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Reputation As A Disciplinarian Of International Organizations, Kristina Daugirdas 2019 University of Michigan Law School

Reputation As A Disciplinarian Of International Organizations, Kristina Daugirdas

Articles

As a disciplinarian of international organizations, reputation has serious shortcomings. Even though international organizations have strong incentives to maintain a good reputation, reputational concerns will sometimes fail to spur preventive or corrective action. Organizations have multiple audiences, so efforts to preserve a “good” reputation may pull organizations in many different directions, and steps taken to preserve a good reputation will not always be salutary. Recent incidents of sexual violence by UN peacekeepers in the Central African Republic illustrate these points.


Responsibility In Building Rule Of Law: Kosovo Challenges, Avdullah Robaj, Sabiha Shala 2019 University of Haxhi Zeka

Responsibility In Building Rule Of Law: Kosovo Challenges, Avdullah Robaj, Sabiha Shala

International Journal on Responsibility

The principle of the rule of law is one of the most important and essential principles for any state and for democratic society. Its fullest realization in everyday life is the best guarantee for development of democracy and recognition and enforcement of citizens' fundamental rights and freedoms. To this end, the general principles of the rule of law today occupy a special place and are fixed explicitly in contemporary constitutions and democratic legislation. The well-known countries of Western democracies have long established a rich and valuable legacy in this regard. When exploring the contours and details about establishing the rule ...


International Criminal Responsibility In Kosovo: Establishment Of The International Criminal Court – De Lege Lata, De Lege Ferenda, Mujë Ukaj, Qendresa Jasharaj 2019 University of Haxhi Zeka

International Criminal Responsibility In Kosovo: Establishment Of The International Criminal Court – De Lege Lata, De Lege Ferenda, Mujë Ukaj, Qendresa Jasharaj

International Journal on Responsibility

The Special Court of Kosovo (Kosovo Specialist Chambers and Specialist Prosecutor's Office) with headquarters in The Hague, is one of the biggest problems Kosovo faced since the declaration of independence. This topic has been treated very little in scientific terms, while in the media it is written very much, calling it harmful to Kosovo, and even had opinions that it is a racist court since the same will initially only judge the KLA (Kosovo Liberation Army) members for alleged war crimes in Kosovo. The Special Court of Kosovo is presented as a sui generis case in the practice of ...


Beyond Geneva: Detainee Review Processes In Non-International Armed Conflict—A U.S. Perspective, Ryan J. Vogel 2019 Utah Valley University

Beyond Geneva: Detainee Review Processes In Non-International Armed Conflict—A U.S. Perspective, Ryan J. Vogel

International Law Studies

The need for detainee review in non-international armed conflict has never been more imperative. Yet, the law of armed conflict is almost completely silent on the subject. Although the law may not require States to conduct detainee review processes in non-international armed conflict, the spirit of the law encourages it, and States—particularly the United States—have begun to see utility in the development and implementation of such review processes. The object of this article is to identify an appropriate framework for detainee review, examine relevant U.S. state practice, and provide practical guidelines for implementing processes to review the ...


Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review 2019 Seattle University School of Law

Table Of Contents, Seattle University Law Review

Seattle University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Medical Care In Urban Conflict, Kenneth Watkin 2019 U.S. Naval War College

Medical Care In Urban Conflict, Kenneth Watkin

International Law Studies

The potential for urban violence is increasing as the world population continues to migrate towards cities. Recent examples of urban warfare with insurgent groups has occurred in Damascus, Mosul, Raqqa, Marawi, Ramadi, and Fallujah, although non-State actor conflict covers a wide range of violence from ordinary crime, to terrorism and transnational crime, to near conventional conflict. Further, transnational terrorist groups have sought to extend the conflict into countries seen as the “far enemy.” A key issue is determining if an armed conflict is in existence so that the protective focus of international humanitarian law regarding the provision of medical care ...


Fighting Novel Diseases Amidst Humanitarian Crises, Lawrence O. Gostin, Neil R. Sircar, Eric A. Friedman 2019 Georgetown University Law Center

Fighting Novel Diseases Amidst Humanitarian Crises, Lawrence O. Gostin, Neil R. Sircar, Eric A. Friedman

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Humanitarian crises are becoming more prevalent and, frequently, more complex, in zones of mis-governance, lack of government presence, and even active conflict, marked by public mistrust and insecurity. The WHO and other health emergency responders lack the capacities and mandate to adequately respond. The current Ebola outbreak in an area of an active insurgency in the Democratic Republic of the Congo is just such a crisis. The State Department has banned U.S. personnel from the outbreak zone due to safety concerns, leaving the population feeling abandoned, potentially increasing the threat to the few brave health workers who remain.

We ...


International Criminal Court Comes Of Age, Nancy Amoury Combs 2019 William & Mary Law School

International Criminal Court Comes Of Age, Nancy Amoury Combs

Popular Media

No abstract provided.


