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The Carbon Tax Vacuum And The Debate About Climate Change Impacts: Emission Taxation Of Commodity Crop Production In Food System Regulation, Gabriela Steier 2018 Food Law International

The Carbon Tax Vacuum And The Debate About Climate Change Impacts: Emission Taxation Of Commodity Crop Production In Food System Regulation, Gabriela Steier

Pace Environmental Law Review

The scientific consensus on climate change is far ahead of U.S. policy on point. In fact, the U.S. has a legal vacuum of carbon taxation while climate change continues to impact the codependence of agriculture and the environment. As this Article shows, carbon taxes follow the polluter-pays model, levying taxes on the highest greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions—and contributions to climate change. But this is not only unsustainable; it would also undermine agricultural production and, thus, food security. This Article describes how the law can regulate climate change contributions and promote adaptation and mitigation supported through carbon taxes ...


Food Sustainability In The Age Of Complex, Global Supply Chains, Steph Tai 2018 University of Wisconsin

Food Sustainability In The Age Of Complex, Global Supply Chains, Steph Tai

Arkansas Law Review

Food production has become more complex over time. Moreover, we are producing food in an increasingly global, rather than local, manner. How can demands for sustainability be reinforced in this age of complex, global supply chains? This essay focuses on three key features of the modern food supply chain: the variety of components, the complexity of the chain itself, and diversity of “enforcement” mechanisms in food production supply chains. These features suggest that traditional governmental tools (such as command and control measures) and contractual tools (such as performance standards) may not be sufficient to ensure sustainable production methods.


The Uneasy Case For Patent Law, Rachel E. Sachs 2018 Washington University in St. Louis School of Law

The Uneasy Case For Patent Law, Rachel E. Sachs

Michigan Law Review

A central tenet of patent law scholarship holds that if any scientific field truly needs patents to stimulate progress, it is pharmaceuticals. Patents are thought to be critical in encouraging pharmaceutical companies to develop and commercialize new therapies, due to the high costs of researching diseases, developing treatments, and bringing drugs through the complex, expensive approval process. Scholars and policymakers often point to patent law’s apparent success in the pharmaceutical industry to justify broader calls for more expansive patent rights.

This Article challenges this conventional wisdom about the centrality of patents to drug development by presenting a case study ...


Renovations Needed: The Fda's Floor/Ceiling Framework, Preemption, And The Opioid Epidemic, Michael R. Abrams 2018 University of Michigan Law School

Renovations Needed: The Fda's Floor/Ceiling Framework, Preemption, And The Opioid Epidemic, Michael R. Abrams

Michigan Law Review

The FDA’s regulatory framework for pharmaceuticals uses a “floor/ceiling” model: administrative rules set a “floor” of minimum safety, while state tort liability sets a “ceiling” of maximum protection. This model emphasizes premarket scrutiny but largely relies on the state common law “ceiling” to police the postapproval drug market. As the Supreme Court increasingly holds state tort law preempted by federal administrative standards, the FDA’s framework becomes increasingly imbalanced. In the face of a historic prescription medication overdose crisis, the Opioid Epidemic, this imbalance allows the pharmaceutical industry to avoid internalizing the public health costs of their opioid ...


Preventing Drug-Related Deaths At Music Festivals: Why The "Rave" Act Should Be Amended To Provide An Exception For Harm Reduction Services, Robin Mohr 2018 Chicago-Kent College of Law

Preventing Drug-Related Deaths At Music Festivals: Why The "Rave" Act Should Be Amended To Provide An Exception For Harm Reduction Services, Robin Mohr

Chicago-Kent Law Review

No abstract provided.


A Prescription For Biopharmaceutical Patents: A Cure For Inter Partes Review Ailments, Alex A. Jurisch 2018 Seattle University School of Law

A Prescription For Biopharmaceutical Patents: A Cure For Inter Partes Review Ailments, Alex A. Jurisch

Seattle University Law Review

The patent system in the United States was forever changed with the introduction of the Leahy-Smith America Invents Act (AIA) in September of 2011. The AIA brought sweeping changes to American patent law in order to align the U.S. with much of the rest of the world by changing the invention priority from a “first to invent” to a “first to file” system. The first section of this note will provide a brief overview of the substance of inter partes reviews and some of the most critical negatives that have become apparent since 2013. The second section of this ...


It Is Not About The Drugs: A Comparative And Contextual Analysis Of Singapore And European Approach To Drug Issues., Rathna Devi GANESH 2018 Singapore Management University

It Is Not About The Drugs: A Comparative And Contextual Analysis Of Singapore And European Approach To Drug Issues., Rathna Devi Ganesh

Research Collection School Of Law

This article aims to establish that Singapore’s drug policy and approach though not in tandem, is consistent with the elements espoused in the harm reduction approach advocated by the Global Commission on drug policies. The Commission takes the position that drug control nationally has to be aligned with the sustainable development goals agenda approved by the member states in 2015. It has recommended abolishing death penalty for all drug related offences, decriminalizing drug possession and cultivation for personal consumption, implementing non-penal sanctions for all low level drug offenders, and exploring non-penal regulatory models following decriminalization. There is a paradigm ...


