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Intelligence Sharing In Multinational Military Operations And Complicity Under International Law, Marko Milanovic 2021 U.S. Naval War College

Intelligence Sharing In Multinational Military Operations And Complicity Under International Law, Marko Milanovic

International Law Studies

This article examines the international legal framework applicable to intelligence sharing in multinational military operations, with a particular focus on complicity scenarios. It first provides a theoretical overview of the role of fault in complicity, of how intent and knowledge can be conceptualized, and of the attribution of fault to States. It then looks in detail at the rule codified in Article 16 of the International Law Commission’s Articles on State Responsibility, and argues that this rule is best understood as employing multiple modes of fault (direct and indirect intent and wilful blindness). The article also argues that international ...


Booty, Bounty, Blockade, And Prize: Time To Reevaluate The Law, Andrew Clapham 2021 U.S. Naval War College

Booty, Bounty, Blockade, And Prize: Time To Reevaluate The Law, Andrew Clapham

International Law Studies

This article considers the so-called belligerent rights of States in times of war. In particular it focuses on booty of war, blockade, and the capture of merchant ships and their cargo. It is suggested that, while the rules may not often be applied today, they nevertheless continue to exert a certain influence, contributing to confusion about the boundaries of the legitimate use of force and a blurring of the distinction between military objectives and civilian objects.

Considering that the UN Charter has outlawed the use of force, the article also questions why such rules concerning capture should continue to have ...


A Fresh Approach To What It Means To Be A Religious Refugee, Brienna Bagaric, Jennifer Svilar 2021 Pepperdine University

A Fresh Approach To What It Means To Be A Religious Refugee, Brienna Bagaric, Jennifer Svilar

Pepperdine Law Review

The world is currently experiencing an unprecedented displaced persons crisis. There are more than 70 million people worldwide who have been forcibly displaced from their homeland and are in search of a new country in which to settle. There is no international appetite to absorb these people. There is only one legal pathway by which displaced people can claim an entitlement to settle in another country. This is pursuant to the Refugee Convention. More than 140 countries including the United States are signatories to this convention. The difficulty experienced by displaced people is now particularly acute so far as entry ...


The Plea Of Necessity: An Oft Overlooked Response Option To Hostile Cyber Operations, Louise Arimatsu, Michael N. Schmitt 2021 U.S. Naval War College

The Plea Of Necessity: An Oft Overlooked Response Option To Hostile Cyber Operations, Louise Arimatsu, Michael N. Schmitt

International Law Studies

States are increasingly focused on the measures—cyber or otherwise—that they can take in response to hostile cyber operations. Although cyber operations are usually responded to with acts of “retorsion” (acts that are lawful, although unfriendly), international law recognizes other self-help mechanisms that allow for more robust responses. In the cyber context, most attention has focused on countermeasures and self-defense. Yet, both are subject to various limitations that constrain their availability.

This article examines a further option, the so-called “plea of necessity.” It allows States to respond to a hostile cyber operation when the action taken would otherwise be ...


Tindak Pidana Pencucian Uang, Yunus Husein 2021 Universitas Indonesia

Tindak Pidana Pencucian Uang, Yunus Husein

Indonesian Journal of International Law

Money laundering is considered as a transnational organized crime. The logic of elimination money laundering is to omit the criminal’s motivation to enjoy their proceed of crime. The efforts to eliminate money laundering is much related to the issues of national jurisdiction. Thus, it requires international cooperation among countries, where international law is needed. Eventhough there is still no specific convention about money laundering, but regulation about money laundering is partially arranged in some conventions such as Vienna Convention 1988 and in UN Convention on Transnational Organized Crimes 2000. Indonesia has enacted a regulation is amended by UU No ...


Enhancing Maritime Security In The Malacca Strait: Cooperation Against Piracy And Maritime Terrorism, Rheny Wahyuni Pulungan 2021 Bengkulu University

Enhancing Maritime Security In The Malacca Strait: Cooperation Against Piracy And Maritime Terrorism, Rheny Wahyuni Pulungan

Indonesian Journal of International Law

The Malacca Strait, together with the Singapore Strait, are two of the most important straits in the world and consequently there is significant traffic through them, reported to be approximately 60,000 vessels a year. The rising number of violent and well-coordinated attacks on transiting ships in these straits has become a very serious problem, such as threats of unauthorized boarding; theft of personal property, cargo and the ships themselves; and violence against, and the kidnapping or murder of, seafarers. One effort which is likely to enhance security in the Malacca Straits is the establishment of 'joint patrol areas', where ...


Preventing Retaliation In Trade By Harmonizing The Measures, Muhammad Putra Iqbal 2021 International Law Departement, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.

Preventing Retaliation In Trade By Harmonizing The Measures, Muhammad Putra Iqbal

Indonesian Journal of International Law

Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS) Agreement as a globally-accepted legal document within the World Trade Organization (WTO) is very important in ensuring food traded across the boundaries is safe for consumers and also protecting animal and plant from diseases and pests. Therefore, SPS Agreement's role within the international trade is very crucial. This paper evaluates "Indonesia-China candy case" that closely related to the implementation of the SPS Agreement. It is concluded that Indonesia as a member of WTO has declared and proven that Indonesia national regulations on food safety comply with international standard. On the other hand, China should ...


