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All Articles in International Humanitarian Law

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Litigating Genocide: A Consideration Of The Criminal Court In Light Of The German Jew's Legal Response To Nazi Persecution, 1933-1941, Jody M. Prescott 2018 University of Maine School of Law

Litigating Genocide: A Consideration Of The Criminal Court In Light Of The German Jew's Legal Response To Nazi Persecution, 1933-1941, Jody M. Prescott

Maine Law Review

After years of negotiation, a majority of the nations of the world have agreed to create an International Criminal Court. It will be given jurisdiction over three core types of offenses: genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes. With regard to war crimes, however, nations that join the court may take advantage of an “opt-out” procedure, whereby the court's jurisdiction over these offenses may be rejected for seven years after the court comes into existence. For various reasons, a small number of nations, including the United States, have refused to sign the treaty creating the court. While heralded as ...


Silent War: Applicability Of The Jus In Bello To Military Space Operations, Kubo Mačák 2018 University of Exeter

Silent War: Applicability Of The Jus In Bello To Military Space Operations, Kubo Mačák

International Law Studies

There are no molecules of air that could carry sound waves in the vacuum of outer space. Accordingly, space warfare may well become the first type of war whose signature sound would be—silence. But does the law of armed conflict (jus in bello) fall silent in times of Silent War? This article addresses the uncertainty at the heart of this issue. First, it delineates the relevant conceptual framework by examining the factual notion of “military space operations,” and its relationship with the legal concept of “armed conflict,” as well as the overlap between the potentially applicable bodies of law ...


Arbitration And Protection Under The Un Convention Against Torture And Other Cruel, Inhuman, Degrading Treatment, Or Punishment, Nicole M. Hogan 2018 Pepperdine University

Arbitration And Protection Under The Un Convention Against Torture And Other Cruel, Inhuman, Degrading Treatment, Or Punishment, Nicole M. Hogan

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This article will discuss the UN Convention Against Torture, and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (“Convention”), and how arbitration can be used to best serve victims who were subjected to treatment that is prohibited under the Convention. Part II will give a background on the Convention. Part III will introduce the arbitration provision that is included in Article 30 of the Convention, which is important to the foundation of this article. Additionally, this section will discuss how arbitration works as an Alternative Dispute Resolution procedure, and will highlight some of the benefits of arbitration over litigation. Part ...


Fulfilling U.S. Commitment To Refugee Resettlement: Protecting Refugees, Preserving National Security, & Building The U.S. Economy Through Refugee Admissions, Harvard Immigration and Refugee Clinical Program 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Fulfilling U.S. Commitment To Refugee Resettlement: Protecting Refugees, Preserving National Security, & Building The U.S. Economy Through Refugee Admissions, Harvard Immigration And Refugee Clinical Program

Texas A&M Law Review

At a time when the U.S. refugee admissions program is under serious threat and the world’s displaced population is at its highest, this Report sets forth extensive recommendations regarding the United States’ role in protecting vulnerable refugees and compliance with its commitments under domestic and international law that together safeguard people fleeing persecution and fearing return to torture. The Report also identifies key national security reasons for supporting and enhancing the refugee program in keeping with U.S. foreign policy priorities. Additionally, the Report provides an in-depth discussion of the robust, multistep security-assessment mechanisms already in place for ...


Neutrality And Outer Space, Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg 2017 Europa-Universität Viadrina, Frankfurt (Oder), Germany

Neutrality And Outer Space, Wolff Heintschel Von Heinegg

International Law Studies

This article discusses the law of neutrality as it pertains to belligerent operations in and through outer space as well as belligerent outer space operations involving the territory and national airspace of neutral States. As far as the latter is concerned, the traditional law of neutrality is fully applicable. Accordingly, international law prohibits belligerents from launching space objects from neutral territory or through neutral national airspace. While neutral States may not provide belligerents with outer space assets or the use of communications infrastructure located in their territories, they are not obliged to prevent their nationals from providing any of the ...