Human Rights Violations Consequent To Transshipment Practices In Fisheries, Chelsey F. Marto 2019 University of Maine School of Law

Human Rights Violations Consequent To Transshipment Practices In Fisheries, Chelsey F. Marto

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

Transshipment, the process of transferring catch from a small fishing vessel onto a larger fishing vessel far off shore, has been used to commit a variety of human rights abuses on the sea. Companies can get away with this because there is little to no oversight over the activities. Yet, there has been little to no incentive to change these practices, because companies are generally not penalized for these actions. The author proposes a variety of tactics be implemented in addressing these concerns. These include imposition of sanctions upon countries who allow for nefarious activities, increased video surveillance on board ...


Humanitarian Logic And The Law Of Siege: A Study Of The Oxford Guidance On Relief Actions, Sean Watts 2019 Creighton University School of Law

Humanitarian Logic And The Law Of Siege: A Study Of The Oxford Guidance On Relief Actions, Sean Watts

International Law Studies

In terms of human suffering, few military operations have rivaled sieges and comparably harsh legal regimes have governed them. At a time when legal vindication of humanitarian interests in armed conflict is ascendant, conventional accounts of the law of war governing humanitarian relief may seem out of step, plagued with glaring gaps in humanitarian logic. In 2016, Oxford University professors published a United Nations-commissioned legal study—the Oxford Guidance on the Law Relating to Humanitarian Relief Operations in Situations of Armed Conflict. The Guidance contends that during armed conflict international law prohibits belligerents from arbitrarily denying offers of humanitarian relief ...


Call For Papers 2019: The Social Practice Of Human Rights, University of Dayton 2019 University of Dayton

Call For Papers 2019: The Social Practice Of Human Rights, University Of Dayton

Content presented at the Social Practice of Human Rights Conference

2019 marks 30 years since the end of the Cold War and the beginning of an era pregnant with promise and potential for human rights, democracy, and global governance.

Yet today, global capitalism drives widening and deepening inequalities. Its dependence on natural resource extraction and exploitation is hastening ecological collapse. Authoritarianism and populism have risen from the rubble of liberalism’s inability to deliver on its pledges. Technology, once promoted as a panacea for transnational boundary breaking and democratization, further empowers the powerful to reshape politics and upend notions of privacy, social life, information, employment, and even biology.

Critics have ...


Measuring Norms And Normative Contestation: The Case Of International Criminal Law, Beth A. Simmons, Hyeran Jo 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Measuring Norms And Normative Contestation: The Case Of International Criminal Law, Beth A. Simmons, Hyeran Jo

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

One way to tell if an international norm is robust is to assess the breadth of its support from a wide variety of important actors. We argue that to assess norm robustness, we should look at the general beliefs, rhetorical support, and actions of both primary and secondary norm addressees (states and non-state actors) at various levels: international, regional, domestic and local. By way of example, we evaluate the robustness of international criminal law (ICL) norms by looking at the rhetoric and actions of a diverse set of international actors, including not only states and intergovernmental organizations but also ordinary ...


Striking A Grotian Moment: How The Syria Airstrikes Changed International Law Relating To Humanitarian Interventions, Michael P. Scharf 2019 Case Western Reserve University - School of Law

Striking A Grotian Moment: How The Syria Airstrikes Changed International Law Relating To Humanitarian Interventions, Michael P. Scharf

Faculty Publications

In the years since the 1999 NATO airstrikes on Serbia to prevent ethnic cleansing of the Kosovar Albanians, international law has been moving in fits and starts toward recognition of a limited right of humanitarian intervention in the absence of Security Council approval. But all the ingredients necessary for the crystallization of customary international law were not present until the April 14, 2018 U.S./French/U.K. airstrikes on Syrian chemical weapons facilities. This article examines the unique features of the April 2018 airstrikes – the context of a crisis of historic proportions, the focus on preventing the use of ...


What Is Puerto Rico?, Samuel Issacharoff, Alexandra Bursak, Russell Rennie, Alec Webley 2019 New York University School of Law

What Is Puerto Rico?, Samuel Issacharoff, Alexandra Bursak, Russell Rennie, Alec Webley

Indiana Law Journal

Puerto Rico is suffering through multiple crises. Two are obvious: a financial crisis triggered by the island’s public debts and the humanitarian crisis brought on by Hurricane Maria. One is not: the island’s ongoing crisis of constitutional identity. Like the hurricane, this crisis came from outside the island. Congress, the U.S. Supreme Court, and the Executive Branch have each moved in the last twenty years to undermine the “inventive statesmanship” that allowed for Puerto Rico’s self-government with minimal interference from a federal government in which the people of Puerto Rico had, and have, no representation. From ...


