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Sentencing Enhancement For Aggravating Role: The Need For The Numerosity Test As The Legal Standard For The "Otherwise Extensive" Criminal Activity Determination, Nicole Borczyk 2018 Notre Dame Law School

Sentencing Enhancement For Aggravating Role: The Need For The Numerosity Test As The Legal Standard For The "Otherwise Extensive" Criminal Activity Determination, Nicole Borczyk

Journal of Legislation

No abstract provided.


International Mother Of Mystery: Protecting Surrogate Mothers’ Participation In International Commercial Surrogacy Contracts, Jamie Cooperman 2018 Golden Gate University School of Law

International Mother Of Mystery: Protecting Surrogate Mothers’ Participation In International Commercial Surrogacy Contracts, Jamie Cooperman

Golden Gate University Law Review

The lack of uniform international laws regarding surrogacy exposes all parties involved in surrogacy arrangements to a variety of problems. Challenges include determining the status of children, the rights of intended parents, and the protection of surrogates. Issues regarding the citizenship of babies born to surrogacy agreements tend arise when the child leaves the birth country and enters the intended country of citizenship.

Overall, international surrogacy arrangements present three central problems: (1) the citizenship of children, (2) the rights of intended parents, and (3) the rights and protection of women who serve as surrogates. This Comment focuses on the third ...


Competing Sovereignty And Laws’ Domains, Paul B. Stephan 2018 Pepperdine University

Competing Sovereignty And Laws’ Domains, Paul B. Stephan

Pepperdine Law Review

We live in a world of multiple sovereignties. Many think of nation-states as the principal sovereign actors, but sovereign substates and international institutions created by states also hold sway. Each claims a domain, an area (spatial, temporal, conceptual) over which it rules. Ruling includes adopting and applying law. When domains overlap, laws can clash. Competition among sovereigns over legal domains poses a challenge to people who take law into account as they live their lives and plan their futures. What makes these issues immediately important is the growth of the international-law enterprise over the last quarter-century. Both the ambitions and ...


Full Faith And Credit, Choice Of Laws, And Extraterritorial Regulation Of Corporate Transactions, Gregory S. Sergienko 2018 Concordia University School of Law

Full Faith And Credit, Choice Of Laws, And Extraterritorial Regulation Of Corporate Transactions, Gregory S. Sergienko

Greg Sergienko

In a federal system in which each state may enact laws providing for the chartering and governance of corporations and in which corporations can and do conduct business in more than one state, several states may claim an interest in regulating the conduct of a given corporation. The enactment of state laws that are intended to restrict hostile corporate takeovers and that purport to extend to foreign corporations is one example of this phenomenon. "Typically, any of a number of jurisdictional links might trigger the application of such an anti-takeover statute: the target's being incorporated in the state, its ...


Punishment But Not A Penalty? Punitive Damages Are Impermissible Under Foreign Substantive Law, Paul A. Hoversten 2018 University of Michigan Law School

Punishment But Not A Penalty? Punitive Damages Are Impermissible Under Foreign Substantive Law, Paul A. Hoversten

Michigan Law Review

It is a well-established principle that no court applies the penal laws of another sovereign. But what exactly is a penal law? According to Judge Cardozo, a penal law effects “vindication of the public justice” rather than “reparation to one aggrieved.” Although courts have historically treated punitive damages as a purely civil remedy, that attitude has shifted over time. Modern American punitive damages serve not to compensate the plaintiff but to punish the defendant on behalf of the whole community. Therefore, when courts rely on foreign substantive law to impose punitive damages, they arguably violate the well-established principle that no ...


Choice Of Law In Ohio: Two Steps Routinely Missed, Richard S. Walinski 2018 The University of Akron

Choice Of Law In Ohio: Two Steps Routinely Missed, Richard S. Walinski

Akron Law Review

At last tally, courts in fewer than half of the states look to the Restatement (Second) Conflict of Laws for any part of their choice-of-law rules. Ohio, however, is in the minority that does. In fact, Ohio has endorsed the Restatement (Second) with surprising enthusiasm. The Supreme Court of Ohio took the unusual step of announcing in 1984 and again in 2007 that it has “adopted” the Restatement (Second) “in its entirety” for resolution of all conflict-of-law questions that arise in this state.

Despite the court’s wholesale endorsement of the Restatement (Second), the courts of Ohio—including the supreme ...


