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Corporate Conspiracy: How Not Calling A Conspiracy A Conspiracy Is Warping The Law On Corporate Wrongdoing, Josephine Sandler Nelson 2015 SelectedWorks

Corporate Conspiracy: How Not Calling A Conspiracy A Conspiracy Is Warping The Law On Corporate Wrongdoing, Josephine Sandler Nelson

J.S. Nelson

The intracorporate conspiracy doctrine immunizes an enterprise and its agents from conspiracy prosecution based on the legal fiction that an enterprise and its agents are a single actor incapable of the meeting of two minds to form a conspiracy. The doctrine, however, misplaces incentives in contravention of agency law, criminal law, tort law, and public policy. As a result, harmful behavior is ordered and performed without consequences, and the victims of the behavior suffer without appropriate remedy.

Especially in the wake of the financial crisis, prosecutors and the public are searching for new tools to combat corporate conspiracy. The most ...


The Death Of Tax Court Exceptionalism, Stephanie Hoffer, Christopher J. Walker 2014 SelectedWorks

The Death Of Tax Court Exceptionalism, Stephanie Hoffer, Christopher J. Walker

Christopher J. Walker

Tax exceptionalism—the view that tax law does not have to play by the administrative law rules that govern the rest of the regulatory state—has come under attack in recent years. In 2011, the Supreme Court rejected such exceptionalism by holding that judicial review of the Treasury Department’s interpretations of the tax code is subject to the same Chevron deference regime that applies throughout the administrative state. The D.C. Circuit followed suit by rejecting the IRS’s position that its notices are not subject to judicial review under the Administrative Procedure Act (APA). This Article calls for ...


Screening Out Innovation: The Merits Of Meritless Litigation, Alexander A. Reinert 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University

Screening Out Innovation: The Merits Of Meritless Litigation, Alexander A. Reinert

Indiana Law Journal

Courts and legislatures often conflate meritless and frivolous cases when balancing the desire to keep courthouse doors open to novel or unlikely claims against the concern that entertaining ultimately unsuccessful litigation will prove too costly for courts and defendants. Recently, significant procedural and substantive barriers to civil litigation have been informed by judicial and legislative assumptions about the costs of entertaining meritless and frivolous litigation. The prevailing wisdom is that eliminating meritless and frivolous claims as early in a case’s trajectory as possible will focus scarce resources on the truly meritorious cases, thereby ensuring that available remedies are properly ...


Federal Enforcement Of Police Reform, Stephen Rushin 2014 University of Illinois College of Law

Federal Enforcement Of Police Reform, Stephen Rushin

Stephen Rushin

Congress passed 42 U.S.C. § 14141 in an effort to combat police misconduct and incentivize proactive reform in local law enforcement agencies. The statute gives the Attorney General the power to initiate structural reform litigation against local police departments engaged in a pattern or practice of unconstitutional behavior. While academics initially praised the law’s passage, many have since worried that the Department of Justice (DOJ) has not effectively administered the measure. No research has empirically analyzed how the DOJ has used its authority to initiate structural police reform. Using a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, I fill ...


The Misapplication Of The Illinois Tort Immunity Act To The Intentional Torts Of Police Officers, William J. Campbell-Bezat 2014 SelectedWorks

The Misapplication Of The Illinois Tort Immunity Act To The Intentional Torts Of Police Officers, William J. Campbell-Bezat

William J Campbell-Bezat

According to prevailing State and Federal case law, the Illinois Tort Immunity Act immunizes police officers against liability for a variety of tort offenses. Upper level courts have painted with too broad a brush in construing the Act, allowing defendant-officers to assert immunity as an affirmative defense to intentional torts. In practice the effect is both confusing and burdensome to plaintiffs and juries. In many intentional tort cases the misconstruction requires the unauthorized revision of jury instructions and an unjustified heightening of the mental state to be proved by plaintiffs.

While there are many variations, the prevailing approach of upper-level ...


Still Out Of Step: The Sixth Circuit’S Adoption Of A “But-For” Standard For Ada Plaintiffs In Lewis V. Humboldt Acquisition Corp., Allison J. Zimmon 2014 Boston College Law School

Still Out Of Step: The Sixth Circuit’S Adoption Of A “But-For” Standard For Ada Plaintiffs In Lewis V. Humboldt Acquisition Corp., Allison J. Zimmon

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

On May 25, 2012, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit, sitting en banc, reversed seventeen years of precedent and joined its sister circuits by discarding the “sole cause” standard for proving discrimination under Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). By declining to adopt the “motivating factor” standard used in the majority of the other circuits, and instead adopting a “but-for” standard, the Sixth Circuit’s ADA jurisprudence continues to be an outlier. This Comment argues that the “but-for” standard imposes an unfair burden on vulnerable and disabled employees who are seeking relief from ...


Citizens Disunited: Mccutcheon V. Federal Election Commission, Adam Lamparello 2014 SelectedWorks

Citizens Disunited: Mccutcheon V. Federal Election Commission, Adam Lamparello

Adam Lamparello

We have a separate but unequal Constitution. The wealthy are democracy’s darlings, the middle class are its stepchildren, and the poor are its orphans. And the Constitution’s written and unwritten rights are alive for the wealthy, merely evolving for the middle class, and dead for the poor.