Commentary On The Investigation: The April 20, 2001 Peruvian Shootdown Accident, Editor 2018 Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University

Commentary On The Investigation: The April 20, 2001 Peruvian Shootdown Accident, Editor

International Bulletin of Political Psychology

This article critiques an investigative report officially intended (1) to establish the facts and circumstances contributing to the April 20, 2001 interdiction of a United States (US) missionary floatplane and the death of two US citizens and (2) to make recommendations to minimize another such accident. The report was issued by the US Department of State Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs.


The Overdose/Homicide Epidemic, Valena E. Beety 2018 West Virginia University College of Law

The Overdose/Homicide Epidemic, Valena E. Beety

Georgia State University Law Review

This Article explores the lack of regulation of coroners, concerns within the forensic science community on the reliability of coroner determinations, and ultimately, how elected laypeople serving as coroners may influence the rise in drug-induced homicide prosecutions in the midst of the opioid epidemic.

This Article proposes that the manner of death determination contributes to overdoses being differently prosecuted; that coroners in rural counties are more likely to determine the manner of death for an illicit substance overdose is homicide; and that coroners are provided with insufficient training on interacting with the criminal justice system, particularly on overdose deaths. Death ...


Drug Approval In A Learning Health System, W. Nicholson Price 2018 University of Michigan Law School

Drug Approval In A Learning Health System, W. Nicholson Price

Articles

The current system of FDA approval seems to make few happy. Some argue FDA approves drugs too slowly; others too quickly. Many agree that FDA—and the health system generally—should gather information after drugs are approved to learn how well they work and how safe they are. This is hard to do. FDA has its own surveillance systems, but those systems face substantial limitations in practical use. Drug companies can also conduct their own studies, but have little incentive to do so, and often fail to fulfil study commitments made to FDA. Proposals to improve this dynamic often suggest ...


Dying To Be Fresh And Clean? Toxicants In Personal Care Products, The Impact On Cancer Risk, And Epigenetic Damage, Katherine Drabiak 2018 University of South Florida, College of Public Health

Dying To Be Fresh And Clean? Toxicants In Personal Care Products, The Impact On Cancer Risk, And Epigenetic Damage, Katherine Drabiak

Pace Environmental Law Review

The FDA does not conduct pre-market review of chemicals contained in cosmetics—which encompasses not only makeup but also numerous personal care products including shampoo, lotion, perfume, aftershave, and shaving cream. Every day, consumers use cosmetic products that contain a variety of synthetic ingredients, none of which the FDA has approved for safety but each of which are being ingested, absorbed, and inhaled into our bodies and accumulating in our tissue. Many of these products contain endocrine disrupting chemicals (“EDCs”), which emerging research links to an increased risk of cancer as well as immune and neurological dysfunction. This Article examines ...


Food Localization: Empowering Community Food Systemsthrough The Farm Bill, Brian Albert Fink, Alexandra Oakley Schluntz, Joshua Ulan Galperin 2018 Yale University

Food Localization: Empowering Community Food Systemsthrough The Farm Bill, Brian Albert Fink, Alexandra Oakley Schluntz, Joshua Ulan Galperin

Journal of Food Law & Policy

More diverse and value-driven public engagement has transformed the American food system. This engagement has changed the behavior of industries, consumers, policymakers, and communities. At the heart of this change is the drive among countless individuals and organizations to promote a wider variety of food choices and shape the food system in harmony with their values. Despite the local and sovereign nature of this engagement, federal food and agricultural policies have contributed substantially to this transformation of the American food system. In isolation, many of these policies support discrete programs and individuals. In the aggregate, these policies strengthen different facets ...


The End Of The Ramen Diet:Higher Education Students And Snap Benefits, Erika M. Dunyak 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

The End Of The Ramen Diet:Higher Education Students And Snap Benefits, Erika M. Dunyak

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Americans joke that college students have so little money that they subsist on 10 cent packs of ramen. Statistically, college students face much higher rates of food insecurity than the general population and the situation is particularly dire for students of color. Much has been written on this area in recent months and years and many commentators are seeking to denormalize poverty, hunger, and the “freshman 15” on campuses. This article will look to a solution for this hungry and often neglected population. In 2010, the Health, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA) reauthorized the Federal School Lunch Program. HHFKA contained several ...


Strengthening The National Organic Program With Stateorganic Programs, Kelly Damewood 2018 California Certified Organic Farmers, Inc.

Strengthening The National Organic Program With Stateorganic Programs, Kelly Damewood

Journal of Food Law & Policy

With an increasing amount of organic imports and steady growth in the organic sector, the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) National Organic Program (NOP) needs additional enforcement resources to oversee a growing and evolving organic marketplace. California has the most efficient, robust organic enforcement in the U.S. because it has a state-administered organic enforcement program, the California State Organic Program (SOP). Based on the costs and benefits of the SOP, additional state organic programs are a viable means to increasing NOP enforcement resources when they are established in states where additional enforcement adds value to the state ...