Treaty Exit And Intra-Branch Conflict At The Interface Of International And Domestic Law, Laurence R. Helfer 2018 Duke Law School

Treaty Exit And Intra-Branch Conflict At The Interface Of International And Domestic Law, Laurence R. Helfer

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter, forthcoming in the Oxford Handbook of Comparative Foreign Relations Law, considers two important and unresolved issues raised by unilateral withdrawal from or denunciation of treaties. The first issue concerns whether treaty obligations end in both international and domestic law after a state leaves a treaty. Exit often produces the same effects in both legal systems, but some withdrawals bifurcate a treaty’s status, ending its obligations in domestic law but continuing to bind the state internationally, or vice versa. The second issue concerns denunciations initiated by different branches of government. The decision to withdraw from a treaty is ...


Beyond The Reach Of States: The Dormant Commerce Clause, Extraterritorial State Regulation, And The Concerns Of Federalism, Peter C. Felmly 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Beyond The Reach Of States: The Dormant Commerce Clause, Extraterritorial State Regulation, And The Concerns Of Federalism, Peter C. Felmly

Maine Law Review

The Commerce Clause of the United States Constitution provides that “[t]he Congress shall have Power ... [t]o regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes.” Interpreting this explicit grant of power to Congress, the Supreme Court has long recognized the existence of an implied limitation on the power of a state to legislate in areas of interstate commerce when Congress has remained silent. Under what is referred to as the negative or “dormant” Commerce Clause, the federal courts have thus scrutinized state legislation for well over one hundred years. In the past ...


Recognition And Reinforcement Of Foreign Judgments In Asia, Adeline CHONG 2017 Singapore Management University

Recognition And Reinforcement Of Foreign Judgments In Asia, Adeline Chong

Research Collection School Of Law

No abstract provided.


Smith V. Town Of Pittston: Municipal Home Rule's Narrow Escape From The Morass Of Implicit Preemption, Shane Wright 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Smith V. Town Of Pittston: Municipal Home Rule's Narrow Escape From The Morass Of Implicit Preemption, Shane Wright

Maine Law Review

In Smith v. Town of Pittston, the Maine Supreme Judicial Court, sitting as the Law Court, upheld a municipal ordinance adopted by the town of Pittston that prohibited the spreading of septage within Pittston. The majority held that Pittston's ordinance did not violate the Maine Hazardous Waste, Septage and Solid Waste Management Act (Solid Waste Management Act), which “govern[s] the disposal of garbage, sludge, septage and other waste.” The majority interpreted the “home rule” statute as granting sufficient authority to Pittston, as a municipal corporation, to enact the ordinance at issue. The dissent, on the other hand, would ...


New Hampshire Motor Transport Association V. Rowe: Federal Preemption Of Maine's Attempt To Regulate Internet Sales Of Tobacco To Minors, Nathaniel D. Bryans 2017 University of Maine School of Law

New Hampshire Motor Transport Association V. Rowe: Federal Preemption Of Maine's Attempt To Regulate Internet Sales Of Tobacco To Minors, Nathaniel D. Bryans

Maine Law Review

In New Hampshire Motor Transport Ass'n v. Rowe, trade associations sought a declaratory judgment that the Federal Aviation Administration Authorization Act of 1994 (FAAAA) preempts a Maine law enacted to facilitate collection of state taxes and restrict the delivery of tobacco products to minors (the Tobacco Delivery Law). The district court granted the plaintiffs' second motion for summary judgment in part, finding that a single provision of little independent consequence escaped preemption, and enjoined enforcement of the preempted provisions. The state appealed to the United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, which held that most of Maine ...


Recognition And Enforcement Of Foreign Judgments - The Common Law's Jurisdiction Requirement, Peter Kutner 2017 University of Oklahoma College of Law

Recognition And Enforcement Of Foreign Judgments - The Common Law's Jurisdiction Requirement, Peter Kutner

Peter Kutner

A judgment will be enforced or recognised in other nations or states only if the court that issued the judgment had “jurisdiction in the international sense”. For recognition or enforcement of a judgment in personam, the foreign court must have had jurisdiction over the party against whom the judgment is to be enforced or otherwise applied. This is governed by the conflict of laws doctrine of the court where recognition or enforcement is sought. The law on what is a basis for jurisdictional “competence” is one of the most important elements of conflict of laws. The rules set forth in ...


“I Am Undocumented And A New Yorker”: Affirmative City Citizenship And New York City’S Idnyc Program, Amy C. Torres 2017 Fordham University School of Law

“I Am Undocumented And A New Yorker”: Affirmative City Citizenship And New York City’S Idnyc Program, Amy C. Torres

Fordham Law Review

The power to confer legal citizenship status is possessed solely by the federal government. Yet the courts and legal theorists have demonstrated that citizenship encompasses factors beyond legal status, including rights, inclusion, and political participation. As a result, even legal citizens can face barriers to citizenship, broadly understood, due to factors including their race, class, gender, or disability. Given this multidimensionality, the city, as the place where residents carry out the tasks of their daily lives, is a critical space for promoting elements of citizenship. This Note argues that recent city municipal identification-card programs have created a new form of ...


