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From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

From Baby M To Baby M(Anji): Regulating International Surrogacy Agreements, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

In 1985, when Kim Cotton became Britain’s first commercial surrogate mother, