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Lower Court Originalism, Ryan C. Williams 2022 Boston College Law School

Lower Court Originalism, Ryan C. Williams

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Originalism is among the most significant and contentious topics in all of constitutional law and has generated a massive literature addressing almost every aspect of the theory. But curiously absent from this literature is any sustained consideration of the distinctive role of lower courts as expositors of constitutional meaning and the particular challenges that such courts may confront in attempting to incorporate originalist interpretive methods into their own decisionmaking. Like most constitutional theories, originalism has tended to focus myopically on a select handful of decisionmakers—paradigmatically, the Justices of the Supreme Court—as the principal expositors of constitutional meaning. While ...


Managing Judicial Discretion: Qualified Immunity And Rule 12(B)(6) Motions, Zachary R. Hart 2022 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Managing Judicial Discretion: Qualified Immunity And Rule 12(B)(6) Motions, Zachary R. Hart

Indiana Law Journal

Qualified immunity is a judicially created doctrine that shields government officials from personal liability for civil damages. Courts applying the doctrine, which is heavily dependent on the facts of the case, must determine whether the government officials’ conduct violated a clearly established statutory or constitutional right of which a reasonable person would have known. This inquiry is discretionary as judges must determine if the alleged violation was “clearly established,” a term that the Supreme Court has defined in conflicting ways. Moreover, when federal judges conduct the qualified immunity inquiry at the Rule 12(b)(6) motion to dismiss stage, their ...


Introduction To Criminal Justice, Sindee Kerker 2022 Lynn University

Introduction To Criminal Justice, Sindee Kerker

Lynn University Digital Press Books

This iBook, replete with innovative learning tools, explores the three components of the American criminal justice system: police, courts, and corrections. Divided into ten chapters, the highly interactive text discusses a wide range of topics. Subjects like what constitutes a crime, constitutional rights, contemporary lawn enforcement issue, administration of justice, the court system, and various forms of corrections: jails, prisons, intermediate sanctions, and the juvenile justice system are explored. Recurring components of the iBook include: introductory high-profile media cases which, YouTube videos detailing various criminal justice career options (over 20), a Fact vs. Fiction section highlighting common myths and misperceptions ...


A Reflection Of Canadian Society? An Analysis Of Federal Appointments To Provincial Superior Courts By The Liberal Government Of Justin Trudeau, Erin Crandall 2022 Acadia University

A Reflection Of Canadian Society? An Analysis Of Federal Appointments To Provincial Superior Courts By The Liberal Government Of Justin Trudeau, Erin Crandall

Dalhousie Law Journal

Recent reforms to Canada’s system of federal judicial appointments have sought to make the process more transparent and better able to produce a bench reflective of the society it serves. This paper reviews these reforms and using judicial appointment data (2016–2020), considers whether the Liberal government has met these objectives. The relationship between official bilingualism and representation on the bench is also considered. The paper finds that “diversity” on Canada’s federally appointed provincial courts remains unbalanced. While women have made up the majority of appointments since the Trudeau Liberals formed government in 2015, other equity-deserving groups, like ...


Chisholm V. Georgia (1793): Laying The Foundation For Supreme Court Precedent, Abigail Stanger 2022 University of Louisville

Chisholm V. Georgia (1793): Laying The Foundation For Supreme Court Precedent, Abigail Stanger

The Cardinal Edge

No abstract provided.


Defining “Different”–How Distinctive Methods Of Textual Interpretation Led To The Abduction Enhancement Circuit Split, Adam Manaa 2022 Pepperdine University

Defining “Different”–How Distinctive Methods Of Textual Interpretation Led To The Abduction Enhancement Circuit Split, Adam Manaa

Pepperdine Law Review

This note examines the federal circuit courts’ differing approaches to interpreting the robbery abduction enhancement in the United States Sentencing Guidelines. Specifically, this note sets forth how the Sixth Circuit’s strict method of textual interpretation in United States v. Hill led to the erroneous holding that the term “different location” refers to “a place different from the store that is being robbed.” This note argues the court should have taken a more holistic interpretative approach, taking the underlying purpose of the Guidelines into account.


Living In A Legal Limbo: Mechanisms To “Fix” The Legal And Social Positions Of Unregistered Children In Indonesia, Hoko Horii, Theresia Dyah Wirastri 2022 VanVollenhoven Institute for Law, Governance and Society at Leiden University / Kobe University

Living In A Legal Limbo: Mechanisms To “Fix” The Legal And Social Positions Of Unregistered Children In Indonesia, Hoko Horii, Theresia Dyah Wirastri

The Indonesian Journal of Socio-Legal Studies

This paper examines the reasons and consequences of a lacking birth-registration in Indonesia, as well as the mechanisms to ‘fix’ it. In order to avoid the legal and social consequences of the lack of registration, creative and ad-hoc solutions are crafted – not only by the individual families who face the problem, but also by their community, including local and state actors who are involved in the mechanisms and paperwork. These mechanisms exist also because of state’s reluctance to enforce regulation related to unregistered marriage and children born into unregistered marriage as these matters are religiously and culturally delicate. We ...


