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Who Owns Human Capital?, Lily Kahng 2017 Seattle University Law School

Who Owns Human Capital?, Lily Kahng

Washington University Law Review

This Article analyzes the tax law’s capital income preference through the lens of intellectual capital, an increasingly important driver of economic productivity whose value derives primarily from workers’ knowledge, experience and skills. The Article discusses how business owners increasingly are able to “propertize” labor into intellectual capital—to capture the returns on their workers’ labor by embedding it in intellectual property and to restrict workers’ ability to employ their skills and knowledge elsewhere. The Article then shows how the tax law provides significant subsidies to the process of propertization and thereby contributes to the inequitable distribution of returns between ...


Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2016, Martin J. McMahon Jr., Bruce A. McGovern 2017 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2016, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Bruce A. Mcgovern

UF Law Faculty Publications

This recent developments outline discusses, and provides context to understand the significance of, the most important judicial decisions and administrative rulings and regulations promulgated by the Internal Revenue Service and Treasury Department during the most recent twelve months—and sometimes a little farther back in time if we find the item particularly humorous or outrageous. Most Treasury Regulations, however, are so complex that they cannot be discussed in detail, and, anyway, only a devout masochist would read them all the way through; just the basic topic and fundamental principles are highlighted—unless one of us decides to go nuts and ...


Legitimate Expectations In Canada: Soft Law And Tax Administration, Sas Ansari, Lorne Sossin 2017 Osgoode Hall Law School of York University

Legitimate Expectations In Canada: Soft Law And Tax Administration, Sas Ansari, Lorne Sossin

Articles & Book Chapters

This chapter examines the relationship between legitimate expectations and soft law. In what circumstances can an agency’s guidelines create law — or at least legally enforceable expectations? At first glance, the answer would appear obvious. The key reason for developing soft law is to provide guidance and transparency as to the process (and sometimes the substance) of administrative action. Soft law by its nature gives rise to expectations. Whether those expectations, in turn, give rise to legal effects is decidedly less clear. In fact, this question has vexed Canadian administrative law. Nowhere are questions of soft law and legitimate expectations ...


Simplexity: Plain Language And The Tax Law, Joshua D. Blank, Leigh Osofsky 2017 New York University School of Law

Simplexity: Plain Language And The Tax Law, Joshua D. Blank, Leigh Osofsky

Articles

In recent years, federal government agencies have increasingly attempted to use plain language in written communications with the public. The Plain Writing Act of 2010, for instance, requires agencies to incorporate "clear and simple" explanations of rules and regulations into their official publications. In the tax context, as part of its "customer service" mission, the Internal Revenue Service bears a "duty to explain" the tax law to hundreds of millions of taxpayers who file tax returns each year. Proponents of the plain language movement have heralded this form of communication as leading to simplicity in tax compliance, more equitable access ...


The Illusion Of Fiscal Illusion In Regulatory Takings, Bethany R. Berger 2017 American University Washington College of Law

The Illusion Of Fiscal Illusion In Regulatory Takings, Bethany R. Berger

American University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Behavioral Public Choice And The Carbon Tax, Gary M. Lucas Jr 2017 Texas A&M University School of Law

Behavioral Public Choice And The Carbon Tax, Gary M. Lucas Jr

Faculty Scholarship

In response to the historic Paris Agreement on climate change and to the Environmental Protection Agency’s recently finalized Clean Power Plan, economists and other climate policy experts have renewed the call for the United States to adopt a carbon tax. Opposition among the public presents a major obstacle. While a majority of the public supports government action on climate change, most people favor the use of “green” subsidies and command-and-control regulations—a fact that frustrates economists of all political stripes who contend that a carbon tax would be much cheaper and more effective. This Article argues that a cognitive ...


Estate Of Purdue: A Blueprint For Flping, Phyllis C. Taite 2017 Florida A&M University College of Law

Estate Of Purdue: A Blueprint For Flping, Phyllis C. Taite

Journal Publications

In this article, Taite examines Estate of Purdue, in which the Tax Court held that assets of the decedent that were transferred to the family limited liability company were not includable in the gross estate, that transfers to the family trust qualified for an annual exclusion, and that the estate could deduct interest on loans from the estate’s beneficiaries.


Destination-Based Cash-Flow Taxation: A Critical Appraisal, Wei Cui 2017 Allard School of Law at the University of British Columbia

Destination-Based Cash-Flow Taxation: A Critical Appraisal, Wei Cui

Faculty Publications

This article offers the first comprehensive scholarly response to proposals for destination-based, cash-flow taxation (DCFT). DCFT proposals have attracted heightened public attention in 2016 because of its incorporation into the U.S. House Republican Blueprint for tax reform and Donald Trump’s subsequent election to the White House. They also continue to fascinate tax specialists by suggesting that corporate profit can not only be taxed in countries of “source” or “residence,” but also (or even exclusively) in the countries where sales to final consumers occur. This Article clarifies the logical structure of DCFT proposals and exposes substantial gaps between their ...


Does Judicial Independence Matter? A Study Of The Determinants Of Administrative Litigation In An Authoritarian Regime, Wei Cui 2017 Allard School of Law at the University of British Columbia

Does Judicial Independence Matter? A Study Of The Determinants Of Administrative Litigation In An Authoritarian Regime, Wei Cui

Faculty Publications

Lawsuits against the government form a part of the regular functioning of legal systems in democratic countries, and responding to such lawsuits an unavoidable part of governance. However, in the context of authoritarian regimes, administrative litigation has been viewed as a distinctively valuable institution for promoting the rule of law and individual rights. Moreover, the judiciary is portrayed as the keystone to this institution and to the rule of law in general: the more powerful and competent is the judiciary, the more it is able to “constrain government” through judicial review. Through empirical and comparative analyses of over two decades ...


A Reflection On Tax Collecting: Opening A Can Of Worms To Clean Up A Collection Due Process Jurisdictional Mess, Pippa Browde 2017 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

A Reflection On Tax Collecting: Opening A Can Of Worms To Clean Up A Collection Due Process Jurisdictional Mess, Pippa Browde

Faculty Law Review Articles

Almost 20 years ago Congress enacted the Internal Revenue Service Restructuring and Reform Act of 1998 (RRA 98), with the intention of protecting taxpayers against perceived abuses in tax collection by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). RRA 98 contained provisions creating the so-called collection due process (CDP) provisions. CDP changed existing law by providing taxpayers with a pre-deprivation right to an administrative hearing and judicial review of any proposed collection actions by the IRS such as liens or levies. CDP has been both championed as a valuable mechanism to protect taxpayers from improper collection and criticized as a tool used ...


A New Theory Of Equitable Apportionment, David Gamage, Darien Shanske 2017 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

A New Theory Of Equitable Apportionment, David Gamage, Darien Shanske

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This essay analyzes the purpose of the equitable apportionment doctrine in state and local tax jurisprudence, arguing that the doctrine remains coherent in the context of single-sales-factor apportionment regimes.


The Definitions Of Income, John R. Brooks 2017 Georgetown University Law Center

The Definitions Of Income, John R. Brooks

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

What is income? It’s a seemingly simple question that’s surprisingly hard to answer. Income is the basis for assigning tax burdens, for distributing transfers, and for broader normative issues of inequality and justice. Yet we lack a shared conception of income, and a pure, rigorous definition of income is impossible. In this Article I review the intellectual history of the income concept among tax and fiscal theorists to show the difficulty of the problem, and also to show that some important debates about what’s proper under an income tax can be explained instead as arguments over competing ...


Considering "Citizenship Taxation": In Defense Of Fatca, Young Ran Kim 2017 University of Utah, SJ Quinney College of Law

Considering "Citizenship Taxation": In Defense Of Fatca, Young Ran Kim

Utah Law Faculty Scholarship

Inspired by Ruth Mason’s recent article, Citizenship Taxation, which reaches a general conclusion against citizenship taxation, this Article also questions citizen taxation under the same normative framework, but with a particular focus on efficiency and administrability, and takes a much less critical stance towards the merits of citizenship taxation. First, neither citizenship taxation nor residence-based taxation can completely account for the differences between residents’ and nonresidents’ ability to pay taxes under the fairness argument. Second, the efficiency argument, that citizenship taxation may distort both Americans’ and non-Americans’ citizenship decisions, is not convincing. The American citizenship renunciation rate is not ...


