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Land Use And The Climate Bubble: The Due Diligence Defense, John R. Nolon 2014 Pace University

Land Use And The Climate Bubble: The Due Diligence Defense, John R. Nolon

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This article examines events on the ground in several localities where climate change is lowering property values and analyzes how those changes in value can be reckoned with by regulators. The article merges practices and principles of real estate transactions and finance with those of land use and environmental regulation.

Climate change is a planetary phenomenon whose environmental implications are far-reaching. Reports on climate change consequences increasingly focus on what is happening locally and presently, while speculation continues about long-term global consequences. In numerous communities, property values are declining because of repeated flooding, continued threats of storm surges, sustained high ...


Climate Engineering Field Research: The Favorable Setting Of International Environmental Law, Jesse Reynolds 2014 SelectedWorks

Climate Engineering Field Research: The Favorable Setting Of International Environmental Law, Jesse Reynolds

Jesse Reynolds

As forecasts for climate change and its impacts have become more dire, climate engineering proposals have come under increasing consideration and are presently moving toward field trials. This article examines the relevant international environmental law, distinguishing between climate engineering research and deployment. It also emphasizes the climate change context of these proposals and the enabling function of law. Extant international environmental law generally favors such field tests, in large part because, even though field trials may present uncertain risks to humans and the environment, climate engineering may reduce the greater risks of climate change. Notably, this favorable legal setting is ...


Weeds, Seeds, & Deeds Redux: Natural And Legal Evolution In The U.S. Seed Wars, Rebecca K. Stewart 2014 SelectedWorks

Weeds, Seeds, & Deeds Redux: Natural And Legal Evolution In The U.S. Seed Wars, Rebecca K. Stewart

Rebecca K Stewart

Ever since the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office began issuing utility patents for plants, the United States has sat squarely on the frontlines of what have come to be known as the “seed wars.” In the last two decades, the majority of battles in the U.S. seed wars have been waged in the form of patent infringement lawsuits. Typically these suits are filed by biotechnology corporations such as Monsanto against farmers accused of saving and planting patented seed that self-replicates to produce progeny embodying—and thus infringing—the biotech corporations’ patented inventions.

Yet in recent years, the seed ...


Congress Intended For Drake's Estero To Become A Wilderness Area, Catherine L. Rucker 2014 SelectedWorks

Congress Intended For Drake's Estero To Become A Wilderness Area, Catherine L. Rucker

Catherine L Rucker

In November 2012, the Secretary of the Department of the Interior decided to remove a commercial oyster operation from the Drake's Estero Potential Wilderness Area within the Point Reyes National Seashore. The oyster operation had been in place for several decades, and it had been operating under a 40-year permit that the Secretary had provided in 1972.

In 1964, Congress passed "The Wilderness Act." This Act defined what "wilderness" means, and it created the process for the Secretary to perform an environmental review and for Congress to then designate "wilderness areas" within National Park Service units. In 1976, Congress ...


Implications For The Mille Lacs Lake Fishery With Continued Enforcement Of The 1837 Treaty Of St. Peters, Matthew Steffes 2014 Hamline University

Implications For The Mille Lacs Lake Fishery With Continued Enforcement Of The 1837 Treaty Of St. Peters, Matthew Steffes

Hamline University's School of Law's Journal of Public Law and Policy

Mille Lacs Lake, one of Minnesota’s over 13,000 lakes, holds a reputation for being one of the best walleye fisheries in Minnesota, as well as being a fishing destination for anglers across the nation. In 1999 the Supreme Court held that the Mille Lacs Band of Chippewa Indians retained hunting and fishing rights on ceded land that were granted to them in the 1837 Treaty of St. Peters. Part of this ruling allowed the Mille Lacs tribe to continue their commercial walleye fishing operation on Mille Lacs Lake. Since the Supreme Court’s ruling, the walleye population on ...


Assessing The Silica (Frac) Sand Mining Environmental Regulatory Frameworks In Minnesota And Wisconsin: Who Has A Better Plan For Digging, The Gophers Or Badgers?, William Miley 2014 Hamline University

Assessing The Silica (Frac) Sand Mining Environmental Regulatory Frameworks In Minnesota And Wisconsin: Who Has A Better Plan For Digging, The Gophers Or Badgers?, William Miley

Hamline University's School of Law's Journal of Public Law and Policy

In recent years silica (frac) sand mining activity in Minnesota and Wisconsin has grown significantly due to high demand for the sand from the hydraulic fracturing (or “fracking”) oil and gas extraction industry. Consequently, there has been much debate in the region over the proper state and local regulatory controls and overall framework to adequately protect against health and environmental impacts associated with the mining activities while also avoiding undue regulatory burdens that hinder economic development. This article analyzes the silica sand mining regulatory schemes in Minnesota and Wisconsin to determine if this booming industry is met with appropriate oversight ...