The Corporate Face Of The Alien Tort Claims Act: How An Old Statute Mandates A New Understanding Of Global Interdependence, Lorelle Londis 2017 University of Maine School of Law

The Corporate Face Of The Alien Tort Claims Act: How An Old Statute Mandates A New Understanding Of Global Interdependence, Lorelle Londis

Maine Law Review

In the past thirty-five years, international human rights lawyers and, more recently, international environmental lawyers, have been invoking the Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA) as a tool to prosecute human rights abuses committed abroad by transnational corporations (TNs) in U.S. federal courts. The ATCA provides: “The district courts shall have original jurisdiction of any civil action by an alien for a tort only, committed in violation of the law of nations or a treaty of the United States.” Although plaintiffs' lawyers have experienced some success in the human rights context, most claims of environmental abuses have failed. In all ...


Individual, Not Collective: Justifying The Resort To Force Against Members Of Non-State Armed Groups, Anthony Dworkin 2017 European Council on Foreign Relations

Individual, Not Collective: Justifying The Resort To Force Against Members Of Non-State Armed Groups, Anthony Dworkin

International Law Studies

This article proposes an alternative to the conventional way of deciding when a State may target or detain members of an armed group. Instead of asking whether there is an armed conflict between the State and the group, this article argues that we should look at the State’s justification for the use of force against the group or its members. In a non-international context, this justification is rooted in human rights law. For this reason, the authorization for the resort to force operates on an individual basis, and the State is only justified in using force against individual members ...


Invisible Women: Syrian Victims Of Gender-Based Violence As A Particular Social Group In U.S. Asylum Law, Sarah Dávila-Ruhaak 2017 John Marshall Law School

Invisible Women: Syrian Victims Of Gender-Based Violence As A Particular Social Group In U.S. Asylum Law, Sarah Dávila-Ruhaak

Sarah Dávila-Ruhaak

In the midst of the worst humanitarian crisis of our time, in Syria, we have seen extreme suffering by millions who have been summarily executed, tortured, imprisoned, raped, starved, and bombed with chemical weapons. Specifically, we have seen that women have been the target of gender-based violence in the conflict by and with the acquiescence of the Assad regime forces and by opposition groups. Women have been human shields; hostages for the bargaining of prisoner release; and victims of sexual violence and exploitation, forced marriage, and other forms of violence such as honor killings. This gender-based violence has rendered women ...


Invisible Women: Syrian Victims Of Gender-Based Violence As A Particular Social Group In U.S. Asylum Law, Sarah Dávila-Ruhaak 2017 John Marshall Law School

Invisible Women: Syrian Victims Of Gender-Based Violence As A Particular Social Group In U.S. Asylum Law, Sarah Dávila-Ruhaak

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

In the midst of the worst humanitarian crisis of our time, in Syria, we have seen extreme suffering by millions who have been summarily executed, tortured, imprisoned, raped, starved, and bombed with chemical weapons. Specifically, we have seen that women have been the target of gender-based violence in the conflict by and with the acquiescence of the Assad regime forces and by opposition groups.

Women have been human shields; hostages for the bargaining of prisoner release; and victims of sexual violence and exploitation, forced marriage, and other forms of violence such as honor killings.

This gender-based violence has rendered women ...


The Socialization Of Human Rights As An Inroad To Protect Sacred Space, Leonard Hammer 2017 Hebrew University of Jerusalem

The Socialization Of Human Rights As An Inroad To Protect Sacred Space, Leonard Hammer

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

Serious problems exist for cultural heritage protection, and these problems are even more serious when accounting for the protection of sacred space and holy places. The lack of effectiveness of the majority of existing international norms and institutions will be reviewed in this paper, which shall then turn to potential sources for entrenching protection of scared space within states.

The paper shall rely on the human right to freedom of religion or belief as the basis for upholding sacred space given an emerging broader understanding of the right within the human rights framework.

The paper shall principally focus on the ...


