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International Humanitarian Law Commons

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All Articles in International Humanitarian Law

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Policing Against The State: United Nations Policing As Violative Of Sovereignty, Alexandra R. Harrington 2018 University of San Diego

Policing Against The State: United Nations Policing As Violative Of Sovereignty, Alexandra R. Harrington

San Diego International Law Journal

It is the author's contention that both parties to the policing arrangement-be they individuals, states, or organizations-give up portions of their sovereignty in the creation and maintenance of the police and policed relationship where the police are not serving the state which theoretically guards the policed. Part II of this Article provides a discussion of legal concepts of state sovereignty in international law. Part III examines the role of police in U.N. peacekeeping missions from the first peacekeeping mission entailing policing operations in the 1960s through present day operations. This examination reveals a pattern in the growth and ...


Are Enhanced Warfighters Weapons, Means, Or Methods Of Warfare?, Rain Liivoja, Luke Chircop 2018 TC Beirne School of Law, University of Queensland

Are Enhanced Warfighters Weapons, Means, Or Methods Of Warfare?, Rain Liivoja, Luke Chircop

International Law Studies

Advances in science and technology have made it possible to improve the physical and cognitive capabilities of warfighters by biomedical interventions, such as the administration of drugs, the implantation of devices, and the magnetic stimulation of the brain. These advances raise the question as to whether enhanced warfighters ought to be considered weapons, means of warfare, or methods of warfare, for the purposes of the law of armed conflict. An affirmative answer to this question would make human enhancement subject to various restrictions arising from the law of armed conflict as well as arms control law. This article disagrees with ...


The Consideration Of Male Victims Of Sexual Violence As A Subset Of The Particular Social Group “Homosexual” In Adjudicating Asylum Claims, Christiana Desrosiers 2018 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

The Consideration Of Male Victims Of Sexual Violence As A Subset Of The Particular Social Group “Homosexual” In Adjudicating Asylum Claims, Christiana Desrosiers

Pace International Law Review

This Article analyzes the difficulties African male victims of sexual violence experience when seeking asylum in homophobic host countries and the lack of attention they receive from international and national governments and organizations. It concludes by recommending that male victims of sexual violence be able to seek asylum in host countries due to lack of medical care that they receive in their countries on account of imputed homosexual status.


Humanitarian Islam, Engy Abdelkader 2018 Rutgers University

Humanitarian Islam, Engy Abdelkader

Pace International Law Review

In the aftermath of mass shootings by violent extremists and amid increasing anti-Muslim prejudice and discrimination, many Muslim Americans have responded to these and other social, legal, and political developments with philanthropic initiatives inspired by orthodox Islamic teachings. This humanitarian impulse in Islam, which has shaped the religion since its founding, is relatively unknown to non-Muslim Americans. Humanitarian Islam is defined here in largely oppositional terms to so-called the “radical Islam.” In contrast to the violence, aggression, death, and destruction commonly associated with “radical Islam,” selfless volunteerism, benevolence, altruism, and charitable giving in service to others are characteristic of humanitarian ...


Discriminatory Nationality Laws Must Be Eliminated In Order To Eradicate Statelessness, Neda Shaheen 2018 DePaul University

Discriminatory Nationality Laws Must Be Eliminated In Order To Eradicate Statelessness, Neda Shaheen

DePaul Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Undocumented Crime Victims: Unheard, Unnumbered, And Unprotected, Pauline Portillo 2018 St. Mary's University School of Law

Undocumented Crime Victims: Unheard, Unnumbered, And Unprotected, Pauline Portillo

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


Belligerent Obligations Under Article 18(1) Of The Second Geneva Convention: The Impact Of Sovereign Immunity, Booty Of War, And The Obligation To Respect And Protect War Graves, Wolff Heintschel von Heinegg 2018 Europa-Universität Viadrina

Belligerent Obligations Under Article 18(1) Of The Second Geneva Convention: The Impact Of Sovereign Immunity, Booty Of War, And The Obligation To Respect And Protect War Graves, Wolff Heintschel Von Heinegg

International Law Studies

Article 18(1) of the Second Geneva Convention requires parties to an international armed conflict, “after each engagement” and “without delay,” to “take all possible measures to search for and collect the wounded and sick, to protect them against pillage and ill-treatment, to ensure their adequate care, and to search for the dead and prevent their being despoiled.” This article focuses on the latter obligation: the duty to search for and collect the dead. It assesses this obligation in light of the International Committee of the Red Cross 2017 Commentary on the Second Geneva Convention, the first such commentary completed ...


