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Digital Health Passes In The Age Of Covid-19: Are “Vaccine Passports” Lawful And Ethical?, Lawrence O. Gostin, I. Glenn Cohen, Jana Shaw 2021 Georgetown University - Law Center - O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law

Digital Health Passes In The Age Of Covid-19: Are “Vaccine Passports” Lawful And Ethical?, Lawrence O. Gostin, I. Glenn Cohen, Jana Shaw

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

As COVID-19 vaccination rates in high-income countries increase, governments are proposing or implementing digital health passes (DHPs) (vaccine “passports” or “certificates”). Israel uses a “green pass” smartphone application permitting vaccinated individuals’ access to public venues (eg, gyms, hotels, entertainment). The European Union plans a “Digital Green Certificate” enabling free travel within the bloc (see eTable in the Supplement). New York is piloting an IBM “Excelsior Pass,” confirming vaccination or negative SARS-CoV-2 test status through confidential data transfers to fast-track business reopenings. This paper examines the benefits of DHPs, scientific challenges, and whether they are lawful and ethical.


Neutrality And Cyberspace: Bridging The Gap Between Theory And Reality, Noam Neuman 2021 Israeli Ministry of Justice

Neutrality And Cyberspace: Bridging The Gap Between Theory And Reality, Noam Neuman

International Law Studies

While there exists a broad consensus among States that international law generally applies to the cyber domain, particular views regarding the applicability of the law of neutrality have rarely been put forward, and presently there seems to be insufficient State practice and domain-specific opinio juris in this regard. Against this backdrop, several attempts have been made throughout the years to apply certain neutrality rules to cyberspace by referring to analogies from other domains. However, this legal regime provides an emblematic example of what the introduction of traditional rules of international law, formulated with the physical domains of warfare in mind ...


The Canons Of Social And Economic Rights, Katharine G. Young 2021 Boston College Law School

The Canons Of Social And Economic Rights, Katharine G. Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Social and economic rights occupy an unsettled place in any global canon of constitutional democracy and human rights. This Article, appearing in a collection of Global Canons in an Age of Uncertainty (S. Choudhry, M. Hailbronner & M. Kumm, eds., OUP) recommends a contender for canonical status, at the same time as it problematizes the search. Insofar as the search for a canon reveals the boundaries of what may be considered exemplary claims of constitutional and democratic practice, the 2000 South African case of Republic of South Africa v. Grootboom is canonical for its treatment of social and economic rights. This ...


Call For Proposals 2021: The Social Practice Of Human Rights Conference, University of Dayton 2021 University of Dayton

Call For Proposals 2021: The Social Practice Of Human Rights Conference, University Of Dayton

Content presented at the Social Practice of Human Rights Conference

The global pandemic has rapidly broken down boundaries and structures—from personal to social to institutional. Long-standing practices and norms have changed radically to respond to the current crisis, while some institutional and political dynamics contrary to human rights and democracy have become further entrenched. New pressures on human rights are also heightened by the pandemic, including rights to privacy, access to health, and digital capitalism. This crisis has shown that for human rights, the perils and potentials have increased hand in hand.

The stark upending by the pandemic provides proof-of-concept for the disintegration of silos and the erosion of ...


Lockdowns, Quarantines, And Travel Restrictions, During Covid And Beyond: What’S The Law, And How Should We Decide?, Lawrence O. Gostin, Meryl Chertoff 2021 Georgetown University - Law Center - O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law

Lockdowns, Quarantines, And Travel Restrictions, During Covid And Beyond: What’S The Law, And How Should We Decide?, Lawrence O. Gostin, Meryl Chertoff

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Following increased calls for racial justice, many organizations have pledged to play their part in dismantling systemic racism. One common step leaders take is to invest in diversity and inclusion programs. Yet, despite organizations’ bold claims to value diversity and the investment of billions of dollars on related efforts, workplace discrimination continues to be a major factor in the lives of people of color. Additionally, existing research highlights a principle-policy gap, wherein people--particularly White Americans--espouse support for the principles of diversity, yet their support wanes for policies that address inequalities. In this survey study, we explore attitudes about organizational diversity ...


Military Action To Recover Occupied Land: Lawful Self-Defense Or Prohibited Use Of Force? The 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict Revisited, Tom Ruys, Felipe Rodriguez Silvestre 2021 Ghent University

Military Action To Recover Occupied Land: Lawful Self-Defense Or Prohibited Use Of Force? The 2020 Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict Revisited, Tom Ruys, Felipe Rodriguez Silvestre

International Law Studies

In September 2020, heavy fighting erupted between Armenia and Azerbaijan in and around Nagorno-Karabakh, a region of Azerbaijan long controlled by Armenia. After two months of military confrontations, a tripartite ceasefire was concluded, drastically altering the pre-existing territorial status quo.

