The Shadow Of Free Enterprise: The Unconstitutionality Of The Securities & Exchange Commission’S Administrative Law Judges, Linda D. Jellum, Moses M. Tincher
Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary
Six years ago, Congress enacted the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act), for the first time giving the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) the power to seek monetary penalties through its in-house adjudication. The SEC already had the power to seek such penalties in federal court. With the Dodd-Frank Act, the SEC’s enforcement division could now choose between an adjudication before an SEC Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) or a civil action before an Article III judge. With this new choice, the SEC realized a significant home-court advantage. For example, in 2014, the SEC’s enforcement ...
Selective Disclosure And Insider Trading, 2018 University of Florida Levin College of Law
Selective Disclosure And Insider Trading, Michael Guttentag
Florida Law Review
Determining when the selective disclosure of material nonpublic information should trigger insider trading liability is a deeply problematic aspect of insider trading doctrine.
The current rule is that a selective disclosure can only trigger insider trading liability if “the insider [making the selective disclosure] personally will benefit, directly or indirectly, from his disclosure.” Dirks v. SEC introduced this “personal benefit” test in 1983 to balance four competing rationales for determining when a tip should trigger insider trading liability. Two developments since Dirks have made problems with this personal benefit test insurmountable. First, the SEC’s enactment of Regulation Fair Disclosure ...
International Crowdfunding: Did The Sec Get It Right When Promulgating Regulation Crowdfunding Relative To Other Leading G20 Crowdfunding Regulations?, Robert A. Dixon Jr.
Robert A. Dixon Jr.
Class Actions, Statutes Of Limitations And Repose, And Federal Common Law, 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Class Actions, Statutes Of Limitations And Repose, And Federal Common Law, Stephen B. Burbank, Tobias Barrington Wolff
After more than three decades during which it gave the issue scant attention, the Supreme Court has again made the American Pipe doctrine an active part of its docket. American Pipe addresses the tolling of statutes of limitations in federal class action litigation. When plaintiffs file a putative class action in federal court and class certification is denied, absent members of the putative class may wish to pursue their claims in some kind of further proceeding. If the statute of limitations would otherwise have expired while the class certification issue was being resolved, these claimants may need the benefit of ...
Mom Approval In A World Of Active Shareholders, 2018 NYU School of Law
Mom Approval In A World Of Active Shareholders, Edward Rock
New York University Law and Economics Working Papers
Majority of Minority (MOM) approval is a common mechanism used in many jurisdictions to control conflicts of interest in related party transactions. Recently, in M & F Worldwide, the Delaware Supreme Court held that MOM approval in a controlling shareholder freezeout shifted the standard of review from Entire Fairness to Business Judgement Rule. In this article, I investigate how MOM approval functions in the presence of active shareholders (both hedge funds and actively managed mutual funds).
After reviewing the potential benefits and problems with MOM approval, I review the use of MOM provisions in controlling shareholder freezeouts in the U.S. between 2010 and 2017. I combine this with three case studies involving MOM approval: the Dell MBO; the Oracle/NetSuite merger; and the unsuccessful effort by the Dolan family to take Cablevision private in 2007. I then briefly consider a quite different sort of MOM approval: the EU Takeover Directive’s requirement that conditions mandatory freezeouts on achieving a very high level of ownership (90-95%), typically through a tender offer.
The principal lessons of this investigation are ambiguous. First, I do not find significant evidence that the use of MOM conditions in ...
Insider Tainting: Strategic Tipping Of Material Nonpublic Information, 2018 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law
Insider Tainting: Strategic Tipping Of Material Nonpublic Information, Andrew Verstein
Northwestern University Law Review
Insider trading law is meant to be a shield, protecting the market and investors from unscrupulous traders, but it can also be a sword. Insofar as we penalize trading on the basis of material, nonpublic information, it becomes possible to share information strategically in order to disable or constrain innocent investors. A hostile takeover can be averted, or a bidding war curtailed, because recipients of such information must then refrain from trading. This Article offers the first general account of “insider tainting,” an increasingly pervasive phenomenon of weaponizing insider trading law.
The Risk Of Regulatory Arbitrage: A Response To Securities Regulation In Virtual Space, 2018 University of Idaho College of Law
The Risk Of Regulatory Arbitrage: A Response To Securities Regulation In Virtual Space, Wendy Gerwick Couture
Washington and Lee Law Review Online
In Securities Regulation in Virtual Space, Eric. C. Chaffee explores the potential applicability of the securities laws to virtual transactions based on virtual activity and argues that, although many of these transactions likely qualify as “investment contracts” under S.E.C. v. W.J. Howey Co., they should be excluded under the context clause because, among other reasons, application of the securities laws would stifle creativity within this innovative space. This Response proposes a reframing of the Howey test as a response to the risk of regulatory arbitrage, argues that the context clause should only exclude transactions that do not ...