One Giant Heap For Mankind: The Need For National Legislation Or Agency Action To Regulate Private Sector Contributions To Orbital Debris, Charles Mottier 2014 Pace University

One Giant Heap For Mankind: The Need For National Legislation Or Agency Action To Regulate Private Sector Contributions To Orbital Debris, Charles Mottier

Pace Environmental Law Review

This article will explain the dynamics of the space environment, examine current space law and its shortcomings both internationally and nationally, and present reasoned resolutions to the issue at hand including the use of petitions for action by United States government agencies and the encouragement of legislative action. This article will also address certain positive and negative aspects of adopting debris-regulating law. Above all, the United States government and the American people should be made aware of the serious issues concerning the continued use of space by the private sector, and this article seeks to facilitate that conversation. Through this ...


Incorporating Third Party Green Building Rating Systems Into Municipal Building And Zoning Codes, Edward Teyber 2014 Pace University

Incorporating Third Party Green Building Rating Systems Into Municipal Building And Zoning Codes, Edward Teyber

Pace Environmental Law Review

The role of green buildings in mitigating climate change has thus become a hot topic. This literature has begun to elicit change within corporations pursuing third party certification of their corporate buildings and campuses. Perhaps the success of discrete green building projects in mitigating climate change compared to the failure of international regulatory bodies to reach consensus for meaningful change is due to the publicity and, in turn, profits associated with certification by a third party green building rating system. In addition to reduced GHG emissions, reduced runoff, reduced maintenance costs, and positive publicity of green buildings for the project ...


Executive Power And Regional Climate Change Agreements, Conor J. Walline 2014 Pace University

Executive Power And Regional Climate Change Agreements, Conor J. Walline

Pace Environmental Law Review

This Article explores the potential for such agreements to address climate change on a regional level by analyzing the parallels between the agreements, the nature and limits of the executive power used to create them, and the scope of enforcement available under them. Section II briefly examines the present state of climate warming and its attendant impacts, while Section III highlights the relative failure of current national and international approaches to mitigating climate change. Section IV focuses on the recent rise of environmental regional agreements in the United States, specifically those agreements to which the State of New York has ...


Beef Products, Inc. V. Abc News: (Pink) Slimy Enough To Determine The Constitutionality Of Agricultural Disparagement Laws?, Nicole C. Sasaki 2014 Pace University

Beef Products, Inc. V. Abc News: (Pink) Slimy Enough To Determine The Constitutionality Of Agricultural Disparagement Laws?, Nicole C. Sasaki

Pace Environmental Law Review

This Comment analyzes the likelihood of whether BPI’s case against ABC News will be decided on the merits, whether South Dakota’s agricultural disparagement statute will be upheld as constitutional, and thus the likelihood that other states’ statutes will be struck down, thereby preserving the public’s freedom to question and criticize the safety of our food system. First, Part I offers a brief introduction to agricultural disparagement laws, their historical application, and BPI’s pending lawsuit. Next, Part II reviews the context of the enactment of agricultural disparagement laws, summarizes the common elements of these laws, and discusses ...


The Executive And The Environment: A Look At The Last Five Governors In New York, Patricia E. Salkin 2014 Pace University

The Executive And The Environment: A Look At The Last Five Governors In New York, Patricia E. Salkin

Pace Environmental Law Review

Gubernatorial leadership is the single most important indicator of how sustainable New York will be when it comes to issues of environmental protection and conservation. In preparing for the Kerlin Lecture, one of the things that struck me is that New York governors for at least the last thirty years have consistently identified the critical economic, social, and environmental challenges facing this state. Is it simply political rhetoric to decry that the state is in terrible fiscal shape, that programs need to be funded to help those is need, and that we must pay attention to stewarding the environment today ...


Innovations In Energy And Climate Policy: Lessons From Vermont, Benjamin K. Sovacool, Alex Gilbert, Brian Thomson 2014 Pace University

Innovations In Energy And Climate Policy: Lessons From Vermont, Benjamin K. Sovacool, Alex Gilbert, Brian Thomson

Pace Environmental Law Review

We ask in this article: how can planners and policymakers replicate Vermont’s energy and climate policies? We begin by explaining the research methods utilized for this article—mainly research interviews with a pool of experts, coupled with a targeted literature review. We then analyze the success of Vermont energy policy across four areas: energy efficiency, renewable energy, the smart grid, and energy governance. The following sections first explain how Vermont accomplished these successes, next identify a number of remaining barriers and elements of Vermont’s approach that may not be replicable, and finally present the article’s conclusions.


The Missing Link: U.S. Regulation Of Consumer Cosmetic Products To Protect Human Health And The Environment, Valerie J. Watnick 2014 Pace University

The Missing Link: U.S. Regulation Of Consumer Cosmetic Products To Protect Human Health And The Environment, Valerie J. Watnick

Pace Environmental Law Review

This article explores these lax regulatory efforts and their connection to risk assessment, and proposes changes to our current toxics regulatory paradigm. Part I of this article explores our current regulatory approach for consumer cosmetics. Part II discusses the specific and dire concerns regarding chemicals that are suspected carcinogens and those suspected of disrupting the human endocrine system. The article argues in Part III that because the framework for our current regulation of consumer cosmetic products is not designed to be protective of human health, our regulatory paradigm must shift dramatically in the future if this is to become our ...