The "Second Nagorno-Karabakh War" brings to light a fundamental question for international law on the use of force—and one that has received limited attention in legal doctrine. The question is this: when part of a State’s territory is occupied by another State for an extended period of time, can the former still invoke the right of self-defense to ...


The Coronavirus Pandemic 1 Year On—What Went Wrong?, Lawrence O. Gostin 2021 Georgetown University - Law Center - O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law

The Coronavirus Pandemic 1 Year On—What Went Wrong?, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

January 30, 2021, marked the first anniversary of the declaration by the World Health Organization (WHO) of COVID-19 as a public health emergency of international concern (PHEIC). Thus far, the world has been no match for SARS-CoV-2, with more than 100 million cases and 2.5 million deaths. The US has been among the world’s poorest performers in addressing the pandemic, with more than 500 000 deaths.

Vaccines offer the best chance of returning to normal, but circulating variants pose a major obstacle, particularly the emergence of variants that are more transmissible and are developing partial resistance to vaccines ...


The “External Element” Of The Obligation To Ensure Respect For The Geneva Conventions: A Matter Of Treaty Interpretation, Marten Zwanenburg 2021 Netherlands Defense Academy

The “External Element” Of The Obligation To Ensure Respect For The Geneva Conventions: A Matter Of Treaty Interpretation, Marten Zwanenburg

International Law Studies

In Common Article 1 of the 1949 Geneva Conventions, States Parties undertake to “respect and ensure respect” for the Conventions. This article focuses on the question whether an interpretation of that provision leads to the conclusion that it contains an external element. The term “External element” refers to an obligation for States to ensure respect for the Conventions not only internally (i.e., by their nationals as a whole), but also by other States, and possibly even by organized armed groups involved in extraterritorial non-international armed conflicts. The article applies the rules of treaty interpretation, as codified in Articles 31 ...


Human Rights In The Light Of International Opportunism: A Study Of The Impact Of The War On Terrorism On Human Rights, 2021 United Arab Emirates University

Human Rights In The Light Of International Opportunism: A Study Of The Impact Of The War On Terrorism On Human Rights

Journal Sharia and Law

International terrorism reached its peak on September 11, 2001 when four civilian airplanes were hijacked and hit the World Trade Centre in New York and part of the Pentagon in Washington D.C. Such attacks were considered a serious challenge for contemporary societies which called on their military, economic, and political might to declare an open war against international terrorism. This so-called counter terrorism war emerged to shape the new world order. Such war was accompanied by gross violations of public international law, the international human rights law and the international humanitarian law. In fact, some opportunistic régimes found it ...


The Battle For Covid-19 Vaccines Highlights The Need For A New Global Governance Mechanism, Anna Mia Ekström, Camilla Berggren, Göran Tomson, Lawrence O. Gostin, Peter Friberg, Ole Petter Ottersen 2021 Department of Global Public Health, Karolinska Institutet

The Battle For Covid-19 Vaccines Highlights The Need For A New Global Governance Mechanism, Anna Mia Ekström, Camilla Berggren, Göran Tomson, Lawrence O. Gostin, Peter Friberg, Ole Petter Ottersen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

To the Editor—Although the rapid development of several vaccines against COVID-19 is an unparalleled scientific accomplishment, one made possible through the collaboration of researchers, industry and funding bodies, the absence of a system that secures equitable access to vaccines has uncovered deep fissures in the global governance systems for health, as noted in a recent Nature Medicine Editorial.

For example, advance purchase agreements for vaccines against COVID-19 have favored affluent countries, allowing them to secure 150–500% of their predicted needs, while many citizens of low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) will remain unvaccinated until 2024.

Additionally, the power of patent-holders ...


Amplifying Voices And Fighting Impunity: A Case For Incorporating Victim Impact Into Early Release Decisions At The International Residual Mechanism For Criminal Tribunals, Yasmine Palmer 2021 William & Mary Law School

Amplifying Voices And Fighting Impunity: A Case For Incorporating Victim Impact Into Early Release Decisions At The International Residual Mechanism For Criminal Tribunals, Yasmine Palmer

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady 2021 Dublin City Schools

Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight four segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention. 4- A review of interventions available to assist clients in navigating a lifestyle away from pornography.


Contradiction Under International Law On The Swiss Ban Of Minarets, Giovanni Distefano, Pascal Mahon 2021 Professor of International Law At the University of Neuchatel

Contradiction Under International Law On The Swiss Ban Of Minarets, Giovanni Distefano, Pascal Mahon

Journal Sharia and Law

The Swiss vote on the 29th of November, 2009 turned the popular initiative against constructing minarets into a law with a 60% majority of voters. The vote reflects xenophobia and the negative image of Islam or Islamophobia held by the proponents of the initiative. This fear has to be dealt with by psychologists and sociologists.