Regulating Robo Advice Across The Financial Services Industry, 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Regulating Robo Advice Across The Financial Services Industry, Tom Baker, Benedict G. C. Dellaert
Automated financial product advisors – “robo advisors” – are emerging across the financial services industry, helping consumers choose investments, banking products, and insurance policies. Robo advisors have the potential to lower the cost and increase the quality and transparency of financial advice for consumers. But they also pose significant new challenges for regulators who are accustomed to assessing human intermediaries. A well-designed robo advisor will be honest and competent, and it will recommend only suitable products. Because humans design and implement robo advisors, however, honesty, competence, and suitability cannot simply be assumed. Moreover, robo advisors pose new scale risks that are different ...
Decentralized Public Ledger Systems And Securities Law: New Applications Of Blockchain Technology And The Revitalization Of Sections 11 And 12(A)(2) Of The Securities Act Of 1933, 2018 Washington University School of Law
Decentralized Public Ledger Systems And Securities Law: New Applications Of Blockchain Technology And The Revitalization Of Sections 11 And 12(A)(2) Of The Securities Act Of 1933, Kelsey Bolin
Washington University Law Review
When Bitcoin launched in 2009, it was the first virtual cryptocurrency to gain popularity and attain widespread use. Much attention has been paid to Bitcoin’s well-publicized advances and setbacks as the world’s foremost virtual currency. Less attention has been paid, however, to the decentralized public ledger technology that enables Bitcoin to function. That technology is just as innovative as Bitcoin itself. Decentralized public ledgers are a revolution in digital data storage and have the “potential to fundamentally shift the way in which society operates.”
This Note will examine one such societal shift—a change in how shareholders access ...
Central Clearing Of Financial Contracts: Theory And Regulatory Implications, 2018 Duke Law School
Central Clearing Of Financial Contracts: Theory And Regulatory Implications, Steven L. Schwarcz
To protect economic stability, post-crisis regulation requires financial institutions to clear and settle most of their derivatives contracts through central counterparties, such as clearinghouses associated with securities exchanges. This Article asks whether regulators should expand the central clearing requirement to non-derivative financial contracts, such as loan agreements. The Article begins by theorizing how and why central clearing can reduce systemic risk. It then examines the theory’s regulatory and economic efficiency implications, first for current requirements to centrally clear derivatives contracts and thereafter for deciding whether to extend those requirements to non-derivative contracts. The inquiry has real practical importance because ...
What Conflict Minerals Rules Tell Us About The Legal Transplantation Of Corporate Social Responsibility Standards Without The State: From The United Nations To The United States To Taiwan, 2017 National Tsinghua University
What Conflict Minerals Rules Tell Us About The Legal Transplantation Of Corporate Social Responsibility Standards Without The State: From The United Nations To The United States To Taiwan, Chang-Hsien (Robert) Tsai, Yen-Nung Wu
Chang-hsien (Robert) TSAI
The Unicorn Governance Trap, 2017 Boston College Law School
The Unicorn Governance Trap, Renee Jones
Boston College Law School Faculty Papers
The recent trend of large-scale start-up companies delaying an IPO creates a new kind of corporate governance problem. The prevalence of “unicorns” – privately held companies with market valuations of $1 billion or more – means the disciplinary mechanisms on which investors traditionally relied no longer function to prevent misconduct or mismanagement by unicorn founders. High profile frauds by unicorns like Zenefits and Theranos, and the recent travails of Uber highlight the need to rethink unicorn governance structure. These burgeoning controversies call for reconsideration of legal reforms that allow unicorns to remain for protracted periods in an ill-defined limbo between private and ...
Sec Filings, Regulatory Deadlines, And Capital Market Consequences, 2017 New York University
Sec Filings, Regulatory Deadlines, And Capital Market Consequences, Eli Bartov, Yaniv Konchitchki
New York University Law and Economics Working Papers
Timely disclosure of financial statement information is a critical requirement for firms and well-functioning capital markets. Yet, every quarter or year, a non-trivial number of firms are late in filing their financial statements. This paper identifies and probes various capital market consequences for late filings of quarterly and annual financial statements. It examines the short- and long-window reaction to late filings, as well as how equity investors process statements accompanying late filing announcements, such as managers declaring intentions to file within/outside SEC’s allowed grace periods. The paper documents that delayed quarterly filings have distinctly different valuation implications than ...
