Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Comparative and Foreign Law Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

3,399 Full-Text Articles 2,414 Authors 1,351,077 Downloads 92 Institutions

All Articles in Comparative and Foreign Law

Faceted Search

3,399 full-text articles. Page 1 of 80.

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, yehezkel Margalit 2015 SelectedWorks

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

In 1985, when Kim Cotton became Britain’s first commercial surrogate mother, Europe was exposed to the issue of surrogacy for the first time on a large scale. Three years later, in 1988, the famous case of Baby M drew the attention of the American public to surrogacy as well. These two cases implicated fundamental ethical and legal issues regarding domestic surrogacy and triggered a fierce debate about motherhood, child-bearing, and the relationship between procreation, science and commerce. These two cases exemplified the debate regarding domestic surrogacy - a debate that has now been raging for decades. Contrary to the well-known ...


Notes From A New Underground: The Intersection Of Russian Orthodoxy, Religious Liberty, Lgbt Rights, And State Authority, John Ehrett 2015 Yale Law School

Notes From A New Underground: The Intersection Of Russian Orthodoxy, Religious Liberty, Lgbt Rights, And State Authority, John Ehrett

John Ehrett

Current laws in the Russian Federation impose sanctions against both speech deemed offensive to Russia’s traditional religious groups and speech considered “propaganda” of the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. This Article offers a contemporary examination of the historical, cultural and political forces underlying these ongoing trends, and offers an interdisciplinary consideration of issues surrounding the intersection of liberty of religious expression with liberty of LGBT expression in Vladimir Putin’s Russia. This is historically contextualized through consideration of the political integration of church and state as a contributing factor toward limitations on these political freedoms. Ultimately, a ...


Promoting “Academic Entrepreurship” In Europe And The United States: Creating An Intellectual Property Regime To Facilitate The Efficient Transfer Of Knowledge From The Lab To The Patient, Constance E. Bagley, Christina Tvarno 2015 Yale Law School

Promoting “Academic Entrepreurship” In Europe And The United States: Creating An Intellectual Property Regime To Facilitate The Efficient Transfer Of Knowledge From The Lab To The Patient, Constance E. Bagley, Christina Tvarno

Constance E. Bagley

In 2014, the European Commission announced the launch of a study of knowledge transfer by public research organizations and other institutes of higher learning “to determine which additional measures might be needed to ensure an optimal flow of knowledge between the public research organisations and business thereby contributing to the development of the knowledge based economy.” As the European Commission has recognized, the EU needs to take action to “unlock the potential of IPRs [intellectual property rights] that lie dormant in universities, research institutes and companies.” This article builds on our earlier work on structuring efficient pharmaceutical public-private partnerships (PPPPs ...


Does It Matter How One Opposes Memory Bans? A Commentary On Liberte Pour L'Histoire, Robert Kahn 2015 University of St. Thomas School of Law

Does It Matter How One Opposes Memory Bans? A Commentary On Liberte Pour L'Histoire, Robert Kahn

Robert Kahn

This paper examines Liberté pour l'Histoire, a group of French historians who led the charge against that nation’s memory laws, in the process raising unique arguments not found elsewhere in the debate over hate speech regulation. Some of these arguments – such as a focus on how the constitutional structure of the Fifth Republic encouraged memory laws – advance our understanding of the connection between hate speech bans and political institutions. Other arguments, however, are more problematic. In particular, Liberté historians struggle to distinguish the Holocaust (which is illegal to deny) from the Armenian Genocide (which is not). The Liberté ...


Rescuing Arbitration In The Developing World: The Extraordinary Case Of Georgia, Steven Austermiller 2015 East West Management Institue

Rescuing Arbitration In The Developing World: The Extraordinary Case Of Georgia, Steven Austermiller

Steven Austermiller

The country of Georgia has a long and interesting history with arbitration. From “telephone justice” to the criminal underworld to legitimacy, Georgian arbitration has survived many iterations. Now, as Georgia begins the EU accession process, it has a new arbitration law that incorporates international norms. This article analyzes the law, explores how arbitration has been implemented thus far, and discusses some of the challenges that remain. Drawing on his U.S. practice experience in arbitration and his work managing legal reform programs in Georgia and other countries, the author recommends some important changes to Georgia’s new arbitration regime. A ...


