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Alaska Oil & Gas Association V. Pritzker, Benjamin W. Almy 2017 Alexander Blewitt III School of Law at the University of Montana

Alaska Oil & Gas Association V. Pritzker, Benjamin W. Almy

Public Land and Resources Law Review

In Alaska Oil & Gas Association v. Pritzker, the Ninth Circuit reversed the United States District Court for the District of Alaska’s decision to strike down the National Marine Fisheries Service’s (“NMFS”) listing of distinct population segments of the Pacific bearded seal. The court determined that the NMFS was in full compliance with the requirements of the Endangered Species Act and squarely rejected the district court’s demand for highly specific data pertaining to the projected effects of climate change on the bearded seal.


Safari Club International V. Jewell, Jacob Schwaller 2017 University of Montana, Missoula

Safari Club International V. Jewell, Jacob Schwaller

Public Land and Resources Law Review

Safari Club International and the National Rifle Association brought this challenge to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service’s suspension of elephant trophy imports from 2014 forward. Both parties brought cross motions for summary judgment. In a recent memorandum opinion, the D.C. Federal District Court found that, although there was a minor procedural error on the part of the Service, an extended ban on Zimbabwean elephant trophies by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service was in large part compliant with their mandate under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna and ...


Sensitizing Humans To Fish Sentience, Kelly Levenda 2017 Animal Legal Defense Fund

Sensitizing Humans To Fish Sentience, Kelly Levenda

Animal Sentience: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Animal Feeling

Although fish can feel pain and suffer, they are not often protected legally. Jonathan Balcombe’s What a Fish Knows provides a timely and important contribution to the literature on animal cognition and sentience. By explaining their personalities and capabilities, Balcombe brings much needed public attention to fish and advances the principle that they need and deserve protection.


Living With Owning, Matt Ampleman, Douglas A. Kysar 2016 Yale Law School

Living With Owning, Matt Ampleman, Douglas A. Kysar

Indiana Law Journal

In October, 2011, Terry Thompson committed suicide by gunshot after cutting open the cages of fifty-six exotic animals on his farm in Zanesville, Ohio. Fearing for pub-lic safety, law enforcement officers systematically hunted down the escaped animals in an episode that garnered international attention and prompted renewed discus-sion of the propriety of exotic animal ownership. This Article retells and discusses the circumstances surrounding Terry Thompson’s unhinging, applying frameworks of legal theory, chiefly in the realm of property law, to assess the fabric that held Thompson’s delicate system together and the tensions that led to its unravelling. As an ...


2016 Study Of Current Conditions Of Kentucky County Animal Shelters And Degree Of Compliance With Kentucky Animal Shelter Laws, Cynthia L. Gaskill, Rachel Cullman-Clark, Liane Lachiewicz, Matt Lamarre, Brad Rohleder, Kristin Sadler, Rachel Sparling, Craig N. Carter 2016 University of Kentucky

2016 Study Of Current Conditions Of Kentucky County Animal Shelters And Degree Of Compliance With Kentucky Animal Shelter Laws, Cynthia L. Gaskill, Rachel Cullman-Clark, Liane Lachiewicz, Matt Lamarre, Brad Rohleder, Kristin Sadler, Rachel Sparling, Craig N. Carter

Veterinary Science Reports

Kentucky’s county animal shelter conditions have not been studied for over 20 years. Major goals of this study were to assess current conditions in Kentucky’s county shelters and determine the degree of compliance with Kentucky shelter laws. Additional information was gathered to determine the major problems and needs identified by shelter personnel and researchers. Data was used to determine if additional state funds or refinements and additions to current laws are warranted to ensure humane care of animals in Kentucky’s county shelters. Researchers consisted of a group of 6 veterinary students who traveled to all Kentucky county ...


Risk And Regulatory Calibration: Wto Compliance Review Of The U.S. Dolphin-Safe Tuna Labeling Regime, Cary Coglianese, André Sapir 2016 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Risk And Regulatory Calibration: Wto Compliance Review Of The U.S. Dolphin-Safe Tuna Labeling Regime, Cary Coglianese, André Sapir

Faculty Scholarship

In a series of recent disputes arising under the TBT Agreement, the Appellate Body has interpreted Article 2.1 to provide that discriminatory and trade-distortive regulation could be permissible if based upon a “legitimate regulatory distinction.” In its recent compliance decision in the US-Tuna II dispute, the AB reaffirmed its view that regulatory distinctions embedded in the U.S. dolphin-safe tuna labeling regime were not legitimate because they were not sufficiently calibrated to the risks to dolphins associated with different tuna fishing conditions. This paper analyzes the AB’s application of the notion of risk-based regulation in the US-Tuna II ...


