 2015 SIT Graduate Institute

Historic Lessons: Gender Inequity In Middle And High School, Kathryn Behan-Homer

Capstone Collection

What happens in our classrooms shapes the thoughts and lives the students within them, not simply through the explicit curriculum, but also through what we do and do not address, our interpersonal relations, and our own unintended biases. This research focuses on the ways in which gender inequity and its relationship to production relations are reinforced in a rural school at the 6-12th grade level. In this case study, interviews, surveys, and extensive observations were used to analyze the ways in which social and historic inequality is reinforced or challenged within the school. Research is focused on lesson contents ...


Managing A Homosexual Identity Within A Heteronormative Workplace Environment, Kyle Militello 2015 University of Western Ontario

Managing A Homosexual Identity Within A Heteronormative Workplace Environment, Kyle Militello

Sociological Imagination: Western’s Undergraduate Sociology Student Journal

This paper investigates the experiences of openly gay men within the workplace. In exploring the obstacles unique to sexual minorities within the labour market, three common identity management strategies are reviewed. Many studies have documented not only the existence of sexual orientation-based workplace discrimination but also its prevalence within contemporary society. In arguing for the importance of acceptance-based education, this paper advocates for increased tolerance within the workplace.


"Nobody's Saying We're Opposed To Complying": Barriers To University Compliance With Vawa And Title Ix, Charlotte Savino 2015 Cornell Law School

"Nobody's Saying We're Opposed To Complying": Barriers To University Compliance With Vawa And Title Ix, Charlotte Savino

Cornell Law Library Prize for Exemplary Student Research Papers

Part I of this note will explore the government’s action in addressing sexual assault on campus, including the history of VAWA, the Clery Act, and Title IX. Part II will posit barriers to compliance, including ambiguous mandates, due process issues of private adjudication, and privacy law. Part III encapsulates the current political landscape and the laws that are under consideration. Part IV concludes with the financial and legal consequences of university action and inaction, including lawsuits brought by victims, lawsuits brought by the accused, Department of Education and Office of Civil Rights fines, and admissions consequences as prospective students ...


Intestacy Concerns For Same-Sex Couples: How Variations In State Law And Policy Affect Testimentary Wishes, Megan Moser 2015 Seattle University School of Law

Intestacy Concerns For Same-Sex Couples: How Variations In State Law And Policy Affect Testimentary Wishes, Megan Moser

Seattle University Law Review

As the number of same-sex couples increases in the United States, concerns regarding the evolution of federal and state law, with respect to rights for same-sex couples, also continue to rise. As marriage is not always available to same-sex couples, they often face very different legal issues than couples in a traditional marriage. Because marriage is typically not a legal cause of action, the question of a marriage’s validity often arises incidentally to another legal question, such as the disposition of a decedent’s estate.


Scrutinizing Polygamy: Utah's Brown V. Buhman And British Columbia's Reference Re: Section 293, Maura I. Strassberg 2015 Drake University LawSchool

Scrutinizing Polygamy: Utah's Brown V. Buhman And British Columbia's Reference Re: Section 293, Maura I. Strassberg

Maura I Strassberg

In Brown v. Buhman, the recent challenge to the Utah law criminalizing polygamy brought by the stars of the reality television show Sister Wives, a federal district court determined both that strict scrutiny was required and that strict scrutiny could not be satisfied. A significant factor in this result was the state’s failure to mount a strong defense of the law, assuming that it could rely on long standing polygamy precedents such as the United States Supreme Court decision in Reynolds v. United States and more recent Tenth Circuit and Utah Supreme Court decisions to justify limiting scrutiny to ...


Why The State Cannot “Abolish Marriage”: A Partial Defense Of Legal Marriage, Gregg P. Strauss 2015 Duke Law School

Why The State Cannot “Abolish Marriage”: A Partial Defense Of Legal Marriage, Gregg P. Strauss

Indiana Law Journal

Does a liberal state have a legitimate interest in defining the terms of intimate relationships? Recently, several scholars have answered this question with a no and concluded that the state should abolish marriage, along with all other categories of intimate status. While politically infeasible, these proposals offer a powerful thought experiment. In this Article, I use this thought experiment to argue that the law cannot avoid relying on intimate-status norms and has legitimate reasons to retain an intimate status like marriage.

The argument has three parts. The primary lesson of the thought experiment is that the state cannot abolish intimate ...