International Human Rights Law And The Regulation Of Racial Hate Speech In Australia: Reform And Replace?, Alan B. Berman B.A., J.D., L.L.M. PhD. 2015 University of Newcastle

International Human Rights Law And The Regulation Of Racial Hate Speech In Australia: Reform And Replace?, Alan B. Berman B.A., J.D., L.L.M. Phd.

Alan B Berman B.A., J.D., L.L.M. PhD.

A surge in the number of instances inciting racial hatred and discrimination as well as threatening physical or other harm on the basis of race has been apparent in Australia in recent years. Physical threats to persons or property involving racial animus is referred to in existing Australian state and territory legislation as severe racial vilification. There is no comparable federal law attracting criminal penalties.

It will be argued in this paper that several factors justify prosecuting these activities as specific hate crimes under both state and federal criminal laws. These include, Australia’s responsibilities under international treaties, the inadequacy ...


Ip Piracy & Developing Nations: A Recipe For Terrorism Funding, Brandy G. Robinson 2015 Independent

Ip Piracy & Developing Nations: A Recipe For Terrorism Funding, Brandy G. Robinson

Brandy G Robinson

When events such as 9/11 hit the U.S., no one thought that terrorists funded these activities through intellectual property piracy. On the surface, intellectual property (IP) piracy and terrorism are two distant topics. However, these topics are not distant but closely connected, as terrorist groups thrive on IP piracy, especially in developing nations, which has led to successful terrorist funding opportunities. Because IP piracy evades normal detection and developing nations do not thoroughly understand it, terrorist groups gravitate towards IP piracy for funding, which presents a distinct global dilemma.

Intellectual property rights and laws, namely criminal enforcement mechanisms ...


The Brazilian Appellate Procedure Through Common Law Lenses: How American Standards Of Review May Help Improve Brazilian Civil Procedure, Cesar Zucatti Pritsch 2015 Florida International University College of Law

The Brazilian Appellate Procedure Through Common Law Lenses: How American Standards Of Review May Help Improve Brazilian Civil Procedure, Cesar Zucatti Pritsch

Cesar Zucatti Pritsch

In this article, we address a flaw in Brazilian civil procedure observed in our practice as a Federal Labor Judge in Brazil, an issue that may be addressed by limiting appellate review in a similar fashion as the American courts do, using standards of appellate review.

In Brazil, appellate courts tend to ignore the lower court’s decisions, replacing them for the ruling they would have made had they been the original decision makers. A simple disagreement with the lower court’s findings of fact or discretionary rulings, no matter how reasonable, is sufficient grounds for reversal.

The lack of ...


Market Corrective Rulemaking: Drawing On Eu Insights To Rationalize U.S. Regulation, Reeve T. Bull 2015 Administrative Conference of the United States

Market Corrective Rulemaking: Drawing On Eu Insights To Rationalize U.S. Regulation, Reeve T. Bull

Reeve T Bull

When justifying the government’s role in intervening in the free market, economists and legal scholars alike point to the problem of “market failures”: laissez-faire capitalism may not produce optimal outcomes in certain cases, and government interventions can promote overall market efficiency. The existence of such market failures is not terribly controversial; the question of whether government regulators can correctly identify these flaws and devise appropriate solutions, by contrast, is significantly more contentious. Unfortunately, under the existing regulatory framework, government officials are not especially well-positioned to make these difficult determinations. Congress does not, as a general matter, consider the economic ...


It's All Interpretation, All The Way Down, Or, The Reason We Call It The “Practice” Of Law: With Observations From Two Different Legal Systems, John R. Prince III 2015 Wenzhou-Kean University

It's All Interpretation, All The Way Down, Or, The Reason We Call It The “Practice” Of Law: With Observations From Two Different Legal Systems, John R. Prince Iii

John R. Prince III

This article explores one aspect of the philosophy of law; not what it means to refer to “the law” but what it means to discuss the “practice of law.” That practice is identified as a discursive practice, one where a text is applied to a particular factual context, and thus an interpretive practice. However, the type of interpretation involved in the practice of law is not one of translating one verbal formulation of a rule into another verbal formulation, but the act of bridging the gap between the rule and what that rule means here, and now, in a particular ...


