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Wink, Wink, Nudge Judge: Persuading U.S. Courts To Take Accountants Seriously In Federal Securities Cases With Help From The U.K. Companies Act, Kurt S. Schulzke 2015 Kennesaw State University

Wink, Wink, Nudge Judge: Persuading U.S. Courts To Take Accountants Seriously In Federal Securities Cases With Help From The U.K. Companies Act, Kurt S. Schulzke

Kurt S. Schulzke

The 2008 collapse of Lehman Brothers reopened wounds many thought were healed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) in 2002. The Lehman litigation finally ended in late 2013 with audit firm Ernst & Young paying $99 million to investors who claimed the firm misled them with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and other defendants, including banks, officers, and directors, paying out more than $500 million. The bright line standards of GAAP and SOX were obviously not enough to protect Lehman plaintiffs or defendants. Why not? The 2006 fraud trial of Enron CEO Jeffrey Skilling offers clues. When asked at trial whether U ...


Of Truth, Pragmatism, And Sour Grapes: The Second Circuit’S Decision In Sec V. Citigroup Global Markets, Theodore D. Edwards 2015 Duke University

Of Truth, Pragmatism, And Sour Grapes: The Second Circuit’S Decision In Sec V. Citigroup Global Markets, Theodore D. Edwards

Theodore D. Edwards

No abstract provided.


The Law And Ethics Of High-Frequency Trading, Steven R. McNamara 2015 American University of Beirut, Olayan School of Business

The Law And Ethics Of High-Frequency Trading, Steven R. Mcnamara

Steven R. McNamara

Michael Lewis’s recent book Flash Boys has resurrected the controversy concerning “high-frequency trading” (HFT) in the stock markets. While HFT has been important in the stock markets for about a decade, and may have already peaked in terms of its economic significance, it touched a nerve with a public suspicious of financial institutions in the wake of the financial crisis of 2008-2009. In reality, HFT is not one thing, but a wide array of practices conducted by technologically adept electronic traders. Some of these practices are benign, and some even bring benefits such as liquidity and improved price discovery ...


Broker-Dealer: A Fiduciary By Any Other Name?, William Alan Nelson II 2015 George Washington University School of Law

Broker-Dealer: A Fiduciary By Any Other Name?, William Alan Nelson Ii

William Alan Nelson II

Broker-dealers, unlike investment advisers, are not regulated as fiduciaries when providing investment advice, even though broker-dealers are holding themselves out as financial advisors and offering virtually identical services to investors. The lack of consistent regulation of financial service providers arises from the structure in which advice historically has been delivered. Financial services regulation since the Great Depression has developed along roughly dual tracks: laws governing the sale of financial products, which may or may not require that the products be suitable for the customer, and laws governing investment advice, which impose a fiduciary requirement on the adviser to act solely ...


Bridgefunding Is Crowdfunding For Startups Across The Private Equity Gap, Seth C. Oranburg 2015 Florida State University

Bridgefunding Is Crowdfunding For Startups Across The Private Equity Gap, Seth C. Oranburg

Seth C Oranburg

Title III of the JOBS Act of 2012, which attempts to encourage entrepreneurship by allowing startups and small business to sell stock to the general public over the Internet through “crowdfunding,” is completely backwards. Its ceiling should be a floor—the $1 million limit should be inverted. By capping startups at raising $1 million from crowdfunding, the JOBS Act does not address the private equity gap, a fundamental problem in startup markets, and exposes unsophisticated investors to risk and fraud.

This Article presents a regulatory framework premised on “bridgefunding,” an approach that this article develops to protect new investors by ...


Examining Success, Jonathan C. Lipson 2015 Temple University

Examining Success, Jonathan C. Lipson

Jonathan C. Lipson

Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code presumes that managers will remain in possession and control of a corporate debtor. This presents an obvious agency problem: these same managers may have gotten the company into trouble in the first place. The Bankruptcy Code thus includes checks and balances in the reorganization process, one of which is supposed to be an “examiner,” a private individual appointed to investigate and report on the debtor’s collapse.

We study their use in practice. Extending prior research, we find that examiners are exceedingly rare, despite the fact that they should be “mandatory” in large cases ...