Real Bite: Legal Realism And Meaningful Rational Basis In Dog Law And Beyond, Ann L. Schiavone 2016 College of William & Mary Law School

Real Bite: Legal Realism And Meaningful Rational Basis In Dog Law And Beyond, Ann L. Schiavone

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

No abstract provided.


Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. V. Pritzker, Caitlin Buzzas 2016 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. V. Pritzker, Caitlin Buzzas

Public Land and Resources Law Review

In Natural Resources Defense Council, Inc. v. Pritzker, the Ninth Circuit dealt with the conflict of science in making legal and policy decisions. NMFS was held to a stringent mitigation standard to protect marine mammals against the Navy’s use of LFA sonar for military operations. In this decision the court held that agencies are required to apply the least practicable adverse impact on marine mammals in these types of operations and agencies must listen to their own experts when making these decisions.


Case Study On The Galapagos Islands: Balance For Biodiversity & Migration, Cesar E. Neira 2016 Barry University School of Law

Case Study On The Galapagos Islands: Balance For Biodiversity & Migration, Cesar E. Neira

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

In this comment, the author will examine the Special Organic Law of the Galapagos. To better understand the impacts of the law, the comment will examine some of the more notable provisions of the 1998 version, and a few of the amended changes in 2015. Throughout this comment, themes such as migration and preserving biodiversity will be discussed. As we will see, this notion of balancing human needs and ecosystem in the islands is not always straight-forward.


Trouble In Paradise: Maintaining The Eu Ideal For Environmental Policy In Eestern Europe, Amanda L. Harb 2016 Barry University School of Law

Trouble In Paradise: Maintaining The Eu Ideal For Environmental Policy In Eestern Europe, Amanda L. Harb

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

Ten Central and Eastern European nations have joined the EU in the last decade. The conditions for joining the EU are scrupulous and expansive, covering everything from: election rules, food product labels, and battery disposal. CEE states who are newly inducted into the EU are currently striving to successfully implement the complete extent of collected EU law. Eastern Europe has long lagged behind the west in environmental policy. Extreme industrialization and widespread deregulation over the last century produced many areas with environmental degradation. The idea is that by adopting European environmental policy, Eastern European states can cash in on European ...


Too Many Humans, Dwindling Resources, And Not Enough Space, Jorge T. Martinez 2016 Barry University School of Law

Too Many Humans, Dwindling Resources, And Not Enough Space, Jorge T. Martinez

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

This paper will address the often-overlooked subject of human overpopulation and examine the role it plays in the environmental health of our planet. Part I will define overpopulation and how it is determined, as well as briefly examine animal overpopulations and their effects on the environment. Part II will turn to human population trends, the carrying capacity of humans on earth, and the environmental consequences of human overpopulation. The environmental issues currently faced in China, India, Africa, and other densely populated areas will be explored. Part III will analyze some of the legal solutions that have been implemented to curb ...


Equal Protection For Animals, Pat Andriola 2016 New York University School of Law

Equal Protection For Animals, Pat Andriola

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

This paper presents a simple argument: through a Dworkinian moral reading of the Constitution, nonhuman animals fall under the Supreme Court’s equal protection doctrinal framework for suspect classification. Therefore, nonhuman animals are protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. The moral principle underlying equal protection is the ensuring of government’s empathetic and equitable treatment toward not just subgroups of humans (which have been judicially delineated by social constructs of race, gender, sexuality, and other defining characteristics), but toward all sentient beings who may become victim to the “tyranny of the majority.


Protecting The Delta Smelt: Environmental Organizations Have Standing To Enforce The Endangered Species Act’S Consultation Requirement, Alexandra Shalom 2016 Boston College Law School

Protecting The Delta Smelt: Environmental Organizations Have Standing To Enforce The Endangered Species Act’S Consultation Requirement, Alexandra Shalom

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

In January 1993, the U.S. Fish & Wild Life Service (“FWS”) added the delta smelt, a small, silvery blue fish, to the Endangered Species Act’s (“ESA”) list of threatened wildlife. Species on the list are entitled to the ESA’s protections. In Natural Resource Defense Council v. Jewell, the Natural Resource Defense Council (“NRDC”) brought an action against the Bureau of Reclamation (the “Bureau”) for violating Section 7(a)(2) of the ESA, the consultation requirement, to protect the delta smelt. The consultation provision required the Bureau to consult with the FWS before it renewed contracts that controlled water ...