Taxation Without Information: The Institutional Foundations Of Modern Tax Collection, Wei Cui 2017 Allard School of Law at the University of British Columbia

Taxation Without Information: The Institutional Foundations Of Modern Tax Collection, Wei Cui

Faculty Publications

A prominent strand of recent economic and legal scholarship hypothesizes that third-party information reporting (TPIR) is essential to modern tax collection. The slogan, “no taxation without information,” has captured researchers’ imagination and is even often presented as self-evident truth. This Article offers a fundamentally different perspective, arguing that the emphasis on TPIR is misplaced. TPIR is used largely in the collection of the personal income tax but not of many other types of modern taxes. Even for the personal income tax, TPIR also has close substitutes which do not involve information transmission to the government. Theoretically, the appeal to TPIR ...


Citizenship Overreach, Peter J. Spiro 2017 Temple University Law School

Citizenship Overreach, Peter J. Spiro

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article examines international law limitations on the ascription of citizenship and national self-definition. The United States is exceptionally generous in its extension of citizenship. Alone among the major developed states, it extends citizenship to almost all persons in its territory at the moment of birth. This birthright citizenship is constitutionally protected under the Fourteenth Amendment. At the same time that it is generous at the front end, U.S. citizenship is sticky at the back. Termination of citizenship on the individual’s part can involve substantial fees. Expatriation is contingent on tax compliance and, in some cases, will implicate ...


A Global Perspective On Citizenship-Based Taxation, Allison Christians 2017 McGill University

A Global Perspective On Citizenship-Based Taxation, Allison Christians

Michigan Journal of International Law

This Article contends that, with regard to individuals who reside permanently outside of the United States, the global assistance sought under FATCA to enforce U.S. income taxation solely on the basis of citizenship violates international law. It argues that insisting upon foreign cooperation with the FATCA regime, under threat of serious economic penalties, is inconsistent with universally accepted norms regarding appropriate limits to the state’s jurisdiction to tax, while also being normatively unjustified. Accordingly, FATCA should be rejected by all other nation states to the extent it imposes any obligations with respect to individuals who permanently reside outside ...


Tax Symposium: Introduction, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah 2017 University of Michigan Law School

Tax Symposium: Introduction, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah

Michigan Journal of International Law

This issue of MJIL features four out of the many outstanding papers that were presented at a conference on Taxation and Citizenship held at Michigan Law in October 2015 and co-organized by Allison Christians and myself. The impetus for the conference was the realization that the unique U.S. practice of taxing its citizens on worldwide income, regardless of where they reside, has become a major flashpoint in the relationship between the United States and its citizens living overseas, and sometimes also between the United States and the country those citizens resided in.


Minimalism About Residence And Source, Wei Cui 2017 University of British Columbia

Minimalism About Residence And Source, Wei Cui

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this Article, I relate the discomfort with fundamental principles in taxing individuals’ worldwide income to a problem that has attracted greater attention in recent years: the assignment of geographical sources to income. I suggest that there is substantial similarity between critiques of residence rules (of which critiques of citizenship-based taxation are examples) and critiques of source rules. However, I argue that problematic residence and source rules are only symptoms, not causes, of unsatisfactory conceptual paradigms in international taxation. Many scholars portray source and residence rules as inadequate means for achieving purportedly given normative objectives in the age of intense ...


Defining Residence For Income Tax Purposes: Domicile As Gap-Filler, Citizenship As Proxy And Gap-Filler, Edward A. Zelinsky 2017 Cardozo School of Law, Yeshiva University

Defining Residence For Income Tax Purposes: Domicile As Gap-Filler, Citizenship As Proxy And Gap-Filler, Edward A. Zelinsky

Michigan Journal of International Law

In this paper, I place the United States’ adherence to citizenship-based taxation in the context of the states’ tax systems. Forty-one states impose general income taxes on the worldwide incomes of their respective residents. These state tax systems are important repositories of experience that confirm the administrative benefits of citizenship-based taxation. Domicile today plays an important role in state tax systems as a gap-filler when more objective statutory residence laws fail to assign any state of residence to the taxpayer. Citizenship is an administrable proxy for domicile and serves a similar gap-filling role in the taxation of individuals whose income ...


How States Can Respond To The Ahca: Using The Mccarran-Ferguson Act, David Gamage, Darien Shanske 2017 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

How States Can Respond To The Ahca: Using The Mccarran-Ferguson Act, David Gamage, Darien Shanske

Articles by Maurer Faculty

No abstract provided.


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