Mass Displacement Of Destitute People: A Trigger For Non-Refoulement Protection?, Bernardo de Souza Dantas Fico, Leticia Machado Haertel 2017 InterAmerican Court of Human Rights

Mass Displacement Of Destitute People: A Trigger For Non-Refoulement Protection?, Bernardo De Souza Dantas Fico, Leticia Machado Haertel

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

This paper focuses on two problems around the mass displacement of people in extreme poverty: the characterization of such people as refugees and the application of the non-refoulement principle to mass displacements.

Extreme poverty is causal to grave human rights violations such as deprivation of water, of food, and of an adequate standard of living. These circumstances may reach a degree in which life in a country is unbearable — forcing people to move in order to enhance their likelihood of survival.

The classic understanding of the non-refoulement obligation, as enshrined in the 1951 Refugee Convention, forbids states from returning people ...


The Business Of Being Good: How It Pays To Be A Humanitarian State, Taylor Benjamin-Britton, Danielle Scherer 2017 Lehigh University

The Business Of Being Good: How It Pays To Be A Humanitarian State, Taylor Benjamin-Britton, Danielle Scherer

The Social Practice of Human Rights: Charting the Frontiers of Research and Advocacy

In an era where human rights increasingly take a position of primacy in international relations, certain states have donned the mantle of the humanitarian, prioritizing human rights over nearly every other item on the foreign policy agenda and mainstreaming humanitarianism in other areas of foreign policy.

Existing arguments find that states that advance humanitarian policies are coerced, socialized, or mimicking, but they fail to seriously consider that states may choose and benefit from humanitarianism in several ways. We do not focus on explaining or theorizing why states have chosen to engage in humanitarianism; rather, we offer an analysis of the ...


سالروز تولد دکتر عبدالفتاح سلطانی, Mohammad Khaksari 2017 Teacher's Pen (Iranian Independent Education Journal)

سالروز تولد دکتر عبدالفتاح سلطانی, Mohammad Khaksari

Mohammad Khaksari


موضوع: سالروز تولد وکیل معلمان ایران، دکتر عبدالفتاح سلطانی 
سلام همکاران فرهنگی، روز 11 آبان ماه مصادف است با سالروز تولد وکیل خستگی ناپذیر معلمان ایران زمین، دکتر عبدالفتاح سلطانی. آقای سلطانی در کارنامه درخشان کاری شان، سابقه 5 سال تدریس در آموزش و پرورش استان سمنان را به همراه دارند. همچنین همسر صبور و شجاع ایشان خانم دهقان از همکار فرهنگی همه ما هستند و از خانم های فعالان صنفی بوده اند. دکتر عبدالفتاح سلطانی حق بزرگی بر گردن معلمان ایران دارند. ایشان در شرایطی که مرتب از طرف نیروی امنیتی در سال 86 تهدید می شدند، وکالت معلمان ...


The “Right To Remain Here” As An Evolving Component Of Global Refugee Protection: Current Initiatives And Critical Questions, Daniel Kanstroom 2017 Boston College Law School

The “Right To Remain Here” As An Evolving Component Of Global Refugee Protection: Current Initiatives And Critical Questions, Daniel Kanstroom

Daniel Kanstroom

No abstract provided.


Introduction To Symposium On Unauthorized Military Interventions For The Public Good, Monica Hakimi 2017 University of Michigan Law School

Introduction To Symposium On Unauthorized Military Interventions For The Public Good, Monica Hakimi

Articles

On April 6, 2017, the United States launched fifty-nine Tomahawk missiles against an air base in Syria, after evidence surfaced that Bashar Al-Assad’s regime had again used chemical weapons against its people. President Trump announced that the strikes were intended “to prevent and deter the spread and use of deadly chemical weapons.” But as of this Symposium’s publication, the United States has not articulated a formal legal justification for the strikes. Instead, it reportedly circulated a document that listed several case-specific considerations that, in its view, justified the use of force. Yet the global reaction was overwhelmingly positive ...