Environmental Protection And State Responsibility In International Humanitarian Law, Arie Afriansyah 2021 Faculty of Law, Universitas Indonesia

Environmental Protection And State Responsibility In International Humanitarian Law, Arie Afriansyah

Indonesian Journal of International Law

International armed conflicts is not only threatened the existence of human being, but also brought great environmental damage that has served to raise the international community's deep concern. The conflicting parties are liable for violations of their international obligations including damages to the environment. The obligations of warring parties to protect the environment are sourced not only from treaty law but also from customary law. Even though the conflict has ceased, they are still liable for the violations as long as the damages continue. That is why the legal concept of State offers an important doctrine in international conflicts ...


Author's Right Is Not Only Copyright, Agus Sardjono 2021 Faculty of Law, Universitas Indonesia

Author's Right Is Not Only Copyright, Agus Sardjono

Indonesian Journal of International Law

This article discusses the difference between the concept of Author's Right and Copyright. These two concepts are often mistakenly considered to be inter-changeable. The purpose of this article is to help readers obtain a better insight into the basic concept of Author's Right and Copyright.


China’S Container Missile Deployments Could Violate The Law Of Naval Warfare, Raul (Pete) Pedrozo 2021 U.S. Naval War College

China’S Container Missile Deployments Could Violate The Law Of Naval Warfare, Raul (Pete) Pedrozo

International Law Studies

China is reportedly developing long-range cruise missiles that can be fired from standard shipping containers loaded on merchant vessels. China is also converting heavy-lift civilian ships and roll-on roll-off (RORO) ferries to serve as de facto amphibious assault ships to support People’s Liberation Army (PLA) amphibious operations. While none of these activities are illegal per se, they do raise potential concerns under the law of naval warfare. Only warships can engage in offensive belligerent rights during an international armed conflict. Using merchant vessels to engage in belligerent rights would violate international law unless China first converts the vessels into ...


“I Want Justice From People Who Did Bad Things To Children”: Experiences Of Justice For Sex Trafficking Survivors, John G. Morrissey, James Havey, Glenn M. Miles, Nhanh Channtha, Lim Vanntheary 2021 Independent Researcher

“I Want Justice From People Who Did Bad Things To Children”: Experiences Of Justice For Sex Trafficking Survivors, John G. Morrissey, James Havey, Glenn M. Miles, Nhanh Channtha, Lim Vanntheary

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

This research from the Butterfly Longitudinal Research Project focused on understanding the experiences and perceptions of justice and the justice system for 93 Cambodia participants (including 88 survivors of sex trafficking) as they navigated the legal system. Thirty-two of these survivors had experiences in court and provided details into their courtroom experiences, predominantly within Cambodia but also in the United States. The survivors’ experiences were diverse; however, the prevailing themes were: fear throughout their legal journeys; a low level of awareness and understanding of their legal experiences; and that NGO support was essential for these survivors to engage in the ...


International Law Review In The Assassination Of General Qasem Soleimani, Dina Yulianti, Hasan Sidik, Mu'min Mu'min 2021 Department of International Relations, Padjajaran University, Indonesia

International Law Review In The Assassination Of General Qasem Soleimani, Dina Yulianti, Hasan Sidik, Mu'min Mu'min

Indonesian Journal of International Law

International law is formed by the global community to establish legal rules, norms, and standards of behavior between sovereign nations to create a peaceful world order. However, since the world order is anarchy with no supreme executive authority, obedience and disobedience to international law often depends on the state’s power. For instance, the assassination of General Qasem Soleimani, a prominent Iranian general, by the US military in Iraqi territory sparked a debate about international law. This article shows that the US action violated International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and International Human Rights Law (IHRL). Additionally, it violated the UN Convention ...


The Quest To End Hunger In Our Time: Can Political Will Catch Up With Our Core Values?, David P. Lambert 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The Quest To End Hunger In Our Time: Can Political Will Catch Up With Our Core Values?, David P. Lambert

Journal of Food Law & Policy

David Lambert a nationall recognized advocate to end hunger speaks about his work and the impact it has had on Arkansas, the USA and the world.


Application Of The Due Diligence Principle To Cyber Operations, Tomohiro Mikanagi 2021 U.S. Naval War College

Application Of The Due Diligence Principle To Cyber Operations, Tomohiro Mikanagi

International Law Studies

The discreet use of proxies by States renders it difficult to prove attribution to States under the existing rules of attribution. On the other hand, the due diligence principle, if applicable, does not require attribution but can lead to the invocation of State responsibility for cyber operations emanating from the territory of other States. In the Corfu Channel judgment the ICJ recognized “every State’s obligation not to allow knowingly its territory to be used for acts contrary to the rights of other States,” and UN Member States agreed that existing international law applies to cyber operations. However, the UN ...