The Updated Icrc Commentary On The Second Geneva Convention: Demystifying The Law Of Armed Conflict At Sea, Bruno Demeyere, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Heleen Hiemstra, Ellen Nohle 2018 International Committee of the Red Cross

The Updated Icrc Commentary On The Second Geneva Convention: Demystifying The Law Of Armed Conflict At Sea, Bruno Demeyere, Jean-Marie Henckaerts, Heleen Hiemstra, Ellen Nohle

International Law Studies

Since their publication in the 1950s and 1980s respectively, the Commentaries on the Geneva Conventions of 1949 and their Additional Protocols of 1977 have become a major reference for the application and interpretation of those treaties. The International Committee of the Red Cross, together with a team of renowned experts, is currently updating these Commentaries in order to document developments and provide up-to-date interpretations of the treaty texts. Following a brief overview of the methodology and process of the update as well as a historical background to the Second Geneva Convention, this article addresses the scope of applicability of the ...


“Pernicious [E]Ffects”: Discretionary Decision-Making In Queer Immigration To Canada, Renata Colwell 2018 University of Victoria

“Pernicious [E]Ffects”: Discretionary Decision-Making In Queer Immigration To Canada, Renata Colwell

Western Journal of Legal Studies

Over the past sixty-five years, Canada’s official attitude towards queer immigration has undergone dramatic changes, from overt exclusion to ostensible welcome. However, discretionary decision-making has remained a constant component of the evolving immigration frameworks affecting queer immigrants, with negative repercussions for queer applicants. From 1952 to 2017, queer immigration to Canada has been plagued by arbitrariness, unaccountability, unpredictability, and administrative scope for discriminatory exercises of discretion by decision-makers, resulting in harms that range from stress and vulnerability to unjust exclusion. In charting future courses to improve immigration outcomes for queer applicants and refugee claimants who seek to join us ...


Re-Victimization And The Asylum Process: Jimenez Ferreira V. Lynch: Re-Assessing The Weight Placed On Credible Fear Interviews In Determining Credibility, Alana Mosley 2018 University of Minnesota Law School

Re-Victimization And The Asylum Process: Jimenez Ferreira V. Lynch: Re-Assessing The Weight Placed On Credible Fear Interviews In Determining Credibility, Alana Mosley

Law & Inequality: A Journal of Theory and Practice

No abstract provided.


New Ebola Outbreak In Africa Is A Major Test For The Who, Lawrence O. Gostin 2018 Georgetown University

New Ebola Outbreak In Africa Is A Major Test For The Who, Lawrence O. Gostin

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

On May 8, the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) notified the World Health Organization (WHO) of a confirmed outbreak of Ebola in Bikoro, on the shores of Lake Tumba in Équateur Province. Ebola in the DRC is not unexpected. The first-ever identified Ebola outbreak occurred in the DRC—then Zaire—in 1976. This is the ninth of DRC’s outbreaks, which until now have been confined mainly to rural areas. With high fatality rates, earlier outbreaks quickly burned out due to the natural firewall of remoteness.

Bikoro and a nearby village, Ikoko-Impenge, are rural, but on May 16, the WHO ...