Remembering An Abolitionist, Ambassador John R. Miller (May 23, 1938-October 4, 2017), Eleanor Kennelly Gaetan, Donna M. Hughes 2017 Frontline Reports Editor, Dignity

Remembering An Abolitionist, Ambassador John R. Miller (May 23, 1938-October 4, 2017), Eleanor Kennelly Gaetan, Donna M. Hughes

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

A memorial for Ambassador-at-Large to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, John R. Miller (May 23, 1938-October 4, 2017). Ambassador Miller believed modern-day slavery, encompassing sex trafficking and forced labor, requires a principled global offensive that the United States is morally obligated to lead. In the four formative years he led the State Department’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, 2002 to 2006, John Miller set the office’s course as diplomatically aggressive and programmatically creative. He made the annual Trafficking in Persons report more than a bureaucratic submission, putting daring heroes at the center, and insisting ...


Re-Imagining The Scope Of Children’S Legal Protection During Armed Conflicts Under International Law, Anaise Muzima 2017 Western University

Re-Imagining The Scope Of Children’S Legal Protection During Armed Conflicts Under International Law, Anaise Muzima

Master of Laws Research Papers Repository

The debate on the issue of child soldiers in international law has been mainly framed around the narrow question of whether child soldiers should be prosecuted or deemed innocent victims. This question, while essential, marginalized several considerations related to the multidimensional and intersecting identities and roles of child soldiers. Few scholars have investigated and evidenced the major gaps related to the legal protection of child soldiers in international law. While recognizing the potential related to the analysis on child soldiers’ criminal liability, this research proposes to focus on the examination of their vulnerabilities and to explore the legal foundations for ...


Individual Criminal Responsibility For The Destruction Of Religious And Historic Buildings: The Al Mahdi Case, Milena Sterio 2017 Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland State University

Individual Criminal Responsibility For The Destruction Of Religious And Historic Buildings: The Al Mahdi Case, Milena Sterio

Milena Sterio

Ahmad Al Faqi Al Mahdi, also known as Abou Tourab, was a member of the radical Islamic group Ansar Eddine, serving as one of four commanders during its brutal occupation of Timbuktu in 2012. The International Criminal Court (ICC) indicted Al Mahdi on several charges of war crimes for intentional attacks against ten religious and historic buildings and monuments. All the buildings that Al Mahdi was charged with attacking had been under UNESCO protection and most had been listed as world heritage sites. The case against Al Mahdi at the ICC unfolded relatively quickly and efficiently, from the official Malian ...


The Pedagogical Needs Of Children And Adults Living In The Calais Jungle Refugee Camp: Existential Issues And Perspectives Of Volunteer Teachers And Workers, Theresa C. Bodon, Nancy K. Votteler 2017 Sam Houston State University

The Pedagogical Needs Of Children And Adults Living In The Calais Jungle Refugee Camp: Existential Issues And Perspectives Of Volunteer Teachers And Workers, Theresa C. Bodon, Nancy K. Votteler

FIRE: Forum for International Research in Education

This study aimed at examining the pedagogical needs and challenges of children and young adults living in a refugee camp in France known as the Calais Jungle. Through the researchers’ observations and interviews with volunteer teachers and workers at the camp, insights into their perspectives shed light on the pedagogical needs of refugees. Also, utilizing Paulo Freire’s philosophical stance, this study provides a contextual approach to the educational practices and ideological viewpoints represented within unregulated refugee camp settings.


Saving Lives, Shalini Bhargava Ray 2017 University of Alabama School of Law

Saving Lives, Shalini Bhargava Ray

Boston College Law Review

When Alan Kurdi, a Syrian toddler, drowned in the Mediterranean while fleeing civil war in his home country, the world’s attention turned to the Syrian refugee crisis. Offers to transport and house refugees surged. Private boats set out on the Mediterranean Sea to rescue refugees dying in the water. A billionaire offered to purchase an island on which the refugees could live out their lives. This Article analyzes private humanitarian aid to asylum seekers, a subset of migrants whose claims for refugee protection have not yet been filed or adjudicated, and who typically travel without authorization. This Article determines ...


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