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How Context Shapes The Authority Of International Courts, Karen J. Alter, Laurence R. Helfer, Mikael Rask Madsen 2016 Duke Law School

How Context Shapes The Authority Of International Courts, Karen J. Alter, Laurence R. Helfer, Mikael Rask Madsen

Faculty Scholarship

This article provides a novel and provocative framework to assess the varied authority of international courts (ICs). We generate practicable metric that assesses de facto IC authority according to a conjunctive standard — the recognition of an obligation to comply with IC rulings, and the engagement in meaningful actions that push toward giving full effect to IC rulings. We then identify five possible types of IC authority — no authority in fact, narrow, intermediate, extensive, and public authority — that correspond to the different audiences for IC rulings. The goal of this metric is to help the contributors to a symposium on ICs ...


A Material World: Using Trademark Law To Override Copyright's First Sale Rule For Imported Copies, Mary LaFrance 2015 William S. Boyd School of Law, UNLV

A Material World: Using Trademark Law To Override Copyright's First Sale Rule For Imported Copies, Mary Lafrance

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

When the Supreme Court held that the first sale rule of copyright law permits the unauthorized importation and domestic sale of lawfully made copies of copyrighted works, regardless of where those copies were made, copyright owners lost much of their ability to engage in territorial price discrimination. Publishers, film and record producers, and software and videogame makers could no longer use copyright law to prevent the importation and domestic resale of gray market copies, and therefore could no longer protect their domestic distributors against competition from cheaper imported copies. However, many of these copyright owners can take advantage of a ...


After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough 2015 University of Michigan

After Myriad: Reconsidering The Incentives For Innovation In The Biotech Industry, Daniel K. Yarbrough

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

35 U.S.C. § 101 allows a patent for “any new and useful process, machine, manufacture, or composition of matter, or any new and useful improvement thereof.” Recently, the Supreme Court issued several key decisions affecting the doctrine of patentable subject matter under § 101. Starting with Bilski v. Kappos (2011), and continuing with Mayo Collaborative Services, Inc. v. Prometheus Laboratories (2012), Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics (2013) and, most recently, Alice Corporation Pty. Ltd. v. CLS Bank International (2014), every year has brought another major change to the way in which the Court assesses patentability. In Myriad, the ...


District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji 2015 University of Michigan

District Courts Versus The Usitc: Considering Exclusionary Relief For F/Rand-Encumbered Standard-Essential Patents, Helen H. Ji

Michigan Telecommunications and Technology Law Review

Technological standards allow manufacturers and consumers to rely upon these agreed-upon basic systems to facilitate sales and further invention. However, where these standards involved patented technology, the process of standard-setting raises many concerns at the intersection of antitrust and patent law. As patent holders advocate for their patents to become part of technological standards, how should courts police this activity to prevent patent holdup and other anti-competitive practices? This Note explores the differing approaches to remedies employed by the United States International Trade Commission and the United States District Courts where standard-essential patents are infringed. This Note further proposes that ...


The Process Of International Law-Making: The Relationship Between The International Court Of Justice And The International Law Commission, Marija Dordeska 2015 George Washington University Law School

The Process Of International Law-Making: The Relationship Between The International Court Of Justice And The International Law Commission, Marija Dordeska

Marija Dordeska

When the International Court of Justice (ICJ) resolves disputes between States, it relies on various draft articles of the International Law Commission (ILC), sometimes declaring them to be customary international law. The ICJ thereby elevates some draft articles into the sphere of customary international law, transforming them into instruments binding for the international community as a whole. However, the ICJ tends to rely on the ILC’s work only when the ILC bases its findings on ICJ or Permanent Court of International Justice’s precedents. As an alternative method of international law-making, the relationship between the ICJ and the ILC ...


Fundamental Unenumerated Rights Under The Ninth Amendment And Privileges Or Immunities Clause, Adam Lamparello 2015 Indiana Tech Law School

Fundamental Unenumerated Rights Under The Ninth Amendment And Privileges Or Immunities Clause, Adam Lamparello

Adam Lamparello

The failure to link the Ninth Amendment and Privileges or Immunities Clause for the purpose of creating unenumerated fundamental rights has been a persistent but rarely discussed aspect of the Court’s jurisprudence. That should change. There need not be an ongoing tension between the Court’s counter-majoritarian role and the authority of states to govern through the democratic process. If the Constitution’s text gives the Court a solid foundation upon which to recognize new rights and thereby create a more just society, then the exercise of that power is fundamentally democratic. The Ninth Amendment and Privileges or Immunities ...