Decriminalization And Expanding Safe Harbor To Adults, Dave Pinto, Rep 2018 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Decriminalization And Expanding Safe Harbor To Adults, Dave Pinto, Rep

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


Existence Of International Trafficking Organizations And The Need For Resources Coordination And Leadership, Andrew Luger 2018 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Existence Of International Trafficking Organizations And The Need For Resources Coordination And Leadership, Andrew Luger

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


Sex Trafficking And Child Welfare, Jamie Cork 2018 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Sex Trafficking And Child Welfare, Jamie Cork

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


Sex Buyers: The "Demand Side" Of Sex Trafficking, Lauren Martin, Ph.D 2018 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Sex Buyers: The "Demand Side" Of Sex Trafficking, Lauren Martin, Ph.D

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


Child Sex Tourism And Its Relationship To Global Human Trafficking, Linda Miller 2018 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Child Sex Tourism And Its Relationship To Global Human Trafficking, Linda Miller

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


Duty To Render Assistance To Mariners In Distress During Armed Conflict At Sea: A U.S. Perspective, Raul (Pete) Pedrozo 2018 U.S. Naval War College

Duty To Render Assistance To Mariners In Distress During Armed Conflict At Sea: A U.S. Perspective, Raul (Pete) Pedrozo

International Law Studies

In 2017, the International Committee of the Red Cross published an updated Commentary on the Second Geneva Convention. One question left unanswered by the new Commentary is the relationship between international humanitarian law and other international treaties applicable to the maritime domain, such as the U.N. Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and treaties adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO). The Second Geneva Convention establishes a legal framework for the humane treatment and protection of victims of armed conflict at sea—the wounded, sick and shipwrecked. There are circumstances, however, in which the belligerents do not ...


Prosecuting U.N. Peacekeepers For Sexual And Gender-Based Violence In The Central African Republic, Sophia Genovese 2018 Brooklyn Law School

Prosecuting U.N. Peacekeepers For Sexual And Gender-Based Violence In The Central African Republic, Sophia Genovese

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Women and children living in armed conflict are amongst the most vulnerable populations at-risk of sexual and gender-based violence. When U.N. peacekeepers arrive to help dispel conflict; these populations believe that the soldiers in blue helmets will protect them. Instead; hundreds of women and children in the Central African Republic have reported being raped and sexually violated by U.N. peacekeepers. Despite compelling evidence to validate these claims; U.N. peacekeepers who commit these crimes are seldom held accountable. This Note discusses how to hold U.N. peacekeepers accountable for their human rights violations. This Note argues that troop-contributing ...


Pull And Push'- Implementing The Complementarity Principle Of The Rome Statute Of The Icc Within The Au: Opportunities And Challenges, Sascha Dominik Dov Bachmann, Eda Luke Nwibo 2018 Brooklyn Law School

Pull And Push'- Implementing The Complementarity Principle Of The Rome Statute Of The Icc Within The Au: Opportunities And Challenges, Sascha Dominik Dov Bachmann, Eda Luke Nwibo

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

The complementarity principle of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC) is an international legal principle that governs the relationship between two; sometimes; contrasting international principles of law; namely sovereign equality of States and the international community’s duty to end impunity for international core crimes. Article 17 of the Rome Statute envisages that States maintain primary jurisdiction to investigate and prosecute international crimes; while the ICC’s jurisdiction to prosecute when States are unwilling or genuinely unable to carry out such investigations or prosecutions constitutes the exception. This article provides an analysis of this principle in the ...


Missing: Where Are The Migrants In Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plans?, Kolitha Wickramage, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman, Phusit Prakongsai, Rapeepong Suphanchaimat, Charles Hui, Patrick Duigan, Eliana Barragan, David R. Harper 2018 International Organization for Migration, the United Nations Migration Agency

Missing: Where Are The Migrants In Pandemic Influenza Preparedness Plans?, Kolitha Wickramage, Lawrence O. Gostin, Eric A. Friedman, Phusit Prakongsai, Rapeepong Suphanchaimat, Charles Hui, Patrick Duigan, Eliana Barragan, David R. Harper

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Influenza pandemics are perennial global health security threats, with novel and seasonal influenza affecting a large proportion of the world’s population, causing enormous economic and social destruction. Novel viruses such as influenza A(H7N9) continue to emerge, posing zoonotic and potential pandemic threats. Many countries have developed pandemic influenza preparedness plans (PIPPs) aimed at guiding actions and investments to respond to such outbreak events.

Migrant and mobile population groups—such as migrant workers, cross-border frontier workers, refugees, asylum seekers, and other non-citizen categories residing within national boundaries—may be disproportionately affected in the event of health emergencies, with irregular ...


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