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A Federal Safety Plug With A Few Leaks: Bureau Of Land Management's Proposed Rule On Hydraulic Fracturing And Its Effect On States And Tribes, Thea A. Graybill 2014 SelectedWorks

A Federal Safety Plug With A Few Leaks: Bureau Of Land Management's Proposed Rule On Hydraulic Fracturing And Its Effect On States And Tribes, Thea A. Graybill

Thea A Graybill

Natural gas is a significant energy source, but if extracted improperly, has the potential to cause serious harm to public health and the environment. Currently, states regulate hydraulic fracturing, and each state has its own regulatory standards. Consequently, states control the hydraulic fracturing industry in a piecemeal fashion. In some instances, state governance of hydraulic fracturing has led to disastrous results. For example, numerous people have complained that the drilling of natural gas polluted private water wells in Pennsylvania, Ohio, West Virginia, and Texas. To avoid these types of incidents in the future, the federal government should regulate hydraulic fracturing ...


An American Icon In Limbo: How Clarifying The Standing Doctrine Could Free Wild Horses And Empower Advocates, Nadia Aksentijevich 2014 Boston College Law School

An American Icon In Limbo: How Clarifying The Standing Doctrine Could Free Wild Horses And Empower Advocates, Nadia Aksentijevich

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

The American wild horse has long been considered a cultural icon and an integral part of the ecosystem. In recognition of the need for wild horse protection, Congress enacted the Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act in 1971. Although the Act instructs Congress to manage the wild horse population by removing “excess” wild horses from public lands, it does not explicitly provide for the use of short- or long-term holding facilities as a means for removal. In considering the legality of the use of holding facilities in the service of wild horse removal programs that the plaintiffs deplore, two district ...


Will Arkansas Game & Fish Commission V. United States Provide A Permanent Fix For Temporary Takings?, Brian T. Hodges 2014 Boston College Law School

Will Arkansas Game & Fish Commission V. United States Provide A Permanent Fix For Temporary Takings?, Brian T. Hodges

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

The U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in Arkansas Game & Fish Commission v. United States recognized that any government action that interferes with the enjoyment and use of private property—whether permanent or temporary in duration—can give rise to a claim under the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment. Yet dicta in the decision left many pondering whether significantly different tests will apply depending on the duration of the government invasion. This Article reviews the state of the law regarding temporary physical takings both before and after Arkansas Game & Fish with particular regard to the test applicable to physical ...


Carbon Outlasts The Law: States Walk The Constitutional Line, Steven Ferrey 2014 Boston College Law School

Carbon Outlasts The Law: States Walk The Constitutional Line, Steven Ferrey

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

State carbon policies to control climate warming and our energy future are under legal attack. A successful barrage of litigation now invokes the dormant Commerce Clause and the Federal Power Act as interpreted through the Filed Rate Doctrine, as well as the Supremacy Clause of the U.S. Constitution, to challenge the legal validity and sustainability of these state carbon-based laws. California and other states have survived these legal challenges sparingly, and then often only by prevailing with procedural defenses that dismiss the case before a decision on the legal merits of their state energy regulation. This Article examines and ...


Wildearth Guardians V. Jewell, 738 F.3d 298 (D.C. Cir. 2013), Ross Keogh 2014 The University of Montana School of Law

Wildearth Guardians V. Jewell, 738 F.3d 298 (D.C. Cir. 2013), Ross Keogh

Public Land and Resources Law Review

As part of a comprehensive strategy to keep coal “in the ground,” environmental plaintiffs challenged the BLM’s leasing of federally owned coal tracts in the Powder River Basin in 2010 on climate change grounds. WildEarth Guardians was the first suit to reach a federal circuit court, where the District of Columbia Circuit Court affirmed that the BLM’s environmental analysis of the climate change impacts of the leased coal was adequate under NEPA. Notably, in reversing the district court, the circuit court found that the plaintiffs had procedural standing.


Interactions Between Public And Private Resource Governance: Key Insights From The Fisheries Case, Zdravka Tzankova 2014 SelectedWorks

Interactions Between Public And Private Resource Governance: Key Insights From The Fisheries Case, Zdravka Tzankova

Zdravka Tzankova

Growing in presence and visibility, eco-labels and other forms of green certification are the more obvious signs of a broader social and policy phenomenon: the rise of private regulation and nonstate, market-based governance of environmental and resource practices. The growth of private regulatory initiatives, especially initiatives led by NGOs and other civil society actors, is increasingly accompanied by concerns over their potential to detract from public, government regulation.

This paper seeks to generate insights on the nature and consequences of interaction between more traditional forms of public, government regulation and the growing realm of market-based regulation by nonstate actors. It ...


Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe Of Indians V. Nevada, Dept. Of Wildlife, David A. Bell 2014 The University of Montana School of Law

Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe Of Indians V. Nevada, Dept. Of Wildlife, David A. Bell

Public Land and Resources Law Review

In Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe of Indians v. Nevada, Dept. of Wildlife, the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld a Nevada federal district court decision to vacate the Nevada state engineer’s approval of the transfer of three water applications. While the appeals court recognized the state’s re-watering of wetlands as a “salutary” purpose, it could not allow the engineer’s decision to go forward because it did not meet the legal definition of “irrigation.” The Court made the decision pursuant to two federal court decrees, which resulted from prior actions by the United States to quiet ...