Material Facts In The Debate Over Twombly And Iqbal, Jonah B. Gelbach 2015 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Material Facts In The Debate Over Twombly And Iqbal, Jonah B. Gelbach

Faculty Scholarship

This paper presents empirical evidence concerning the adjudication of defendant-filed summary judgment motions from nearly 2,000 randomly selected employment discrimination and contracts cases to try to assess Twombly and Iqbal’s performance in filtering cases according to merit. I first explain how such data might be helpful in such an assessment, taking into account the possibility that parties’ behavior might have changed following Twombly and Iqbal.

I then report results indicating that even using this large collection of data -- the most comprehensive data assembled to date to address this question -- we cannot tell whether “TwIqbal” supporters or critics are ...


International Law - Employment Discrimination. Japanese Corporation Formed Under United States Law Must Comply With Terms Of Title Vii Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964. Avagliano V. Sumitumo Shoji America, Inc., - U.S. -, 102 S. Ct. 2374 (1982)., Henry Cyrus 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

International Law - Employment Discrimination. Japanese Corporation Formed Under United States Law Must Comply With Terms Of Title Vii Of The Civil Rights Act Of 1964. Avagliano V. Sumitumo Shoji America, Inc., - U.S. -, 102 S. Ct. 2374 (1982)., Henry Cyrus

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


From The Shoals Of Ras Kaboudia To The Shores Of Tripoli: The Tunisia/Libya Continental Shelf Boundary Delimitation, Donna R. Christie 2015 Florida State University

From The Shoals Of Ras Kaboudia To The Shores Of Tripoli: The Tunisia/Libya Continental Shelf Boundary Delimitation, Donna R. Christie

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Why Chief Justice Roy Moore And The Alabama Supreme Court Just Made The Best Case For Same-Sex Marriage, Adam Lamparello 2015 Indiana Tech Law School

Why Chief Justice Roy Moore And The Alabama Supreme Court Just Made The Best Case For Same-Sex Marriage, Adam Lamparello

Adam Lamparello

The Alabama Court of the Judiciary should remove Roy Moore from the Supreme Court of Alabama for a second and final time. Over ten years after being ousted from the Alabama Supreme Court, Chief Justice Moore is embroiled in yet another controversy that involves disregarding the federal courts and creating chaos in the legal system. In fact, Moore recently stated that he would ignore the Supremacy Clause and not respect a U.S. Supreme Court decision invalidating same-sex marriage bans. That statement brings back memories of Governor Wallace’s infamous stand at the schoolhouse door. At least Wallace had a ...


Jurisdiction - The Supreme Court Upholds The Constitutionality Of The Jurisdictional Grant Of The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act Over A Suit Between An Alien And A Foreign Sovereign In United States District Court, Stephen E. Farish 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

Jurisdiction - The Supreme Court Upholds The Constitutionality Of The Jurisdictional Grant Of The Foreign Sovereign Immunities Act Over A Suit Between An Alien And A Foreign Sovereign In United States District Court, Stephen E. Farish

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Product Liability Law In Japan: An Introduction To A Developing Area Of Law, Younghee Jin Ottley, Bruce L. Ottley 2015 Continental Bank

Product Liability Law In Japan: An Introduction To A Developing Area Of Law, Younghee Jin Ottley, Bruce L. Ottley

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Violence-Related Police Crime Arrests In The United States, 2005-2011, Philip M. Stinson, Steven L. Brewer Jr, Joelle K. Bridges 2015 Bowling Green State University - Main Campus

Violence-Related Police Crime Arrests In The United States, 2005-2011, Philip M. Stinson, Steven L. Brewer Jr, Joelle K. Bridges

Philip M Stinson

This study is a quantitative content analysis of news reports and court records on 3,328 violence-related arrest cases of 2,586 individual sworn law enforcement officers during the years 2005-2011. The arrested officers were employed by 1,445 nonfederal state, local, special, constable, tribal, and regional law enforcement agencies located in 805 counties and independent cities in 49 states and the District of Columbia. Binary logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were conducted to predict criminal conviction in violence-related police crime arrest cases. Finding indicate that conviction of police officers on one or more offenses charged ...