Securities Regulations Investigations - United States-Swiss Treaty Attempts To Increase Cooperation In Releasing Names Of Swiss-Based Account Holders Involved In United States Securities And Exchange Commission Investigations, Daniel B. Simon III 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

Securities Regulations Investigations - United States-Swiss Treaty Attempts To Increase Cooperation In Releasing Names Of Swiss-Based Account Holders Involved In United States Securities And Exchange Commission Investigations, Daniel B. Simon Iii

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Tax Reform Act Of 1984 - Netherlands Antilles - Effect Of The Repeal Of The Withholding Tax On Portfolio Interest Payments To Foreign Investors, Lee C. Dilworth 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

Tax Reform Act Of 1984 - Netherlands Antilles - Effect Of The Repeal Of The Withholding Tax On Portfolio Interest Payments To Foreign Investors, Lee C. Dilworth

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Buying Voice: Financial Rewards For Whistleblowing Lawyers, Nancy J. Moore, Kathleen Clark 2015 Boston University School of Law

Buying Voice: Financial Rewards For Whistleblowing Lawyers, Nancy J. Moore, Kathleen Clark

Nancy J Moore

“Buying Voice: Financial Incentives for Whistleblowing Lawyers”

Kathleen Clark and Nancy J. Moore

Abstract

The federal government relies increasingly on whistleblowers to ferret out fraud, and has awarded whistleblowers over $4 billion under the False Claims Act and the Dodd-Frank Wall Street reform and Consumer Protection Act. May lawyers ethically seek whistleblower rewards under these federal statutes? A handful of lawyers have tried to do so as FCA qui tam relators. They have not yet succeeded, but several court decisions suggest that they might be able to do so under confidentiality exceptions to state ethics law, which several courts have ...


The Great And Powerful Faa: Why Schwab’S Class Action Waiver Should Have Been Enforced Over Finra’S Rules, Clint Hale 2015 Pepperdine University

The Great And Powerful Faa: Why Schwab’S Class Action Waiver Should Have Been Enforced Over Finra’S Rules, Clint Hale

Pepperdine Law Review

This Comment argues that recent Supreme Court precedent, circuit court decisions in contexts similar to FINRA’s oversight of the securities industry, and investors’ true interests all instruct that Schwab’s class action waiver should have been enforced over FINRA’s contrary command. Part II discusses FINRA’s role in the securities industry, the FAA and recent Supreme Court precedent interpreting the FAA, and the FINRA Rules that Schwab’s class action and joinder waiver violated. Part III analyzes why the conflict between the FAA and FINRA’s rules should have been resolved in favor of the FAA and supports ...


Securities Fraud Damages Under The Pslra, Mohammed A. Misbah 2015 SelectedWorks

Securities Fraud Damages Under The Pslra, Mohammed A. Misbah

Mohammed A Misbah

The United States Private Securities Litigation Reform Act ("PSLRA") implemented several substantive changes affecting certain cases brought under the federal securities laws. It was designed to reduce the number of “frivolous” securities lawsuits filed in federal courts. Prior to the PSLRA, a securities fraud case could proceed with minimal evidence and use pre-trial discovery to search for more evidence that strongly suggested a deliberate fraud. Under the PSLRA plaintiffs need such evidence simply in order to commence an action. This article seeks to explain what evidence is required of a plaintiff in a security fraud case, in order to defeat ...


The Vanishing Supervisor, JAMES A. FANTO 2015 Brooklyn Law School

The Vanishing Supervisor, James A. Fanto

James A. Fanto

This Article begins with two stories that are emblematic of related trends in broker-dealers: the importance of compliance officers and the significance of technology for the oversight of brokers and their activities. The stories also point to the lessening role of the supervisor who is “on the ground” in the branches of these firms. The diminished position of the mid-level supervisor is surprising, even shocking, in the federal regulation of broker-dealers. The history of this regulation reveals that Congress, the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) and self-regulatory organizations (“SROs”) like the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (“FINRA”) sought to prevent broker ...


Take It Or Leave It: Unconscionability Of Mandatory Pre-Dispute Arbitration Agreements In The Securities Industry, William Alan Nelson II 2015 George Washington University School of Law

Take It Or Leave It: Unconscionability Of Mandatory Pre-Dispute Arbitration Agreements In The Securities Industry, William Alan Nelson Ii

William Alan Nelson II

The pervasive use of mandatory pre-dispute arbitration agreements in the securities industry is a relatively new phenomenon. However, research reflects that an overwhelming majority of retail brokerage and investment advisory agreements include language requiring that all disputes between the customer and the broker-dealer / investment adviser be resolved through arbitration – most often with Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) Dispute Resolution. Thus, only in rare instances can an investor open either a brokerage or investment advisory account without agreeing to submit to mandatory pre-dispute arbitration.

The enclosed article is the first to focus on the fairness of mandatory pre-dispute arbitration agreements through ...