Solicitors' Right To Advertise: A Historical And Comparative Analysis, M. Catherine Harris 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

Solicitors' Right To Advertise: A Historical And Comparative Analysis, M. Catherine Harris

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Tacking In Stormy Weather: The Shipping Act Of 1984, R. Dale Hughes 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

Tacking In Stormy Weather: The Shipping Act Of 1984, R. Dale Hughes

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Buying Time In Spain: The Spanish Law Of Installment Sales, John M. Steadman 2015 District of Columbia Court of Appeals

Buying Time In Spain: The Spanish Law Of Installment Sales, John M. Steadman

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Securities Regulations Investigations - United States-Swiss Treaty Attempts To Increase Cooperation In Releasing Names Of Swiss-Based Account Holders Involved In United States Securities And Exchange Commission Investigations, Daniel B. Simon III 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

Securities Regulations Investigations - United States-Swiss Treaty Attempts To Increase Cooperation In Releasing Names Of Swiss-Based Account Holders Involved In United States Securities And Exchange Commission Investigations, Daniel B. Simon Iii

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


International Satellite Piracy: The Unauthorized Interception And Retransmission Of United States Program-Carrying Satellite Signals In The Caribbean, And Legal Protection For United States Program Owners, Judith S. Weinstein 2015 Barnard College

International Satellite Piracy: The Unauthorized Interception And Retransmission Of United States Program-Carrying Satellite Signals In The Caribbean, And Legal Protection For United States Program Owners, Judith S. Weinstein

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Removing The Distraction Of Delay, Jill E. Family 2015 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

Removing The Distraction Of Delay, Jill E. Family

Catholic University Law Review

Immigration adjudication is in an awkward position. There is an intricate system to adjudicate immigration removal (deportation) cases, but that system is hindered by restrictions, and the constant threat of further restrictions, that reflect distaste for providing process to foreign nationals facing removal. There is a push and pull phenomenon, with immigration adjudication stretched uncomfortably in between two forces. On the one side, there is a push to apply common notions of due process to immigration removal cases, to push that the same concepts of procedural justice should apply in immigration cases as they would in any other context. On ...


Peer-To-Peer File Sharing As User Rights Activism, Michael A. Gunn 2015 University of Western Ontario

Peer-To-Peer File Sharing As User Rights Activism, Michael A. Gunn

Western Journal of Legal Studies

The pre-digital marketplace is no longer sustainable. With the imposition of digital rights management restrictions on the distribution of media, the Internet cannot promote intellectual freedom. Peer-to-peer file sharing technology helps expose the work of artists and authors to a much wider audience than previously possible. This provides an opportunity for more sales and a greater number of successful artists and authors. Yet corporate copyright owners continue to propagate the “piracy” label to discredit the idea of open access channels. This paper argues that as information professionals, librarians are in a position to promote policy change that revolutionizes the political ...


Evidence Laundering: How Herring Made Ignorance The Best Detergent, Kay L. Levine 2015 Emory University

Evidence Laundering: How Herring Made Ignorance The Best Detergent, Kay L. Levine

Kay L Levine

The Supreme Court’s decision in Herring v. United States authorizes police to defeat the Fourth Amendment’s protections through a process we call evidence laundering. Evidence laundering occurs when one police officer makes a constitutional mistake when gathering evidence and then passes that evidence along to a second officer, who receives the evidence, develops it further, and delivers it to prosecutors for use in a criminal case. When courts admit the evidence based on the good faith of the second officer, the original constitutional taint disappears in the wash.

In the years since Herring was decided, courts have allowed ...


Capturing The Transplant: U.S. Antitrust Law In The Eu, Silvia Beltrametti 2015 University of Chicago

Capturing The Transplant: U.S. Antitrust Law In The Eu, Silvia Beltrametti

Silvia Beltrametti

The scholarly literature on the movement of legal norms focuses almost exclusively on transfers from one jurisdiction to another. It largely ignores transfers into new regulatory regimes. Drawing on a case study of the transplantation of U.S. antitrust law into the nascent entity that was to become the European Community, and analyzing its evolution from a public choice perspective, this Article suggests that transfers into new regulatory regimes are more likely to be effective when the lack of established institutions creates opportunities for stakeholders. The endorsement of a new law will enable stakeholders to influence its application and to ...


Impartiality And Independence: Misunderstood Cousins, James E. Moliterno 2015 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Impartiality And Independence: Misunderstood Cousins, James E. Moliterno

James E. Moliterno

No abstract provided.


Digital Commons powered by bepress