Cases, Controversies, And Diversity, F. Andrew Hessick 2015 Northwestern University School of Law

Cases, Controversies, And Diversity, F. Andrew Hessick

Northwestern University Law Review

Article III’s diversity jurisdiction provisions extend the federal judicial power to state law controversies between different states or nations and their respective citizens. When exercising diversity jurisdiction, the federal judiciary does not function in its usual role of protecting federal interests or ensuring the uniformity of federal law. Instead, federal courts operate as alternative state courts for resolving disputes between diverse parties. But federal courts often cannot act as alternative state courts because of Article III justiciability doctrines such as standing, ripeness, and mootness. These doctrines define when a federal court may act. But they do not apply to ...


The Philip D. Reed Lecture Series: Judicial Records Forum, Panel Discussion 2015 Fordham Law School

The Philip D. Reed Lecture Series: Judicial Records Forum, Panel Discussion

Fordham Law Review

This Panel Discussion of the Judicial Records Forum was held on June 4, 2014, at Fordham University School of Law. The Judicial Records Forum focuses on issues involving the creation and management of judicial records and access to judicial records in the digital age.
The transcript of the Panel Discussion has been lightly edited and represents the panelists’ individual views only, and in no way reflects those of their affiliated firms, organizations, law schools, or the judiciary.


Longstanding Agency Interpretations, Anita S. Krishnakumar 2015 St. John’s University School of Law

Longstanding Agency Interpretations, Anita S. Krishnakumar

Fordham Law Review

How much deference—or what kind—should courts give to longstanding agency interpretations of statutes? Surprisingly, courts and scholars lack a coherent answer to this question. Legal scholars long have assumed that longstanding agency statutory interpretations are treated with heightened deference on judicial review, and federal courts sometimes have made statements suggesting that this is the case. But in practice, federal court review of longstanding agency interpretations—at both the U.S. Supreme Court and courts of appeals—turns out to be surprisingly erratic. Reviewing courts sometimes note the longevity of an agency’s statutory interpretation as a plus factor ...


Sovereign Defaults Before International Courts And Tribunals, John A. E. Pottow, Emily Himes Iversen 2015 University of Michigan Law School

Sovereign Defaults Before International Courts And Tribunals, John A. E. Pottow, Emily Himes Iversen

Law & Economics Working Papers

This book review probes Michael Waibel’s new book, Sovereign Defaults Before International Courts and Tribunals. Waibel's project is ambitious, exploring international attempts to address sovereign defaults over the past century and a half. Through painstaking and comprehensive historical analysis, Waibel shows how we've been here before -- a sober reminder for those thinking Argentina is simply part of a new fad in financial default. With the UN now turning its attention to sovereign debt issues, this study is especially timely. Although somewhat disappointing in the lightness of its normative content, the book should nevertheless prove helpful to those ...


Comentario Al Reglamento Sobre El Sistema De Resolución De Controversias En Materia De Consumo, Gabriel Martinez Medrano 2015 Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata

Comentario Al Reglamento Sobre El Sistema De Resolución De Controversias En Materia De Consumo, Gabriel Martinez Medrano

Gabriel Martinez Medrano

Comentario al Decreto 202/2015 reglamentario de la Ley de Solución de controversias en materia de consumo de Argentina. Crítica del sistema por falta de mecanismos para ejecutar acuerdos y resoluciones administrativas.


Applying Citizens United To Ordinary Corruption, George D. Brown 2015 Boston College Law School

Applying Citizens United To Ordinary Corruption, George D. Brown

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Federal criminal law frequently deals with the problem of corruption in the form of purchased political influence. There appear to be two distinct bodies of federal anti-corruption law — one concerning campaign finance regulation, and one addressing corruption in the form of such crimes as bribery, extortion by public officials, and gratuities to them. The latter body of law presents primarily issues of statutory construction, but it may be desirable for courts approaching these issues to have an animating theory of what corruption is and how to deal with it. At the moment, the two bodies of law look like two ...


Applying Citizens United To Ordinary Corruption, George D. Brown 2015 Boston College Law School

Applying Citizens United To Ordinary Corruption, George D. Brown

George D. Brown

Federal criminal law frequently deals with the problem of corruption in the form of purchased political influence. There appear to be two distinct bodies of federal anti-corruption law — one concerning campaign finance regulation, and one addressing corruption in the form of such crimes as bribery, extortion by public officials, and gratuities to them. The latter body of law presents primarily issues of statutory construction, but it may be desirable for courts approaching these issues to have an animating theory of what corruption is and how to deal with it. At the moment, the two bodies of law look like two ...


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