Admit Or Deny: A Call For Reform Of The Sec's "Neither-Admit-Nor-Deny" Policy, Priyah Kaul 2015 University of Michigan Law School

Admit Or Deny: A Call For Reform Of The Sec's "Neither-Admit-Nor-Deny" Policy, Priyah Kaul

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

For four decades, the SEC’s often-invoked policy of settling cases without requiring admissions of wrongdoing, referred to as the “neither-admit-nor-deny” policy, went unchallenged by the courts, the legislature, and the public. Then in 2011, a harshly critical opinion from Judge Jed Rakoff in SEC v. Citigroup incited demands for reform of this policy. In response to Judge Rakoff’s opinion, the SEC announced a modified approach to settlements. Under the modified approach, the Commission may require an admission of wrongdoing if a defendant’s misconduct was egregious or if the public markets would benefit from an admission. Many supporters ...


Fraud Is Already Illegal: Section 621 Of The Dodd-Frank Act In The Context Of The Securities Laws, Nathan R. Schuur 2015 University of Michigan Law School

Fraud Is Already Illegal: Section 621 Of The Dodd-Frank Act In The Context Of The Securities Laws, Nathan R. Schuur

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

In the aftermath of the financial crisis, lawmakers and the public focused on abuses in the securitization industry. Abacus, a Synthetic CDO created by Goldman Sachs & Co., became a symbol of what many felt was a corrupt system when it became known that Goldman and Fabrice Tourre, a Vice President at its Correlation Trading Desk, had assisted a hedge fund in designing the security to fail. Perceived failings of the securities laws to prevent transactions like Abacus spurred Congress to enact Section 621 of the Dodd-Frank Act, which prohibits conflicts of interest in asset-backed securitizations. But the law is unnecessary ...


Correcting Corporate Benefit: How To Fix Shareholder Litigation By Shifting The Doctrine On Fees, Sean Griffith 2015 Fordham Law School

Correcting Corporate Benefit: How To Fix Shareholder Litigation By Shifting The Doctrine On Fees, Sean Griffith

Boston College Law Review

The current controversy in corporate law concerns whether firms can discourage litigation by shifting its cost to shareholders. But corporate law courts have long engaged in fee-shifting—from shareholder plaintiffs to the corporation—under the “corporate benefit” doctrine. This Article examines fee-shifting in share-holder litigation, arguing that current practices are unsound from the perspective of both doctrine and public policy. Unfortunately, the fee-shifting bylaws recently enacted in response to the problem of excessive shareholder litigation fare no better. The Article therefore offers a different approach to fee-shifting, articulating three specific reforms of the corporate benefit doctrine to quell the current ...


Definitions, Religion, And Free Exercise Guarantees, Mark Strasser 2015 Capital University Law School

Definitions, Religion, And Free Exercise Guarantees, Mark Strasser

Mark Strasser

The First Amendment to the United States Constitution protects the free exercise of religion. Non-religious practices do not receive those same protections, which makes the ability to distinguish between religious and non-religious practices important. Regrettably, members of the Court have been unable to agree about how to distinguish the religious from the non-religious—sometimes, the implicit criteria focus on the sincerity of the beliefs, sometimes the strength of the beliefs or the role that they play in an individual’s life, and sometimes the kind of beliefs. In short, the Court has virtually guaranteed an incoherent jurisprudence by sending contradictory ...


Restoring Confidence In The Financial Services Industry: Advocating For A Uniform, Rules-Based Fiduciary Standard, Katelin Eastman 2015 Pepperdine University

Restoring Confidence In The Financial Services Industry: Advocating For A Uniform, Rules-Based Fiduciary Standard, Katelin Eastman

Pepperdine Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Export Trade Note: A New Instrument For International Trade, Eugene A. Ludwig, Michael J. Coursey 2015 Covington & Burling

The Export Trade Note: A New Instrument For International Trade, Eugene A. Ludwig, Michael J. Coursey

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Sec Rules, Stakeholder Interests, And Cost-Benefit Analysis, Yoon-Ho Alex Lee 2015 USC Gould School of Law

Sec Rules, Stakeholder Interests, And Cost-Benefit Analysis, Yoon-Ho Alex Lee

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Rules designed to regulate capital markets and protect investors often have spillover effects, either negative or positive, on stakeholders other than investors. These stakeholders can include managers, employees, consumers, taxpayers, gatekeepers, vendors, and others. This raises a question as to whether cost-benefit analyses of such investor protection rules -- to the extent that the regulator is expected to conduct them -- should take account of these spillover effects. One dilemma is that a rule may potentially be net beneficial to investors while net costly to society at large, or alternatively, it may be net beneficial to society at large but net costly ...


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