Hyatt V. Franchise Tax Board Of California: Perils Of Undue Disputing Zeal And Undue Immunity For Government-Inflicted Injury, Jeffrey W. Stempel 2017 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

Hyatt V. Franchise Tax Board Of California: Perils Of Undue Disputing Zeal And Undue Immunity For Government-Inflicted Injury, Jeffrey W. Stempel

Nevada Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Parochial Procedure, Maggie Gardner 2017 Cornell Law School

Parochial Procedure, Maggie Gardner

Maggie Gardner

The federal courts are often accused of being too parochial, favoring U.S. parties over foreigners and U.S. law over relevant foreign or international law. According to what this Article terms the “parochial critique,” the courts’ U.S.-centrism generates unnecessary friction with allies, regulatory conflict, and access-to-justice gaps. This parochialism is assumed to reflect the preferences of individual judges: persuade judges to like international law and transnational cases better, the standard story goes, and the courts will reach more cosmopolitan results. This Article challenges that assumption. I argue instead that parochial doctrines can develop even in the absence ...


Non/Disclosure: Documentation And Participant Observation As Hybrid, Nonfiction, Artistic Research Methodology For Ethnographic Media Production, Contemplative Discovery, Social Practice And Catharsis, Cyle P. O'Donnell 2017 University of Maine

Non/Disclosure: Documentation And Participant Observation As Hybrid, Nonfiction, Artistic Research Methodology For Ethnographic Media Production, Contemplative Discovery, Social Practice And Catharsis, Cyle P. O'Donnell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

As if presaged by the physical, fine and philosophical arts that preceded it, the amelioration to the process of documenting the wonted human existence, political strife, and sundry cultural phenomena through the neo-normative medium of film (and eventually digital video) inaugurated the true scope and importance of anthropological research among a vastly wider audience who would use it, and its intrinsic capacity for the augmentation of artistic expression, to proliferate an expansive accompaniment to the field which would all become recognized platforms for demonstrative presentation of individual oeuvres.

Intermedia has worked in this way to amalgamate concepts like Futurism, Dadaism ...


Ln Mgmt. Llc Series 5105 Portraits Place V. Green Tree Loan Servicing Llc, 133 Nev. Adv. Op. 55 (Aug. 03, 2017), Wesley Lemay Jr. 2017 Nevada Law Journal

Ln Mgmt. Llc Series 5105 Portraits Place V. Green Tree Loan Servicing Llc, 133 Nev. Adv. Op. 55 (Aug. 03, 2017), Wesley Lemay Jr.

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

If a homeowner that owns property in Nevada but declares bankruptcy in Texas and fails to list the Home Owners Association (HOA) as a creditor, the HOA cannot violate the automatic stay imposed by the bankruptcy and sell the property. If the property is sold in violation of the automatic stay, the sale is invalid. Under Ninth Circuit law, the sale is void ab initio while the Fifth Circuit holds that these types of sales are voidable, but can be approved by the bankruptcy court.


Lessons For The Usa From The Hague Principles, Linda J. Silberman 2017 New York University School of Law

Lessons For The Usa From The Hague Principles, Linda J. Silberman

New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers

In this article, Professor Silberman offers a review of US choice of law approaches that address party autonomy in international commercial contracts. She explains that choice of law rules in the United States are the province of state, not federal law, and to that end gives examples from two states that have codified choice of law and identifies several states that have an absolute autonomy rule for situations when the parties choose forum law. However, the focus is on the provision in the Restatement (Second) of Conflict of Laws dealing with party autonomy in contracts because most states in the ...


Chinese Conflicts Of Law: A Restatement And Legisprudence Proposal, Shaoming Zhu 2017 Penn State Law

Chinese Conflicts Of Law: A Restatement And Legisprudence Proposal, Shaoming Zhu

SJD Dissertations

China has a long history of addressing conflict issues between different legal systems. However, there is as yet no unified legislation on Conflicts of Law in China. Rules on the topic of Conflicts of Law can be found in various legal sources without a clear structure or statement of their hierarchy and effectiveness. This research draws a comprehensive, well-organized map of Conflicts of Law rules in China by introducing the evolution of Conflicts of Law in China, defining the scope of Conflicts of Law as a legal science, restating the structure and contents of Chinese Conflicts of Law rules, and ...


Amend The Communications Decency Act To Protect Victims Of Sexual Exploitation, Samantha Vardaman 2017 Shared Hope International

Amend The Communications Decency Act To Protect Victims Of Sexual Exploitation, Samantha Vardaman

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


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