Scrutiny Of The Venire, Scrutiny From The Bench: Smithkline Beecham Corp. V. Abbott Laboratories And The Application Of Heightened Scrutiny To Sexual Orientation Classifications, Parker Williams 2015 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

Scrutiny Of The Venire, Scrutiny From The Bench: Smithkline Beecham Corp. V. Abbott Laboratories And The Application Of Heightened Scrutiny To Sexual Orientation Classifications, Parker Williams

Catholic University Law Review

In SmithKline Beecham Corp. v. Abbott Laboratories, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals applied heightened scrutiny to a sexual orientation classification. Through SmithKline, the Ninth Circuit became one of the first federal circuit courts to do so explicitly; and by unequivocally applying a more exacting standard than rational basis, it furthered the framework developed in cases such as Romer v. Evans, Lawrence v. Texas, and United States v. Windsor. This Note asserts that SmithKline is a significant victory for the advancement of LGBT rights, as evidenced by its use to strike down several same-sex marriage bans and in court filings ...


"You Miss 100% Of The Shots You Never Take": Virginia High School League's Policy Violates Title Ix By Preventing Transgender Student Athletes From Taking A Shot At Participating In Athletics, Sarah M. Jacques 2015 American University Washington College of Law

"You Miss 100% Of The Shots You Never Take": Virginia High School League's Policy Violates Title Ix By Preventing Transgender Student Athletes From Taking A Shot At Participating In Athletics, Sarah M. Jacques

Sarah M Jacques

No abstract provided.


When Is Hiv A Crime? Sexualigy, Gender And Consent, Kim S. Buchanan 2015 University of Southern California Gould School of Law

When Is Hiv A Crime? Sexualigy, Gender And Consent, Kim S. Buchanan

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

HIV criminalization is difficult to justify on the grounds advanced for it: public health and moral retribution. This Article engages with a third, underexamined rationale for HIV criminalization: sexual autonomy. Nondisclosure prosecutions purport to ensure “informed consent” to sex. However, almost all other forms of sexual deception — including deceptions that may jeopardize the partner’s health — are lawful; rape law expressly accommodates an expectation that men may lie to get sex from women. Neither public health nor retributive considerations adequately justify singling out HIV from other, permitted forms of sexual deception. Moreover, most HIV transmission and nondisclosure takes place between ...


Compromising Equality: An Analysis Of The Religious Exemption In The Employment Non-Discrimination Act And Its Impact On Lgbt Workers, Erik S. Thompson 2015 Boston College Law School

Compromising Equality: An Analysis Of The Religious Exemption In The Employment Non-Discrimination Act And Its Impact On Lgbt Workers, Erik S. Thompson

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

On November 7, 2013, the U.S. Senate passed the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (“2013 ENDA”), a bill that attempted to incorporate both sexual orientation and gender identity as protected classes under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The 2013 ENDA was an important initiative that addressed a long history of employment discrimination against gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered employees. The bill, however, provided a broad exemption for religiously affiliated organizations operating in secular fields. This religious exemption excluded a significant number of organizations hiring secular-in-function employees from the bill’s prohibition of discriminatory practices. Although Congress dismissed ...


Behind The Venire: Rationale, Rewards And Ramifications Of Heightened Scrutiny And The Ninth Circuit’S Extension Of Equal Protection To Gays And Lesbians During Jury Selection In Smithkline V. Abbott, James Lobo 2015 Boston College Law School

Behind The Venire: Rationale, Rewards And Ramifications Of Heightened Scrutiny And The Ninth Circuit’S Extension Of Equal Protection To Gays And Lesbians During Jury Selection In Smithkline V. Abbott, James Lobo

Boston College Law Review

On January 21, 2014, in SmithKline v. Abbott, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that heightened scrutiny applies to classifications based on sexual orientation, and equal protection forbids striking jurors because they are gay or lesbian. The Ninth Circuit interpreted the Supreme Court’s recent analysis in United States v. Windsor as applying heightened scrutiny, rather than rational basis review that has historically been used to assess issues surrounding sexual orientation. The Ninth Circuit also reasoned that given the historical exclusion and pervasive discrimination of gays and lesbians, this group requires equal protection. This Comment ...


Contemplating Abortion: Hiv-Positive Women's Decision To Terminate Pregnancy, Sarah MacCarthy, Jennifer Rasanathan, Ann Crawford-Roberts, Ines Dourado, Sofia Gruskin 2015 RAND Corporation

Contemplating Abortion: Hiv-Positive Women's Decision To Terminate Pregnancy, Sarah Maccarthy, Jennifer Rasanathan, Ann Crawford-Roberts, Ines Dourado, Sofia Gruskin

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Research on pregnancy termination largely assumes HIV status is the only reason why HIV-positive women contemplate abortion. As antiretroviral treatment (ART) becomes increasingly available and women are living longer, healthier lives, the time has come to consider the influence of other factors on HIV-positive women’s reproductive decision-making. Because ART has been free and universally available to Brazilians for more than two decades, Brazil provides a unique context in which to explore these issues. A total of 25 semi-structured interviews exploring women’s pregnancy termination decision-making were conducted with women receiving care at the Reference Centre for HIV/AIDS in ...