The Snap Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Debate: Restrictingpurchases To Improve Health Outcomes Of Low-Incomeamericans, Nicole E. Negowetti 2018 Harvard University

The Snap Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Debate: Restrictingpurchases To Improve Health Outcomes Of Low-Incomeamericans, Nicole E. Negowetti

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) is a highly effective government program that reduces poverty and improves food security for millions of our country’s most vulnerable families. Amid threats of budget cuts to this critical program in the 2018 Farm Bill, advocates representing various interests have banded together in support of this vital program. However, the issue of restricting the purchase of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) with SNAP benefits has divided anti-hunger and public health advocates. While public health and medical officials support the idea of restrictions on junk food, arguing that SNAP should improve health and nutrition, not contribute ...


Proactive Policies: Building The Farm Bill Of The Futurethrough New Collaborations And Perspectives, Jennifer Zwagerman 2018 Drake University

Proactive Policies: Building The Farm Bill Of The Futurethrough New Collaborations And Perspectives, Jennifer Zwagerman

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The Farm Bill highlights both one of the great divides in our political process, as well as one of the most beneficial partnerships in politics. Historically, partnerships between rural and urban have been key to successful passage of the Farm Bill. However, calls to divide nutrition support and agricultural support programs continue, and there are increasingly diverse viewpoints regarding agricultural programs. To build the Farm Bill of the future, one that is comprehensive and addresses the needs of not just producers, but ultimately everyone impacted by this Bill, there needs to be a broader coalition of partnerships and voices involved ...


Insuring A Future For Small Farms, Mary Beth Miller, D. Lee Miller 2018 Carolina Farm Stewardship Association

Insuring A Future For Small Farms, Mary Beth Miller, D. Lee Miller

Journal of Food Law & Policy

Congress created Whole Farm Revenue Protection (WFRP) in the 2014 Farm Bill to provide small, diversified, and organic operations with an insurance product tailored to their unique needs. The program stands out from other federal crop insurance programs with its blend of features that, inter alia, incentivize risk management through crop/animal diversification, increase premium subsidies for beginning producers, allow organic price elections, and recognize on-farm processing expenses. For the farmers who use it, WFRP provides more than peace of mind in the face of unpredictable weather and prices. It provides a revenue guarantee that opens up critical financing channels ...


A Farm Bill To Help Farmers Weather Climate Change, Peter H. Lehner, Nathan A. Rosenberg 2018 Earthjustice

A Farm Bill To Help Farmers Weather Climate Change, Peter H. Lehner, Nathan A. Rosenberg

Journal of Food Law & Policy

The Farm Bill has an enormous impact on climate change. Greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture account for almost 10 percent of total U.S. emissions and up to a quarter of all emissions globally. The Farm Bill encourages the use of carbon-intensive agricultural practices and products responsible for these emissions, but nonetheless offers several opportunities to quickly expand carbon sequestration, making it a critical piece of climate legislation. This essay will examine the climate impact of the Farm Bill, focusing on the commodity, conservation, and crop insurance programs. It then proposes politically feasible changes to these programs aimed at minimizing ...


Building Indian Country’S Future Through Food, Agriculture,Infrastructure, And Economic Development In The 2018 Farmbill, Janie Simms Hipp, Colby D. Duren, Erin Parker 2018 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Building Indian Country’S Future Through Food, Agriculture,Infrastructure, And Economic Development In The 2018 Farmbill, Janie Simms Hipp, Colby D. Duren, Erin Parker

Journal of Food Law & Policy

With the potential of approximately $1 trillion in spending over 10 years in rural America, the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) programs authorized by the Farm Bill have the ability to build and support thriving economies in rural America. Nowhere is this potential greater, or needed, than in rural Tribal communities. This paper will examine why the unique circumstances of Tribal governments, individual Native American food producers, and Tribal citizens necessitate changes in several USDA programs to serve Indian Country. Further, it will review several policy changes in various titles of the next Farm Bill reauthorization that will help ...


The Fate Of Industrial Hemp In The 2018 Farm Bill – Will Our Collective Ambivalence Finally Be Resolved?, Marne Coit 2018 North Carolina State University

The Fate Of Industrial Hemp In The 2018 Farm Bill – Will Our Collective Ambivalence Finally Be Resolved?, Marne Coit

Journal of Food Law & Policy

We are at a crossroads in the regulation of industrial hemp, and the 2018 Farm Bill is the time to decide which path we will choose. Congress has an opportunity to clear the path for farmers in the US to participate in this burgeoning market. With an estimated 25,000 uses, industrial hemp is one of those rare crops that has both food and agricultural uses. There is undoubtedly a market for hemp products. The Hemp Industries Association (HIA) estimates that US retail sales of hemp-based products was $688 million in 2016 – up from $573 million in 2015. Under the ...


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