One thing, however, should not be disputed: wealthy individuals are entitled to fully enjoy the Constitution’s textual guarantees. Indeed, the notion that Congress—through aggregate limits on individual contributions—may limit the number of candidates to which they can contribute is troubling. But there is a reason. Everyone else—including ...


The Temptation Of Common Sense, Curtis E.A. Karnow 2014 SelectedWorks

The Temptation Of Common Sense, Curtis E.A. Karnow

Curtis E.A. Karnow

The fallacies of invoking arguments from ‘common sense’ in legal briefs.


California Egg Toss - The High Costs Of Avoiding Unenforceable Surrgoacy Contracts, Jennifer Jackson 2014 SelectedWorks

California Egg Toss - The High Costs Of Avoiding Unenforceable Surrgoacy Contracts, Jennifer Jackson

Jennifer Jackson

In an emotionally charged decision regarding surrogacy contracts, it is important to recognize the ramifications, costs, and policy. There are advantages to both “gestational carrier surrogacy” contracts and “traditional surrogacy” contracts. However, this paper focuses on the differences between these contracts using case law. Specifically, this paper will focus on the implications of California case law regarding surrogacy contracts. Cases such as Johnson v. Calvert and In Re Marriage of Moschetta provide a clear distinction between these contracts. This distinction will show that while gestational carrier surrogacy contracts are more expensive, public policy and court opinions will provide certainty and ...


The Supreme Court’S New Approach To Personal Jurisdiction, Bernadette Bollas Genetin 2014 The University of Akron School of Law

The Supreme Court’S New Approach To Personal Jurisdiction, Bernadette Bollas Genetin

Bernadette Bollas Genetin

This article provides a comprehensive analysis of the two personal jurisdiction opinions the United States Supreme Court issued in 2014. The article concludes that, these cases, Daimler AG v. Bauman, 134 S. Ct. 746 (2014), and Walden v. Fiore, 134 S. Ct. 1115 (2014), usher in a new doctrinal approach to personal jurisdiction. In Daimler AG v. Bauman, the Supreme Court narrowed the scope of general jurisdiction, making it available primarily in a corporation’s states of incorporation and principal place of business and rejecting, in most cases, the prior approach of permitting general jurisdiction based on a defendant’s ...


Gideon And The Effective Assistance Of Counsel: The Rhetoric And The Reality, David Rudovsky 2014 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Gideon And The Effective Assistance Of Counsel: The Rhetoric And The Reality, David Rudovsky

Faculty Scholarship

There is general agreement that the “promise” of Gideon has been systematically denied to large numbers of criminal defendants. In some cases, no counsel is provided; in many others, excessive caseloads and lack of resources prevent appointed counsel from providing effective assistance. Public defenders are forced to violate their ethical obligations by excessive case assignments that make it impossible for them to practice law in accordance with professional standards, to say nothing of Sixth Amendment commands. This worsening situation is caused by the failure of governmental bodies to properly fund indigent defense services and by the refusal of courts to ...


Discretion Abused: Reinterpreting The Appellate Standard Of Review For Hearsay, Matthew J. Peterson 2014 SelectedWorks

Discretion Abused: Reinterpreting The Appellate Standard Of Review For Hearsay, Matthew J. Peterson

Matthew J. Peterson

Matthew J. Peterson, Discretion Abused: Reinterpreting the Appellate Standard of Review for Hearsay

Abstract:

The decision by a federal a court to exclude or admit hearsay can be crucial to the case of either party. Despite this prospective impact, the federal courts of appeal currently defer to district courts’ expertise by reviewing a district court’s decision to admit or exclude hearsay for an abuse of discretion. Such deference often insulates district courts’ incorrect interpretation of the rule against hearsay and the improper application of the exclusions and exceptions to the rule from appellate reversal.

Lowering the standard of review ...


“Far From The Turbulent Space”: Considering The Adequacy Of Counsel In The Representation Of Individuals Accused Of Being Sexually Violent Predators, Michael L. Perlin, Heather Ellis Cucolo 2014 SelectedWorks

“Far From The Turbulent Space”: Considering The Adequacy Of Counsel In The Representation Of Individuals Accused Of Being Sexually Violent Predators, Michael L. Perlin, Heather Ellis Cucolo

Michael L Perlin

Abstract:

For the past thirty years, the US Supreme Court's standard of Strickland v. Washington has governed the question of adequacy of counsel in criminal trials. There, in a Sixth Amendment analysis, the Supreme Court acknowledged that simply having a lawyer assigned to a defendant was not constitutionally adequate, but that that lawyer must provide "effective assistance of counsel," effectiveness being defined, pallidly, as requiring simply that counsel's efforts be “reasonable” under the circumstances. The benchmark for judging an ineffectiveness claim is simply “whether counsel’s conduct so undermined the proper function of the adversarial process that the ...