Fraud And First Amendment Protections Of False Speech: How United States V. Alvarez Impacts Constitutional Challenges To Ag-Gag Laws, Larissa U. Liebmann 2014 Pace University

Fraud And First Amendment Protections Of False Speech: How United States V. Alvarez Impacts Constitutional Challenges To Ag-Gag Laws, Larissa U. Liebmann

Pace Environmental Law Review

This article first explains the background and functions of undercover investigations of agricultural production facilities, and explains the bases upon which states pass laws intended to prevent these investigations. It then gives a background of research already conducted on the constitutionality of Ag-Gag laws, and examines the relevance of the Supreme Court case Alvarez. Based on the analysis provided in Alvarez, the article demonstrates that Ag-Gag laws would not be exempt from heightened First Amendment scrutiny as fraud statutes. Moreover, it demonstrates that, in particular, the Iowa and Utah Ag-Gag laws would not survive the heightened scrutiny outlined in Alvarez.


Animal Agriculture Laws On The Chopping Block: Comparing United States And Brazil, Elizabeth Bennett 2014 Pace University

Animal Agriculture Laws On The Chopping Block: Comparing United States And Brazil, Elizabeth Bennett

Pace Environmental Law Review

Brazil and the United States are among the largest producers and exporters of livestock in the world. This raises important animal rights and environmental concerns. While many of the impacts of industrial animal agriculture are similar in Brazil and the United States, there are key differences in the effects on animals and the environment. The variations between Brazil and the United States are due to ecological, production method, and regulatory differences between the countries. Despite their dissimilarities, however, Brazil and the United States both largely fail to adequately protect farm animals and the environment from the impacts of large-scale animal ...


Origins And Development Of Teaching Animal Law In Brazil, Tagore Trajano de Almeida Silva 2014 Pace University

Origins And Development Of Teaching Animal Law In Brazil, Tagore Trajano De Almeida Silva

Pace Environmental Law Review

This paper examines the strategies utilized on each continent and shows the path made for these scholars to build a framework to discuss animal law within law schools. The conclusion is that this movement produced by such scholars has changed the way law schools are teaching law and is affording new opportunities to solve animal concerns, and likewise, social problems in Brazil and around the world.

Therefore, this article first discusses the philosophical Brazilian background to teach animal law, and how the animal rights movement creates a framework for professors and students working in this field. It then summarily explores ...


Using Emerging Pollution Tracking Methods To Address The Downstream Impacts Of Factory Farm Animal Welfare Abuse, Tarah Heinzen, Abel Russ 2014 Pace University

Using Emerging Pollution Tracking Methods To Address The Downstream Impacts Of Factory Farm Animal Welfare Abuse, Tarah Heinzen, Abel Russ

Pace Environmental Law Review

CAFOs present numerous interconnected ethical, environmental, and public health threats, and this article will discuss opportunities to address the multiple adverse impacts of factory farming through advances in pollution tracking methodologies. The first section will introduce the factory farm issue, and the relationship between its environmental and welfare consequences. We then review approaches to establishing liability for surface and groundwater contamination under existing pollution control laws and describe the unique challenges of using these approaches in the context of CAFO pollution. We then discuss techniques that have been used to more precisely identify sources of pollution, including measurements of a ...


Cultural Solipsism, Cultural Lenses, Universal Principles, And Animal Advocacy, Thomas G. Kelch 2014 Pace University

Cultural Solipsism, Cultural Lenses, Universal Principles, And Animal Advocacy, Thomas G. Kelch

Pace Environmental Law Review

Given the potpourri of human cultures and the need to take a global view of animal rights advocacy, how can animal rights advocates most efficiently and successfully advocate for animals? This article will address this issue.

First, I will describe and analyze views of the human/animal relationship from five example cultural traditions: Western culture, represented generally by Europe and North America, Indian culture, Chinese culture, South African culture, and Islamic culture, exemplified primarily here by Turkey. It is not asserted here that any of these cultures or countries are homogenous; they are not. Although Western culture is primarily constructed ...


Foreword, David N. Cassuto 2014 Pace University

Foreword, David N. Cassuto

Pace Environmental Law Review

The overlap between animal law and environmental law arises because the two disciplines are fundamentally linked. One cannot talk about the environment without also discussing the nonhuman sentient beings that populate it. Indeed, as I shall discuss shortly, one of the most vexing issues for me— as a scholar working in both fields—involves my ongoing attempt to address the historical tension between the two disciplines. This volume of the Pace Environmental Law Review (PELR) marks an important step on the path toward resolving those tensions and moving environmental law forward. That path will not always be smooth, nor will ...


Avoiding The Road To Ferc-Dom: The Supreme Court Affirms The Right To Contract In Morgan Stanley V. Snohomish, Jorge A. Mestre 2014 SelectedWorks

Avoiding The Road To Ferc-Dom: The Supreme Court Affirms The Right To Contract In Morgan Stanley V. Snohomish, Jorge A. Mestre

Jorge A Mestre

No abstract provided.


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