The Legal Rights Of All Living Things, Stacey L. Gordon 2016 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

The Legal Rights Of All Living Things, Stacey L. Gordon

Faculty Journal Articles & Other Writings

This article explores the nuances in the development of environmental standing, looking especially at the cases that can inform animal law. Because animals are part of the natural environment and some statutes protecting animals, like the ESA and MMPA, are often characterized as environmental law statutes, several of the critical cases are already animal law cases, including the fundamental case of Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife.12 For the purposes of understanding the development of standing for natural objects, Part I examines these cases in addition to traditional environmental standing cases. Part II addresses the lessons learned from those cases ...


Self-Harm In Laboratory-Housed Primates: Where Is The Evidence That The Animal Welfare Act Amendment Has Worked?, Jonathan Balcombe, Hope Ferdowsian, Debra Durham 2016 Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

Self-Harm In Laboratory-Housed Primates: Where Is The Evidence That The Animal Welfare Act Amendment Has Worked?, Jonathan Balcombe, Hope Ferdowsian, Debra Durham

Jonathan Balcombe, Ph.D.

The 1985 amendment to the United States Animal Welfare Act (AWA) to promote psychological well being of primates in the laboratory represents an acknowledgment of an important welfare problem concerning nonhuman animals. How effective has this amendment been? Perhaps the best-known contributor to psychological distress in primates in the laboratory is nonsocial housing; yet, available analyses suggest that little progress has been made in avoiding single-caging of these animals. Another way to assess psychological well being is to examine rates of self-abusive behavior in laboratory primates. If the AWA has been effective, then post-AWA self-harm rates might be lower than ...


Self-Harm In Laboratory-Housed Primates: Where Is The Evidence That The Animal Welfare Act Amendment Has Worked?, Jonathan Balcombe, Hope Ferdowsian, Debra Durham 2016 Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine

Self-Harm In Laboratory-Housed Primates: Where Is The Evidence That The Animal Welfare Act Amendment Has Worked?, Jonathan Balcombe, Hope Ferdowsian, Debra Durham

Debra Durham, Ph.D.

The 1985 amendment to the United States Animal Welfare Act (AWA) to promote psychological well being of primates in the laboratory represents an acknowledgment of an important welfare problem concerning nonhuman animals. How effective has this amendment been? Perhaps the best-known contributor to psychological distress in primates in the laboratory is nonsocial housing; yet, available analyses suggest that little progress has been made in avoiding single-caging of these animals. Another way to assess psychological well being is to examine rates of self-abusive behavior in laboratory primates. If the AWA has been effective, then post-AWA self-harm rates might be lower than ...


Focusing On Human Responsibility Rather Than Legal Personhood For Nonhuman Animals, Richard L. Cupp Jr. 2016 Pepperdine University School of Law

Focusing On Human Responsibility Rather Than Legal Personhood For Nonhuman Animals, Richard L. Cupp Jr.

Pace Environmental Law Review

We should focus on human legal accountability for responsible treatment of nonhuman animals rather than radically restructuring our legal system to make them legal persons. This essay, provided at the kind invitation of the Pace Environmental Law Review (PELR) and Steven Wise, President of the Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc., outlines a number of concerns about animal legal personhood. It does so primarily in the context of the plaintiff’s brief in The Nonhuman Rights Project, Inc. v. Lavery, filed in the New York Supreme Court, New York County. The first Lavery lawsuit (Lavery I) was filed in Fulton County in ...


Gray Area: Court Of Arbitration For Sport Says Neigh To Reconsidering Strict Liability For Equestrian Sport, Mary Zoeller 2016 Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law

Gray Area: Court Of Arbitration For Sport Says Neigh To Reconsidering Strict Liability For Equestrian Sport, Mary Zoeller

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Trouble On The High Seas: A Need For Change In The Wake Of Australia V. Japan, Matt DiCenso 2016 Boston College Law School

Trouble On The High Seas: A Need For Change In The Wake Of Australia V. Japan, Matt Dicenso

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

On March 31, 2014, the International Court of Justice (ICJ) held that Japan’s whaling program, known as JARPA II, lacked scientific merit and thus violated three provisions of the Schedule to the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW). This victory for whale conservationists was short-lived, however, as Japan, ignoring procedural safeguards put in place by the International Whaling Commission (IWC), soon announced its plan to launch a new whaling program in conformity with both the ICJ’s decision and the ICRW. Japan’s course of action highlights not only the limited applicability of the ICJ’s judgment ...


Habeas For Homo Troglodytes, Aram Hauslaib 2016 Golden Gate University School of Law

Habeas For Homo Troglodytes, Aram Hauslaib

GGU Law Review Blog

The chimpanzee is the human’s closest living relative. In fact, chimps are closer to humans than to gorillas or orangutans. Given this, there are those who propose chimpanzees be reclassified to the human genus, Homo, giving them the scientific name Homo troglodytes. The change in the classification could prove critical, as the rights held by men and women today have repeatedly hinged on how they were defined.


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