The Immigrant "Other": Racialized Identity And The Devaluation Of Immigrant Family Relations, Anita Maddali 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University

The Immigrant "Other": Racialized Identity And The Devaluation Of Immigrant Family Relations, Anita Maddali

Indiana Law Journal

This Article explores how current terminations of undocumented immigrants’ parental rights are reminiscent of historical practices that removed early immigrant and Native American children from their parents in an attempt to cultivate an Anglo-American national identity. Today, children are separated from their families when courts terminate the rights of parents who have been, or who face, deportation. Often, biases toward undocumented parents affect determinations concerning parental fitness in a manner that, while different, reaps the same results as the removal of children from their families over a century ago. This Article examines cases in which courts terminated the parental rights ...


Beyond The Verdict: Why The Courts Must Protect Jurors From The Public Before, During, And After High-Profile Cases, Scott Ritter 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University

Beyond The Verdict: Why The Courts Must Protect Jurors From The Public Before, During, And After High-Profile Cases, Scott Ritter

Indiana Law Journal

In a time when more and more criminal trials are saturated in news coverage, media outlets race to get as much information as possible to the public. That access to the criminal justice system is a right protected by the First Amendment. But where does the access stop? This Note explores those limits, and the intersection between the First and Fourth Amendments.


Pari Passu To Gunboats: Nml V. Argentina, Vassilis Paliouras 2014 SelectedWorks

Pari Passu To Gunboats: Nml V. Argentina, Vassilis Paliouras

Bocconi Legal Papers

This article provides a detailed overview of the latest litigation saga before the courts of the state of New York between NML Capital, a distressed debt hedge fund owned by Elliott Management Corporation, and Argentina. The two of them arguably constitute the most aggressive players in the area of sovereign debt, and it comes with no surprise that much of the relative law has been framed by disputes to which, either one or both of them, were parties. At the heart of the present dispute was the interpretation of the pari passu (originally meaning “on equal step/footing”) clause that ...


Citizens Disunited: Mccutcheon V. Federal Election Commission, Adam Lamparello 2014 SelectedWorks

Citizens Disunited: Mccutcheon V. Federal Election Commission, Adam Lamparello

Adam Lamparello

The wealthy are democracy’s darlings, the middle class are its stepchildren, and the poor are its orphans. And the Constitution’s written and unwritten rights are alive for the wealthy, merely evolving for the middle class, and dead for the poor. Corporate giants like Goldman Sachs and AT&T line the pockets of senatorial candidates—and purchase influence—while average citizens walk into a polling station, often encounter voter suppression tactics, and cast a largely symbolic vote. Stated simply, we now live in a society of soft inequality. Like the “soft bigotry of low expectations,” soft inequality has created ...


Targeted Killing: United States Policy, Constitional Law, And Due Process, Mark Febrizio 2014 Liberty University

Targeted Killing: United States Policy, Constitional Law, And Due Process, Mark Febrizio

Senior Honors Theses

The increased incorporation of targeted killing, primarily through the use of unmanned aerial vehicles, into United States policy raises salient questions regarding its consistency with the U.S. Constitution. This paper contrasts interpretations of constitutional due process with the current legal framework for conducting targeted killing operations. The Fifth Amendment to the Constitution establishes the due process owed to U.S. citizens. This paper determines that the killing of Anwar al-Awlaki, an American citizen, was accomplished in a manner inconsistent with constitutional due process and demonstrates an over-extension of executive branch power. This paper examines one scholarly recommendation that seeks ...


The Two Faces Of Janus: The Jurisprudential Past And New Beginning Of Rule 10b-5, John Patrick Clayton 2014 University of Michigan Law School

The Two Faces Of Janus: The Jurisprudential Past And New Beginning Of Rule 10b-5, John Patrick Clayton

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Section 10(b) of the Securities Exchange Act and its implementing Rule 10b-5 are the primary antifraud provisions for both private and public enforcement of the federal securities laws. Neither the statute nor the rule expressly provides for a private right of action, but federal courts have long recognized such an implied right, and the Securities and Exchange Commission has supported the implied private right of action as a “necessary supplement” to its own efforts. However, after a decade of applying an expansive interpretation to Section 10(b), in the early 1970s the U.S. Supreme Court began to narrowly ...


Futility Of Exhaustion: Why Brady Claims Should Trump Federal Exhaustion Requirements, Tiffany R. Murphy 2014 University of Michigan Law School

Futility Of Exhaustion: Why Brady Claims Should Trump Federal Exhaustion Requirements, Tiffany R. Murphy

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

A defendant’s Fourteenth Amendment due process rights are violated when a state agency fails to disclose crucial exculpatory or impeachment evidence — so-called Brady violations. When this happens, the defendant should be provided the means not only to locate this evidence, but also to fully develop it in state post-conviction processes. When the state system prohibits both the means and legal mechanism to develop Brady claims, the defendant should be immune to any procedural penalties in either state or federal court. In other words, the defendant should not be required to return to state court to exhaust such a claim ...


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