If I Had More Time, Would I Have Written A Shorter And Faster Decision? An Empirical Examination Of The Evolution Of Trial Court Decisions, Jon Khan 2022 Osgoode Hall Law School

If I Had More Time, Would I Have Written A Shorter And Faster Decision? An Empirical Examination Of The Evolution Of Trial Court Decisions, Jon Khan

Dalhousie Law Journal

This article draws from my 2019 LLM thesis on Canadian judicial decisions, where I sought to understand two things: how current approaches to judicial decision-writing may impact access to justice and how might we make decisions a better source of data while also making them more timely, concise, accessible, and consistent. It presents the results and analysis of an original empirical study of the evolution of British Columbia trial decisions over 40 years (1980–2018). It argues that the current process for writing Canadian judicial decisions likely does not further the goals of access to justice and may even hinder ...


Public Access To Online Hearings, Jérémy Boulanger-Bonnelly 2022 University of Toronto Faculty of Law

Public Access To Online Hearings, Jérémy Boulanger-Bonnelly

Dalhousie Law Journal

The open court principle faced a significant challenge when courthouses closed their doors to limit the spread of COVID-19. The shift to online hearings in many jurisdictions generated new avenues for public access but also raised concerns for the privacy and security of individuals, and for the administration of justice. Building on existing principles and a review of the measures adopted by courts in Canada, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Australia during the pandemic, this paper seeks to identify best practices to preserve an appropriate balance between openness and competing interests in the online environment. It concludes that ...


What Mcculloch V. Maryland Got Wrong: The Original Meaning Of 'Necessary' Is Not 'Useful', 'Convenient', Or 'Rational', Steven Calabresi, Gary S. Lawson, Elise Kostial 2022 Northwestern University - Pritzker School of Law

What Mcculloch V. Maryland Got Wrong: The Original Meaning Of 'Necessary' Is Not 'Useful', 'Convenient', Or 'Rational', Steven Calabresi, Gary S. Lawson, Elise Kostial

Faculty Scholarship

McCulloch v. Maryland, echoing Alexander Hamilton nearly thirty years earlier, claimed of the word “necessary” in the Necessary and Proper Clause: “If reference be had to its use, in the common affairs of the world, or in approved authors, we find that it frequently imports that one thing is convenient, or useful . . . to another.” Modern case law has translated that understanding into a rational-basis test that treats the issue of necessity as all but nonjusticiable; The Supreme Court has never found a congressional law unconstitutional on the ground that it was not “necessary . . . for carrying into Execution” a federal power ...


An Analytical Study On Legal Validity Of Online Dispute Resolution (Odr) System In India And Indonesia, Dr Rahul Nikam, Bangkim Singh Nongthombam 2022 Faculty of Law, Marwadi University

An Analytical Study On Legal Validity Of Online Dispute Resolution (Odr) System In India And Indonesia, Dr Rahul Nikam, Bangkim Singh Nongthombam

Indonesia Law Review

Advancement in technology brought many inevitable changes with more efficiency, making human life easier. Benefit of technology shall be incorporated for effective and efficient justice delivery in dispute resolution mechanism. New development in this area is online arbitration dispute resolutions (ODR) which have been without doubt adopted and practices by justice delivery system across the globe. But the question remains the same as whether justice delivery system is equipped to cope up in the same pace with the changes taking place in the society and technology. Are the existing laws being enough to conduct online system as an effective mechanism ...


How Biden Could Keep Filling The Federal Circuit Court Vacancies, Carl Tobias 2022 University of Richmond School of Law

How Biden Could Keep Filling The Federal Circuit Court Vacancies, Carl Tobias

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

In October 2020, Democratic presidential nominee Joe Biden speculated that the fifty-four talented, extremely conservative, and exceptionally young, appellate court judges whom then-President Donald Trump and two relatively similar Grand Old Party (GOP) Senate majorities appointed had left the federal appeals courts “out of whack.” Problematic were the many deleterious ways in which Trump and both of the upper chamber majorities in the 115th and 116th Senate undermined the courts of appeals, which are the courts of last resort for practically all lawsuits, because the United States Supreme Court hears so few appeals. The nomination and confirmation processes which Trump ...