The Arrest Warrant Issued By The Icc Against The Sudanese President: An Analytical, Legal Study*, 2021 United Arab Emirates University

The Arrest Warrant Issued By The Icc Against The Sudanese President: An Analytical, Legal Study*

Journal Sharia and Law

On March 4th, 2009, the Pre-Trial Chamber (PTC) of the International Criminal Court (ICC) issued an arrest warrant against Omar Hassan Al-Basir, the Sudanese President in relation to the alleged crimes committed in Darfur. The decision constituted the first precedent in which the question of state immunity has been raised before the ICC and the first time an international criminal tribunal has indicted an incumbent head of state. This article aims to clarify the legal aspects of the arrest warrant and the status of head of state immunity in customary international law in order to assess the applicability of the ...


Transparency For Whom? Grounding Land Investment Transparency In The Needs Of Local Actors, Sam Szoke-Burke 2021 Columbia Law School, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Transparency For Whom? Grounding Land Investment Transparency In The Needs Of Local Actors, Sam Szoke-Burke

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Transparency is often seen as a means of improving governance and accountability of investment, but its potential to do so is hindered by vague definitions and failures to focus on the needs of key local actors.

In this new report focusing on agribusiness, forestry, and renewable energy projects (“land investments”), CCSI grounds transparency in the needs of project-affected communities and other local actors. Transparency efforts that seek to inform and empower communities can also help governments, companies, and other actors to more effectively manage operational risk linked to social conflict.

Troublingly, the report finds that:

  • Disclosures around land investments continue ...


Transparency Of Land-Based Investments: Cameroon Country Snapshot, Sam Szoke-Burke, Samuel Nguiffo, Stella Tchoukep 2021 Columbia Law School, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Transparency Of Land-Based Investments: Cameroon Country Snapshot, Sam Szoke-Burke, Samuel Nguiffo, Stella Tchoukep

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Despite a recent transparency law and participation in transparency initiatives, Cameroon’s investment environment remains plagued by poor transparency.

In a new report focusing on agribusiness projects in Cameroon, CCSI and the Centre pour l’Environnement et le Développement (CED) find that:

  • Communities continue to be excluded from decision-making around investments.
  • The government pursues a top-down approach to concession allocation and remains reluctant to recognize all legitimate tenure rights.
  • The government faces threats to its legitimacy as the grievances of citizens and investors alike lead to the barring of roads by communities and investor withdrawals.

CCSI and CED therefore call ...


Developing International Guidelines For Protecting Schools And Universities From Military Use During Armed Conflict, Steven Haines 2021 University of Greenwich

Developing International Guidelines For Protecting Schools And Universities From Military Use During Armed Conflict, Steven Haines

International Law Studies

One consequence of armed conflict, especially that of a non-international character, is serious damage done to vital societal infrastructure. Education–schools and universities–can be severely disrupted, even subject to attack. Targeting of schools may not invariably be unlawful if educational facilities are being put to military use. Such use may itself not be unlawful but it can result in schools being transformed from civilian objects into military objectives–and subject, therefore, to lawful targeting. This was a problem highlighted by humanitarian NGOs a decade ago and led to the formation, by both NGOs and United Nations agencies, of the ...


Protection Of Data In Armed Conflict, Robin Geiss, Henning Lahmann 2021 University of Glasgow

Protection Of Data In Armed Conflict, Robin Geiss, Henning Lahmann

International Law Studies

This article presents a novel way to conceptualize the protection of data in situations of armed conflict. Although the question of the targeting of data through adversarial military cyber operations and its implications for the qualification of such conduct under International Humanitarian Law has been on scholars’ and states’ radar for the last few years, there remain a number of misunderstandings as to how to think about the notion of “data.” Based on a number of fictional scenarios, the article clarifies the pertinent terminology and makes some expedient distinctions between various types of data. It then analyzes how existing international ...


Legal Reviews Of War Algorithms, Tobias Vestner, Altea Rossi 2021 Geneva Center for Security Policy

Legal Reviews Of War Algorithms, Tobias Vestner, Altea Rossi

International Law Studies

States and scholars recognize legal reviews of weapons, means or methods of warfare as an essential tool to ensure the legality of military applications of artificial intelligence (AI). Yet, are existing practices fit for this task? This article identifies necessary adaptations to current practices. For AI-enabled systems that are used in relation to targeting, legal reviews need to assess the systems’ compliance with additional rules of international law, in particular targeting law under international humanitarian law (IHL). This article discusses the procedural ramifications thereof. The article further finds that AI systems’ predictability problem needs to be addressed by the technical ...


The Environmental Impact Of Technological Innovation: How U.S. Legislation Fails To Handle Electronic Waste's Rapid Growth, Marisa D. Pescatore 2021 Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law

The Environmental Impact Of Technological Innovation: How U.S. Legislation Fails To Handle Electronic Waste's Rapid Growth, Marisa D. Pescatore

Villanova Environmental Law Journal

No abstract provided.


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