The Legal Architecture Of United Nations Peacekeeping: A Case Study Of Unifil, Layan Charara 2019 University of Michigan Law School

The Legal Architecture Of United Nations Peacekeeping: A Case Study Of Unifil, Layan Charara

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Note explores the ways UNIFIL is a unique peacekeeping force that can still teach broader lessons about UN peacekeeping It is organized into four parts: Part I provides a contour of UN peacekeeping operations; Part II chronicles the history of UNIFIL; Part III analyzes the current legal regime with respect to UN peacekeeping; and Part IV surveys solutions offered in the past and recommends more apposite courses of action to strengthen the legal recourse available to peacekeepers and their families.


Virtual Life Sentences: An Exploratory Study, Jessica S. Henry, Christopher Salvatore, Bai-Eyse Pugh 2018 Montclair State University

Virtual Life Sentences: An Exploratory Study, Jessica S. Henry, Christopher Salvatore, Bai-Eyse Pugh

Jessica S. Henry

Virtual life sentences are sentences with a term of years that exceed an individual’s natural life expectancy. This exploratory study is one of the first to collect data that establish the existence, prevalence, and scope of virtual life sentences in state prisons in the United States. Initial data reveal that more than 31,000 people in 26 states are serving virtual life sentences for violent and nonviolent offenses, and suggest racial disparities in the distribution of these sentences. This study also presents potential policy implications and suggestions for future research.


Youth Activism, Art And Transitional Artist: Emerging Spaces Of Memory After The Jasmin Revolution, Arnaud Kurze 2018 Montclair State University

Youth Activism, Art And Transitional Artist: Emerging Spaces Of Memory After The Jasmin Revolution, Arnaud Kurze

Arnaud Kurze

This project explores the creation of alternative transitional justice spaces in post-conflict contexts, particularly concentrating on the role of art and the impact of social movements to address human rights abuses. Drawing from post-authoritarian Tunisia, it scrutinizes the work of contemporary youth activists and artists to deal with the past and foster sociopolitical change. Although these vanguard protesters provoked the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali in 2011, the power vacuum was quickly filled by old elites. The exclusion of young revolutionaries from political decision-making led to unprecedented forms of mobilization to account for repression and injustice under ...


New Documents Shed Light: Why Did Peacekeepers Withdraw During Rwanda’S 1994 Genocide?, Emily A. Willard 2018 University of Washington

New Documents Shed Light: Why Did Peacekeepers Withdraw During Rwanda’S 1994 Genocide?, Emily A. Willard

Genocide Studies and Prevention: An International Journal

Why did the international community decide to withdraw United Nations peacekeeping troops from Rwanda during the 1994 genocide? Analysis of newly released documents and results from an international conference with former U.N. and government officials sheds further light on our understanding of what took place leading up to and during the Rwandan genocide. This article focuses on two key moments: 1) the United States’ reluctance to support the peacekeeping mission from before its mandate began and prior to the killing of U.S. troops in Somalia in autumn 1993; and the United States’ central role pushing the United Nations ...


Ebola And War In The Democratic Republic Of Congo: Avoiding Failure And Thinking Ahead, Lawrence O. Gostin, Matthew M. Kavanagh, Elizabeth Cameron 2018 Georgetown University Law Center

Ebola And War In The Democratic Republic Of Congo: Avoiding Failure And Thinking Ahead, Lawrence O. Gostin, Matthew M. Kavanagh, Elizabeth Cameron

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The Ebola epidemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is exceptionally dangerous, occurring within active armed conflict and geopolitical volatility, including a million displaced persons. With 421 cases, 240 deaths, and the numbers increasing, this Ebola outbreak is the second deadliest in history. Recent spread to Butembo, home to 1.2 million people, raised concerns. The DRC, World Health Organization (WHO), and partners are leading a vigorous international response, yet despite deploying an experimental vaccine, cases doubled in October 2018 and many cases had unknown origin.

Uncontrolled Ebola outbreaks can expand quickly, as occurred in West Africa in 2014 ...


North Korea’S Nuclear Program And Negotiation: How Nuclear Negotiation During The Clinton Years Produced Lessons For Current International Relations, Brian Hilliker 2018 Liberty University

North Korea’S Nuclear Program And Negotiation: How Nuclear Negotiation During The Clinton Years Produced Lessons For Current International Relations, Brian Hilliker

Senior Honors Theses

North Korea’s road of survival began in the aftermath of World War II, when the United States and the Soviet Union sparred over rival ideologies. Ultimately, Korea split into a free south and an authoritarian north. Over seventy years later, North Korea remains a bastion of communism. Nuclear weaponry is a factor behind North Korea’s survival, and the history of their program can offer insight for American policy makers today. This paper offers a history of North Korea’s nuclear weapons program during the Clinton presidency, along with recommendations for present day policy makers. Without an understanding of ...


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