Eviction Courts, Kathryn A. Sabbeth 2022 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Eviction Courts, Kathryn A. Sabbeth

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Juvenile Protection Courts And The Pandemic: A View From Inside Out, Felice Batlan 2022 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Juvenile Protection Courts And The Pandemic: A View From Inside Out, Felice Batlan

University of St. Thomas Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Criminal Court System Failures During Covid-19: An Empirical Study, Cynthia Alkon 2022 Texas A&M University School of Law

Criminal Court System Failures During Covid-19: An Empirical Study, Cynthia Alkon

Faculty Scholarship

How did the criminal legal system respond to the early months of pandemic in 2020? This article reports the results of a unique national survey of judges, defense lawyers, and prosecutors that gives a snapshot of how the criminal legal system responded to the COVID-19 in the first five chaotic months. Criminal courts in the United States rely on in-person proceedings and formal and informal in-person communications to manage caseloads. The survey results detail, in ways not previously fully understood, how crucial these in-person communications are and how ill-prepared the criminal courts and legal professionals were to deal with the ...


Upaya Pemerintah Terhadap Perlindungan Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional Batik Motif Parang Sebagai Warisan Budaya Dunia, Raden Zulfikar Supinarko Putra 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Upaya Pemerintah Terhadap Perlindungan Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional Batik Motif Parang Sebagai Warisan Budaya Dunia, Raden Zulfikar Supinarko Putra

"Dharmasisya” Jurnal Program Magister Hukum FHUI

Abstract

Batik is not just a design on a piece of cloth, more than that, batik is a soul that blends in the procession of Indonesian society. Since the baby has been carried with a batik cloth, weddings wear batik cloth until when they die they will be covered with batik cloth too usually. This fact become a consideration for UNESCO to establish Indonesian Batik as a Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in the Fourth Session of The Intergovernmental Committee. This research uses a normative legal research method that is descriptive and analytical using a statutory ...


Perbedaan Akad Wakalah Bil Ujrah Dan Akad Qard Terhadap Permasalahan Akad Pembelian Barang Dalam Kehidupan Sehari-Hari, Zendy Sellyfio Ardiana 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Perbedaan Akad Wakalah Bil Ujrah Dan Akad Qard Terhadap Permasalahan Akad Pembelian Barang Dalam Kehidupan Sehari-Hari, Zendy Sellyfio Ardiana

"Dharmasisya” Jurnal Program Magister Hukum FHUI

Abstract

The wakalah bil ujrah and qard contract are contracts that often cause difficulties in implementing the purchase of goods in everyday life, both in safekeeping for purchasing goods and for buying and selling in general. Where if it is wrong in its application, it can cause income in a sale and purchase to be haraam due to an error in understanding the contract used and not describing benefit as the core of maqashid al-sharia which has an important role in determining Islamic law. The purpose of this paper is to find out how the solution to the application of ...


Tinjauan Yuridis Dalam Penyelesaian Pelanggaran Ham Berat Melalui Komisi Kebenaran Dan Rekonsiliasi Di Afrika Selatan Dan Indonesia, Tshana Erfandi 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Tinjauan Yuridis Dalam Penyelesaian Pelanggaran Ham Berat Melalui Komisi Kebenaran Dan Rekonsiliasi Di Afrika Selatan Dan Indonesia, Tshana Erfandi

"Dharmasisya” Jurnal Program Magister Hukum FHUI

Abstract

Several countries are currently developing a solution to the problem by establishing a particular commission. The commission works outside the courts, parliament and executive. In Indonesia, In Indonesia. The People's Consultative Assembly set a stipulation regarding the establishment of the National Center for Truth and Reconciliation: (NCTR) in 2000. This stipulation has the intent and purpose for national unity to identify existing problems, determine the conditions that must be made in order to achieve national reconciliation and establish policy direction as a guide to carry out the consolidation of unity of a nation. Whereas in South Africa, the ...


For The Right Reasons: The Rules Of The Game For Institutionalists, Rick Joslyn 2022 University of Connecticut

For The Right Reasons: The Rules Of The Game For Institutionalists, Rick Joslyn

Connecticut Law Review

The United States judiciary demonstrates better than any other constitutional institution the inherent fragility of American democracy. There is a reasonable debate to be had over when and exactly how the Supreme Court squandered the precious legitimacy on which its very existence rests. Yet, today, observers must confront with renewed urgency the impact crater of discontent that has been driven into the institution. The Court has been weaponized, politicized, and villainized; it has been lionized for its institutional heft. But increasingly loud voices have called for foundational reforms. There is a scramble for solutions to check the Court’s newly-emboldened ...


How And Why Do Judges Cite Academics? Evidence From The Singapore High Court, Jerrold Tsin Howe SOH, Yihan GOH 2022 Singapore Management University

How And Why Do Judges Cite Academics? Evidence From The Singapore High Court, Jerrold Tsin Howe Soh, Yihan Goh

Research Collection Yong Pung How School Of Law

Legal academics were once thought to be parasitic on the work of judges, so much so that citing academic work was said to weaken a judgment’s authority. Recent times have however seen prominent academics appointed to the highest courts, and judicial engagement with academic materials appears to have increased. In this light, this article empirically studies academic citation practices in the Singapore High Court. Using a dataset of 2,772 High Court judgments, we show that citation counts have indeed increased over time, even in this first-instance court. This increase was distributed across most legal areas, and was not ...


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