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The Five Stages Of Lgbtq Discrimination And Its Effects On Mass Incarceration, Michael D. Braunstein 2017 University of Miami Law School

The Five Stages Of Lgbtq Discrimination And Its Effects On Mass Incarceration, Michael D. Braunstein

University of Miami Race & Social Justice Law Review

Although the Supreme Court’s recent decision in Obergefell v. Hodges provided some indication of equality for members of the LBGTQ community, the sad truth is that discrimination against those who do not identify as “heterosexual” reaches far deeper than the right to marry. This discrimination is especially present with regards to biased treatment by law enforcement officers and a lack of accommodations or protections within the court and prison systems. In a nation that has seen various groups of people fight for and earn their equality over and over again, it is truly concerning that the LGBTQ community is ...


Antitrust Policy And Inequality Of Wealth, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Antitrust Policy And Inequality Of Wealth, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

Why would anyone want to use antitrust law as a wealth distribution device when far more explicit statutory tools are available for that purpose? One feature of antitrust is its open-textured, nonspecific statutes that are interpreted by judges. As a result, using antitrust to redistribute wealth may be a way of invoking the judicial process without having to go to Congress or a state legislature that is likely to be unsympathetic. Of course, a corollary is that someone attempting to use antitrust law to redistribute wealth will have to rely on the existing antitrust statutes rather than obtaining a new ...


Appraising Merger Efficiencies, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Appraising Merger Efficiencies, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

Mergers of business firms violate the antitrust laws when they threaten to lessen competition, which generally refers to a price increase resulting from a reduction in output. However, a merger that threatens competition may also enable the post-merger firm to reduce its costs or improve its product. Attitudes toward mergers are heavily driven by assumptions about efficiency gains. If mergers of competitors never produced efficiency gains but simply reduced the number of competitors, a strong presumption against them would be warranted. We tolerate most mergers because of a background, highly generalized belief that most or at least many produce cost ...


Justice Scalia And Tonto Fistfight In Heaven, Ray Martin 2017 Columbia Law School

Justice Scalia And Tonto Fistfight In Heaven, Ray Martin

American Indian Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Rule Of Reason, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Rule Of Reason, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

Antitrust’s rule of reason was born out of a thirty year (1897-1927) division among Supreme Court Justices about the proper way to assess multi-firm restraints on competition. By the late 1920s the basic contours of the rule for restraints among competitors was roughly established. Antitrust policy toward vertical restraints remained much more unstable, however, largely because their effects were so poorly understood.

This article provides a litigation field guide for antitrust claims under the rule of reason – or more precisely, for situations when application of the rule of reason is likely. At the time pleadings are drafted and even ...


The Role Of The Prosecutor And The Grand Jury In Police Use Of Deadly Force Cases: Restoring The Grand Jury To Its Original Purpose, Ric Simmons 2017 Michael E. Moritz College of Law, The Ohio State University

The Role Of The Prosecutor And The Grand Jury In Police Use Of Deadly Force Cases: Restoring The Grand Jury To Its Original Purpose, Ric Simmons

Cleveland State Law Review

In deciding whether and what to charge in a criminal case, the prosecutor looks to three different factors. The first is legal: is there probable cause that the defendant committed this crime? The second is practical: if the case goes to trial, will there be sufficient evidence to convict the defendant beyond a reasonable doubt of this crime? And the third is equitable: should the defendant be charged with this crime? The prosecutor is uniquely qualified to answer the first and second question, but the third is a bit trickier. If it is used properly, the grand jury could provide ...


The Duty To Charge In Police Use Of Excessive Force Cases, Rebecca Roiphe 2017 New York Law School

The Duty To Charge In Police Use Of Excessive Force Cases, Rebecca Roiphe

Cleveland State Law Review

Responding to the problems of mass incarceration, racial disparities in justice, and wrongful convictions, scholars have focused on prosecutorial overcharging. They have, however, neglected to address undercharging—the failure to charge in entire classes of cases. Undercharging can similarly undermine the efficacy and legitimacy of the criminal justice system. While few have focused on this question in the domestic criminal law context, international law scholars have long recognized the social and structural cost for nascent democratic states when they fail to charge those responsible for the prior regime’s human rights abuses. This sort of impunity threatens the rule of ...