Thrown Away For Being Gay: The Abandonment Of Lgbt Youth And Their Lack Of Legal Recourse, Casey Judge 2015 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University

Thrown Away For Being Gay: The Abandonment Of Lgbt Youth And Their Lack Of Legal Recourse, Casey Judge

Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality

One of the most pervasive risks LGBT youth face today is the threat of being thrown out of their homes because of their sexual orientation. According to a Massachusetts Youth Risk Behavior Survey, one in four teens that identify as lesbian or gay are homeless. Of the estimated 575,000 to 2.8 million youth that are homeless each year, between 20 percent and 40 percent identify as LGBT. While youth homelessness is most often attributed to neglect, family tragedy, poverty, and addiction, most LGBT youth populations attribute their homelessness directly to their sexual orientation. This suggests that these parents ...


A Marriage By Any Other Name: Why Civil Unions Should Receive Federal Recognition, Deborah A. Widiss, Andrew Koppelman 2015 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

A Marriage By Any Other Name: Why Civil Unions Should Receive Federal Recognition, Deborah A. Widiss, Andrew Koppelman

Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality

The federal government now recognizes same-sex marriages as triggering rights and responsibilities under federal law. However, it still generally refuses to recognize alternative legal statuses—civil unions and domestic partnerships—that were created by states to serve as functional marriages. Even though all the states that created such alternative statuses now permit same-sex couples to marry, this misguided policy causes ongoing harms. Some same-sex couples who entered into alternative relationships when marriage was not an option may now lack the capacity to marry. Couples who have since married may also be hurt by the federal government’s refusal to recognize ...


Baker V. Nelson: Flotsam In The Tidal Wave Of Windsor's Wake, David B. Cruz 2015 University of Southern California

Baker V. Nelson: Flotsam In The Tidal Wave Of Windsor's Wake, David B. Cruz

Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality

Part I of this Article sketches the virtually unbroken string of pro-marriage decisions in the lower federal and state courts since the U.S. Supreme Court’s 2013 ruling in United States v. Windsor to give a sense of the size and magnitude of this “tidal wave” of precedent. Next, Part II briefly explores some of the reasons that might help account for the flood of litigation and overwhelmingly positive outcomes. Part III tentatively suggests one way this flow of decisions in favor of marriage equality might influence the Supreme Court as it returns to the issue. Part II then ...


Blurred Lines Or Bright Line? Addressing The Demand For Sex Trafficking Under California Law, Rachel N. Busick 2015 Pepperdine University

Blurred Lines Or Bright Line? Addressing The Demand For Sex Trafficking Under California Law, Rachel N. Busick

Pepperdine Law Review

Like the Thirteenth Amendment, which made slavery punishable by law, additional statutes that protect victims and punish those involved in sex trafficking are needed in the United States to abolish modern-day slavery. This Comment focuses specifically on California's laws relating to sex trafficking for two reasons. First, California's laws fail to adequately address the demand for sex trafficking. Second, California has a unique relationship to pornography, which is intrinsically linked to sex trafficking. Part II explains the definition and realities of sex trafficking with a special focus on buyers creating demand for sex trafficking. Part III discusses the ...


A Crowded Room Or The Perfect Fit? Exploring Affirmative Action Treatment In College And University Admissions For Self-Identified Lgbt Individuals, Herbert C. Brown Jr. 2015 College of William & Mary Law School

A Crowded Room Or The Perfect Fit? Exploring Affirmative Action Treatment In College And University Admissions For Self-Identified Lgbt Individuals, Herbert C. Brown Jr.

William & Mary Journal of Women and the Law

This Article explores affirmative action treatment for self-identified LGBT individuals in college and university admissions. This Article seeks to explain that while granting affirmative action treatment to self-identified students in the admission process is constitutional, under the current affirmative action precedent, there is a lack of sufficient justification for such an expansion. This Article will also explore the advantages and disadvantages should colleges and universities choose to implement affirmative action programs for LGBT applicants.

Section I of this Article will begin by depicting the evolution of affirmative action programs since their inception in the early 1960s. This section will also ...


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