U.S. Recognition Of A Commander’S Duty To Punish War Crimes, Brian Finucane 2021 U.S. Naval War College

U.S. Recognition Of A Commander’S Duty To Punish War Crimes, Brian Finucane

International Law Studies

This article explores the United States' recognition of the doctrine of command responsibility. The doctrine has been invoked by those alleging that President Trump’s pardons of U.S. personnel convicted or accused of war crimes could amount to war crimes themselves. The article focuses on a commander’s duty to punish war crimes by his subordinates. It examines the United States’ past recognition of the duty to punish as an element of command responsibility under the law of war. The principle that a commander has an obligation to punish war crimes by his subordinates is not a progressive development ...


The International Law Of Prolonged Sieges And Blockades: Gaza As A Case Study, Eyal Benvenisti 2021 U.S. Naval War College

The International Law Of Prolonged Sieges And Blockades: Gaza As A Case Study, Eyal Benvenisti

International Law Studies

In 2007, after Hamas’ takeover of the Gaza Strip, the area was subjected to an Israeli land siege, complemented in 2009 by a sea blockade. Since then, the already-dire living conditions in the Strip have declined consistently and the area’s dependence on external aid has grown. This essay examines the duties of a military power in imposing what is effectively a years-long confinement of people and outlines a general argument for expanding the obligations of a party that imposes a prolonged siege or blockade. I consider these obligations in light of three potentially relevant legal frameworks: the law of ...


Sharing Technology And Vaccine Doses To Address Global Vaccine Inequity And End The Covid-19 Pandemic, Matthew M. Kavanagh, Lawrence O. Gostin, Madhavi Sunder 2021 Georgetown University Law Center

Sharing Technology And Vaccine Doses To Address Global Vaccine Inequity And End The Covid-19 Pandemic, Matthew M. Kavanagh, Lawrence O. Gostin, Madhavi Sunder

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Although COVID-19 cases are declining rapidly in the US, they have reached record highs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The nucleus of the pandemic has shifted decidedly to the global south. The South-East Asia region and Latin America now represent 75% of global weekly deaths. On June 22, the Latin America region reported more than 1 million weekly new cases and 30 000 new deaths. Latin America has the highest deaths per capita, where deaths in countries such as Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, and Peru have reached 177 to 564 per hundred thousand. The Africa region has had increasing numbers ...


National Focal Points And Implementation Of The International Health Regulations, Kumanan Wilson, Sam F. Halabi, Helge Hollmeyer, Lawrence O. Gostin, David P. Fidler, Corinne Packer, Lindsay Wilson, Ronald Labonté 2021 Department of Medicine, University of Ottawa

National Focal Points And Implementation Of The International Health Regulations, Kumanan Wilson, Sam F. Halabi, Helge Hollmeyer, Lawrence O. Gostin, David P. Fidler, Corinne Packer, Lindsay Wilson, Ronald Labonté

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

As the COVID-19 pandemic continues, the World Health Organization (WHO), the International Health Regulations (IHR) and countries’ adherence to IHR guidance are coming under scrutiny and review. The IHR constitute a legal and governance framework that guides countries in responding to serious disease events while avoiding unnecessary interference with international trade and traffic. The IHR require States Parties to designate or establish national IHR focal points to facilitate information sharing about disease events with WHO, which makes these focal points critical in the effective implementation of the IHR within and between countries. On behalf of the State Party concerned, national ...


9 Steps To End Covid-19 And Prevent The Next Pandemic: Essential Outcomes From The World Health Assembly, Lawrence O. Gostin 2021 Georgetown University - Law Center - O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law

9 Steps To End Covid-19 And Prevent The Next Pandemic: Essential Outcomes From The World Health Assembly, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

A year ago, the World Health Assembly (WHA) met virtually for the first time since the creation of the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1948. Last year’s WHA adopted a resolution asking states to intensify action to fight COVID-19. Yet a year on, there have been 3.7 million deaths reported, with the real number estimated as more than 7 million. From May 24-31, 2021, the 74th WHA (WHA74) was again held virtually amidst this historic pandemic. The WHA created a member states working group on strengthening WHO preparedness for and response to health emergencies to make recommendations to ...


Recovering The Proceeds Of Corruption: A Study On The Effectiveness Of The Implementation Of The United Nations Convention Against Corruption (Uncac), Dr. Salwa Yousef Elekyabi 2021 Associate Professor of International Public Law Faculty of Law, Zagazig University, Egypt

Recovering The Proceeds Of Corruption: A Study On The Effectiveness Of The Implementation Of The United Nations Convention Against Corruption (Uncac), Dr. Salwa Yousef Elekyabi

Journal Sharia and Law

Recovering the proceeds of corruption is a relatively new topic in international law. The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) marks the first international instrument to deal with the recovery of assets in depth. Therefore, the related provisions to the recovery and return of the proceeds of corruption to their origin countries, from which they were looted, were very welcomed among the delegations participating in the preparatory conferences for the development of the UNCAC convention. This paper examines and analysis the provisions relating to assets recovery as stated in the UNCAC, to assess the extent of their effectiveness in enabling ...


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