The Interest Is Not Mutual: Effect Of The Personal Property Securities Act 2009 (Cth) On Contractual Rights Of Set-Off, 2017 The University of Notre Dame Australia
The Interest Is Not Mutual: Effect Of The Personal Property Securities Act 2009 (Cth) On Contractual Rights Of Set-Off, Caroline Woo
The University of Notre Dame Australia Law Review
In Hamersley Iron Pty Ltd v Forge Group Power Pty Ltd (In Liquidation) (Receivers and Managers Appointed), the Supreme Court of Western Australia held that the rights of ANZ, a secured creditor of Forge Group Power Pty Ltd (Forge) holding a security interest under the Personal Property Securities Act 2009 (Cth) (PPSA), trumped Hamersley Iron Pty Ltd’s rights of contractual and equitable set-off. Forge is in receivership and in liquidation. In answering the preliminary issues in dispute between the parties, the Supreme Court examined the complex interaction between contractual and equitable rights, the PPSA and section 553C of the ...
Regulating A Revolution: From Regulatory Sandboxes To Smart Regulation, 2017 Faculty of Law, Economics and Finance, University of Luxembourg
Regulating A Revolution: From Regulatory Sandboxes To Smart Regulation, Dirk A. Zetzsche, Ross P. Buckley, Janos N. Barberis, Douglas W. Arner
Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law
Prior to the global financial crisis, financial innovation was viewed very positively, resulting in a laissez-faire, deregulatory approach to financial regulation. Since the crisis the regulatory pendulum has swung to the other extreme. Post-crisis regulation, plus rapid technological change, have spurred the development of financial technology (FinTech). FinTech firms and data-driven financial service providers profoundly challenge the current regulatory paradigm. Financial regulators increasingly seek to balance the traditional regulatory objectives of financial stability and consumer protection with promoting growth and innovation. The resulting regulatory innovations include RegTech, regulatory sandboxes, and special charters. This Article analyzes possible new regulatory approaches, ranging ...
Venture Capital Contract Design: An Empirical Analysis Of The Connection Between Bargaining Power And Venture Financing Contract Terms, 2017 Stanford Law School Program on Corporate Governance and Practice
Venture Capital Contract Design: An Empirical Analysis Of The Connection Between Bargaining Power And Venture Financing Contract Terms, Spencer Williams
Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law
This Article presents an empirical analysis of the connection between bargaining power and contract design using an original dataset of over 5,500 equity and debt venture financings from 2004–2015. Using the total supply of venture capital in the U.S. as a measure of relative bargaining power between entrepreneurs and investors, this Article finds that venture capital supply has a statistically significant relationship with price and non-price terms in both equity and debt financings. These results contradict one of three theoretical accounts of bargaining power and support the other two.
A Novel Approach To Defining "Whistleblower" In Dodd-Frank, 2017 J.D. Candidate, Fordham University School of Law
A Novel Approach To Defining "Whistleblower" In Dodd-Frank, Ian A. Engoron
Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law
Following the Financial Crisis of 2008, trust in the financial industry was at an all-time low as the American taxpayer was forced to bailout the very same institutions responsible for their suffering. In response, Congress passed Dodd-Frank in 2010 to ensure another crisis like 2008 never happen again. Section 78u-6 of the Act provides incentives and protections for whistleblowers who report violations of securities laws. In recent years there has been a divide among circuit courts over the question of whether employees who report violations internally to their bosses—and not directly to the SEC—are protected by the Act ...
Morality And Securities Fraud, 2017 Marquette University Law School
Morality And Securities Fraud, Jayme Herschkopf
Marquette Law Review
Securities fraud features prominently in conversations about financial reform, and for good reason. In addition to the disproportionate number of securities fraud lawsuits and government actions filed every year, securities fraud case law is frequently consulted as an analytical aid for other types of corporate fraud. And yet, in discussing the interpretation and application of the securities laws, scholars, judges, and lawmakers alike have largely overlooked a feature of securities fraud that could offer significant assistance in many challenging areas: namely, that securities fraud, including civil securities fraud, has a pronounced moral dimension.
This Article explores the role that moral ...
Protecting Whistleblowing (And Not Just Whistleblowers), 2017 University of Michigan Law School
Protecting Whistleblowing (And Not Just Whistleblowers), Evan J. Ballan
Michigan Law Review
When the government contracts with private parties, the risk of fraud runs high. Fraud against the government hurts everyone: taxpayer money is wasted on inferior or nonexistent products and services, and the public bears the burdens attendant to those inadequate goods. To combat fraud, Congress has developed several statutory frameworks to encourage whistleblowers to come forward and report wrongdoing in exchange for a monetary reward. The federal False Claims Act allows whistleblowers to file an action in federal court on behalf of the United States, and to share in any recovery. Under the Dodd- Frank Act, the SEC Office of ...
Crowdfunding Signals, 2017 William & Mary Law School
Crowdfunding Signals, Darian M. Ibrahim
No abstract provided.