Restoring Independence To The Grand Jury: A Victim Advocate For The Police Use Of Force Cases, Jonathan Witmer-Rich 2017 Cleveland-Marshall College of Law, Cleveland State University

Restoring Independence To The Grand Jury: A Victim Advocate For The Police Use Of Force Cases, Jonathan Witmer-Rich

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article proposes a grand jury victim advocate to represent the interests of the complainant before the grand jury in investigations into police use of excessive force. Currently, the prosecutor has near-exclusive access to the grand jury, and as a result, grand juries have become almost entirely dependent on prosecutors. Historically, however, grand juries exhibited much greater independence. In particular, grand juries have a long history in America of providing oversight over government officials, bringing criminal charges for official misconduct even when local prosecutors proved reluctant. Permitting the alleged victim of police excessive force to be represented before the grand ...


Today's Porn: Not A Constitutional Right; Not A Human Right, Patrick Trueman 2017 National Center on Sexual Exploitation

Today's Porn: Not A Constitutional Right; Not A Human Right, Patrick Trueman

Dignity: A Journal on Sexual Exploitation and Violence

No abstract provided.


Reasonable Patent Exhaustion, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Reasonable Patent Exhaustion, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

A lengthy tug of war between the Supreme Court and the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals may have ended when the Supreme Court held that the sale of a patented article exhausts the patentee seller’s rights to enforce restrictions on that article through patent infringement suits. Further, reversing the Federal Circuit, the parties cannot bargain around this rule through the seller’s specification of conditions stated at the time of sale, no matter how clear. No inquiry need be made into the patentee’s market power, anticompetitive effects, or other types of harms, whether enforcement of the condition is ...


Nominate Judge Koh To The Ninth Circuit Again, Carl Tobias 2017 University of Richmond School of Law

Nominate Judge Koh To The Ninth Circuit Again, Carl Tobias

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

During February 2016, President Barack Obama nominated United States District Judge Lucy Haeran Koh to a “judicial emergency” vacancy on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. She has capably served over multiple years in the Northern District of California competently deciding numerous high-profile lawsuits, specifically regarding intellectual property. Accordingly, the President’s efforts to confirm her were unsurprising. However, 2016 was a presidential election year when judicial nominations traditionally slow and ultimately halt. This difficulty was exacerbated when Republicans consistently refused to implement any confirmation process for United States Court of Appeals for the District of ...


The Ncaa And The Rule Of Reason, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Ncaa And The Rule Of Reason, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

This brief essay considers the use of antitrust’s rule of reason in assessing challenges to rule making by the NCAA. In particular, it looks at the O’Bannon case, which involved challenges to NCAA rules limiting the compensation of student athletes under the NCAA rubric that protects the “amateur” status of collegiate athletes. Within that rubric, the Ninth Circuit got the right answer.

That outcome leads to a broader question, however: should the NCAA’s long held goal, frequently supported by the courts, of preserving athletic amateurism be jettisoned? Given the dual role that colleges play, that is a ...


Progressive Antitrust, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Progressive Antitrust, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship

Several American political candidates and administrations have both run and served under the “progressive” banner for more than a century, right through the 2016 election season. For the most part these have pursued interventionist antitrust policies, reflecting a belief that markets are fragile and in need of repair, that certain interest groups require greater protection, or in some cases that antitrust policy is an extended arm of regulation. This paper argues that most of this progressive antitrust policy was misconceived, including that reflected in the 2016 antitrust plank of the Democratic Party. The progressive state is best served by a ...


Sex Discrimination: Social Security Benefits, Neil B. Cohen, Catherine A. Broderick, Charles H. Klein 2017 Brooklyn Law School

Sex Discrimination: Social Security Benefits, Neil B. Cohen, Catherine A. Broderick, Charles H. Klein

Charles H. Klein

No abstract provided.