Public Lands Access Association V. Board Of County Commissioners Of Madison County, Graham Coppes 2014 The University of Montana School of Law

Public Lands Access Association V. Board Of County Commissioners Of Madison County, Graham Coppes

Public Land and Resources Law Review

On January 16, 2014, the Supreme Court of Montana reversed and remanded a district court decision that had foreclosed the public’s right to access the Ruby River. The Court held that the right of way was a public prescriptive easement, which extended beyond the road surface itself to include such area as necessary for the county to maintain the road in the interest of the public. Furthermore, the Court concluded that once a public right-of-way is established by prescriptive use, the scope of current and future use of such an easement is not limited to those historic adversarial practices ...


Bostwick Properties Inc. V. Montana Department Natural Resources And Conservation, Carolyn A. Sime 2014 The University of Montana School of Law

Bostwick Properties Inc. V. Montana Department Natural Resources And Conservation, Carolyn A. Sime

Public Land and Resources Law Review

The Montana Supreme Court upheld the law requiring that applicants for new ground water permits in closed basins show no net surface depletion and that the new appropriation will not adversely affect senior water appropriators. Where the relationship between surface and ground water is uncertain or attenuated, applicants still bear the burden of proof, even if the proposed use constitutes only a de minimis quantity. Once again, the Court acknowledged the hydrologic connection between surface and ground water and the underlying legal framework which seeks to make water available for new appropriation and simultaneously protect the water rights of senior ...


Making ‘Conservation’ Work For The 21st Century – Enabling Resilient Place, Jerrold A. Long 2014 SelectedWorks

Making ‘Conservation’ Work For The 21st Century – Enabling Resilient Place, Jerrold A. Long

Jerrold A Long

During the New Deal, as part of a larger effort implementing Progressive-era “conservation” regimes, the federal government authorized the structurally-invasive Flood Control Act of 1936. At the same time, the Standard State Soil Conservation Districts Law promoted the creation of local, place-based efforts to protect or restore locally-valued resources. “Conservation” thus came to signify both the invasive, structural, engineering approach of mid-20th Century flood control, and the local, more responsive and flexible nature of soil conservation districts. But our understandings of our place in the natural world have changed subtly but significantly over the past century. Any legitimate natural ...


A Dubious Exercise Of Case Consolidation: Center For Biological Diversity V. Bp America Production Co., Rebecca M. Mitchell 2014 Boston College Law School

A Dubious Exercise Of Case Consolidation: Center For Biological Diversity V. Bp America Production Co., Rebecca M. Mitchell

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon and the dispersal of millions of gallons of oil into the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 generated a mass of litigation. To organize and manage this complex mass, the U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Louisiana created “pleading bundles,” which consolidated similar cases, and provided that each bundle must file a single complaint on behalf of the entire group. In Center for Biological Diversity v. BP America Production Co., the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit affirmed the district court’s dismissal of most of the Center for ...


Trouble In The Melting Arctic: The Epa’S Failure To Impose Air Pollution Control Measures, Christopher Warren 2014 Boston College Law School

Trouble In The Melting Arctic: The Epa’S Failure To Impose Air Pollution Control Measures, Christopher Warren

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

In 2010, the EPA approved two permits for Shell to begin offshore exploratory drilling in the Arctic’s Chukchi and Beaufort Seas with the drillship Discoverer. REDOIL, a group representing the rights of the region’s indigenous peoples, contested the permits and argued that they violated the Clean Air Act by failing to require best available control technology (BACT) for emissions from the operation’s associated fleet of service vessels. In Resisting Environmental Destruction of Indigenous Lands (REDOIL) v. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit found that the Act is ambiguous ...


C(R)Ap And Trade: The Brave New World Of Non-Point Source Nutrient Trading And Using Lessons From Greenhouse Gas Markets To Make It Work, Victor B. Flatt 2014 SelectedWorks

C(R)Ap And Trade: The Brave New World Of Non-Point Source Nutrient Trading And Using Lessons From Greenhouse Gas Markets To Make It Work, Victor B. Flatt

Victor B Flatt

After several decades of improvement, water quality in the United States is getting worse, and the problem is primarily caused by run-off from non-point sources, such as farms and urban development. These non-point sources have never had regulatory mandates in the Clean Water Act, and have proven very difficult to control. With little likelihood of comprehensive statutory changes, the EPA and the states that administer the Clean Water Act have looked to other regulatory means to address this problem. One of the most prominent has been the use of markets in pollution (particularly for nutrient pollution from run-off) to provide ...


Implementing The Policy Of The U.N. Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples, Roxanne T. Ornelas 2014 Western University

Implementing The Policy Of The U.N. Declaration On The Rights Of Indigenous Peoples, Roxanne T. Ornelas

The International Indigenous Policy Journal

On September 13, 2007, the United Nations General Assembly voted to adopt the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP). This was an historic event as work on UNDRIP had been ongoing for 30 years before its passage. Today, UNDRIP provides a framework for addressing human rights protections for Indigenous peoples globally. This article examines the significance of UNDRIP as a public policy tool for developing national policy to support future resource and land management consultations that are based on free, prior, and informed consent.