Three Hundred Nos: An Empirical Analysis Of The First 300+ Denials Of Institution For Inter Partes And Covered Business Method Patent Reviews Prior To In Re Cuozzo Speed Technologies, Llc, 14 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 112 (2015), Jarrad Wood, Jonathan Stroud 2017 Selected Works

Three Hundred Nos: An Empirical Analysis Of The First 300+ Denials Of Institution For Inter Partes And Covered Business Method Patent Reviews Prior To In Re Cuozzo Speed Technologies, Llc, 14 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 112 (2015), Jarrad Wood, Jonathan Stroud

Jonathan R. K. Stroud

Tasked in 2011 with creating powerful new patent review trial regimes, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office—through the efforts of their freshly empowered quasi-judicial body, the Patent Trial and Appeal Board—set to creating a fast-paced trial with limited discovery and concentrated efficiency. For two years, the proceedings have proved potent, holding unpatentable many of the claims that reached decisions on the merits. Yet a small subsection of petitions never make it past the starting gate, resulting in wasted time and effort on the parts of petitioners—and likely sighs of relief from the rights-holders. The AIA exempted ...


Designing Administrative Justice: Draft, Lorne Sossin 2017 Osgoode Hall Law School of York University

Designing Administrative Justice: Draft, Lorne Sossin

Lorne Sossin

This study explores the adaptation of design thinking to administrative justice. Design thinking – or human centred design – approaches services and products from the perspective of the user. This perspective too often is missing in the design of administrative tribunals, most of which have been developed top-down to serve the needs of a particular policy interest of the Government of the day. This paper is divided into two parts. In the first part, I review the development of design thinking in the context of legal services and legal organizations. In the second part, I explore the implications of this development for ...


Brief Of Federal Courts Scholars As Amici Curiae In Support Of The Petitioner, Willaim Araiza, Howard M. Wasserman, Lawrence Sager, Stephen I. Vladeck, Ernest A. Young 2017 Duke Law School

Brief Of Federal Courts Scholars As Amici Curiae In Support Of The Petitioner, Willaim Araiza, Howard M. Wasserman, Lawrence Sager, Stephen I. Vladeck, Ernest A. Young

Howard M Wasserman

No abstract provided.


Intramural Reforms: How The U.S. Courts Of Appeals Have Helped Themselves, Thomas E. Baker 2017 Selected Works

Intramural Reforms: How The U.S. Courts Of Appeals Have Helped Themselves, Thomas E. Baker

Thomas E. Baker

No abstract provided.


A General Theory Of Preemption: With Comments On State Decriminalization Of Marijuana, Lea Brilmayer 2017 Yale Law School

A General Theory Of Preemption: With Comments On State Decriminalization Of Marijuana, Lea Brilmayer

Boston College Law Review

Marijuana decriminalization is a hotly debated topic, which has nonetheless seen popular support in recent years. Current federal law (the Controlled Substances Act) conflicts with many state decriminalization efforts, raising the obvious question of federal preemption. The Supreme Court has failed to provide a clear answer on how much federal law preempts state marijuana decriminalization laws. This Article identifies the foundational principles of vertical and horizontal preemption, as well as various unanswered questions regarding these doctrines. It then applies these questions to marijuana decriminalization. Ultimately, it argues that there is a weak case for vertical or horizontal preemption in the ...


One Toke Too Far: The Demise Of The Dormant Commerce Clause's Extraterritoriality Doctrine Threatens The Marijuana-Legalization Experiment, Chad DeVeaux 2017 Harvard Law School

One Toke Too Far: The Demise Of The Dormant Commerce Clause's Extraterritoriality Doctrine Threatens The Marijuana-Legalization Experiment, Chad Deveaux

Boston College Law Review

This Article argues that the pending feuds between neighboring states over marijuana decriminalization demonstrate the need for a strict doctrine limiting a state’s regulatory authority to its own borders. Precedent recognizes that the dormant Commerce Clause (“DCC”) “precludes the application of a state statute to commerce that takes place wholly outside the State’s borders, whether or not the commerce has effects within the State.” This prohibition protects “the autonomy of the individual States within their respective spheres” by dictating that “[n]o state has the authority to tell other polities what laws they must enact or how affairs ...


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