The Role Of Nuisance In The Developing Common Law Of Hydraulic Fracturing, Kaoru Suzuki 2014 Boston College Law School

The Role Of Nuisance In The Developing Common Law Of Hydraulic Fracturing, Kaoru Suzuki

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

In 2012, the oil and gas industry created more than 1.2 million jobs. The industry expects this number to increase to more than 2.3 million in 2035 and expects revenues to exceed $1.9 trillion from 2012 to 2035. The development of hydraulic fracturing technology, a process by which natural gas under shale formations can be extracted, has allowed the oil and gas industry to experience this exponential growth. The economic benefits of hydraulic fracturing comes at a cost. Residents of Pennsylvania, Texas, and Ohio, among other states, have begun to experience the environmental harms and effects of ...


Trading Up Kyoto: A Proposal To Amend The Protocol, Part I, Deepa Badrinarayana 2014 Boston College Law School

Trading Up Kyoto: A Proposal To Amend The Protocol, Part I, Deepa Badrinarayana

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

This is the first of two Articles that analyze the dynamic and complex relation between international trade law and the Kyoto Protocol. These Articles argue that the Kyoto Protocol undermines efforts to negotiate a meaningful climate change treaty, and alternatively, they propose a new treaty framework to replace the Protocol. This first Article sets out the trade and climate treaty conflict and demonstrates that the problem cannot be addressed within the current framework of international trade law. Developing nations that are now emerging economies and major greenhouse gas emitters are not bound by targeted emissions reduction obligations under the Kyoto ...


Calming The Fire: How A Negligence Standard And Broad Cost-Recovery Can Help Restore National Forests After Wildfires, Charles Riordan 2014 Boston College Law School

Calming The Fire: How A Negligence Standard And Broad Cost-Recovery Can Help Restore National Forests After Wildfires, Charles Riordan

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

This Note provides an overview of the statutory and common law relating to forest fires, with a particular focus on fires started by power lines in National Forests. Fire is a constant threat to America’s forests and is capable of doing enormous damage to critical ecological systems. Yet the legal ramifications of forest fires are often determined by state law, which leads to doctrinal inconsistency. Recently, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit has joined California courts in allowing the federal government to bring broad damages claims against utility companies responsible for forest fires. Other states ...


Third Party Access To Infrastructure In The United Kingdom Continental Shelf: An Unhappy Mix Of Heavy-Handed Regulation And Light-Handed Regulation, Yanal Abul Failat 2014 SelectedWorks

Third Party Access To Infrastructure In The United Kingdom Continental Shelf: An Unhappy Mix Of Heavy-Handed Regulation And Light-Handed Regulation, Yanal Abul Failat

Yanal Abul Failat

“An unhappy mix of poorly-drafted legislation; Statutory Guidance relative to the Ministerial power which is unfit for purpose; and a well-meaning but essentially useless industry code of best practice.”(Gordon 2012) The objective of this paper is to provide a synopsis on both hard law and soft law instruments addressing third-party access (“TPA”) to infrastructure in the UKCS. Firstly, the paper will outline the scope and purpose of TPA; followed by an outline and evaluation of the regulatory regime under the recently enacted Energy Act 2011 (“Act”) and the Infrastructure Code of Practice (“ICOP”). Finally, it will provide a conclusion ...


Saving Apes With The Laws Of Men: Great Ape Protection In A Property-Based Animal Law System, Alexandra B. Rhodes 2014 SelectedWorks

Saving Apes With The Laws Of Men: Great Ape Protection In A Property-Based Animal Law System, Alexandra B. Rhodes

Alexandra B. Rhodes

Scholars disagree over the best way to seal the cracks within American law through which animals often fall. Accordingly, this Comment analyzes animal law development, existing theories for advocacy, the status of great ape protection within animal law, and concludes with a novel approach to protecting primates from abuse in the medical and entertainment industries. In light of proposals like the Great Ape Protection Act and the recent petition to Fish and Wildlife Services to end the split-listing of chimpanzees, the question of legal great ape protection is particularly relevant today. The topic is timely as well as timeless; after ...


The Environmental Limitations To Property Rights In Brazil And The United States Of America, Leonardo Munhoz 2014 Pace University

The Environmental Limitations To Property Rights In Brazil And The United States Of America, Leonardo Munhoz

Dissertations & Theses

This thesis aims to comparatively analyze the legislative evolution that environmental protection has experienced in the Brazilian versus the American legal systems and their relationship with property rights.

Demonstrably, Brazil’s concern with the environment actually came into focus in the 1980s and it therefore received treatment within the Federal Constitution of 1988, as a diffuse right, contributing to better, stronger environmental protection.

Similarly, the protection of the environment in the American Constitution and its statutes as well as their enforcement and interpretation within the legal system are explored.

Of concern is the notion that environmental protection and third-generation rights ...


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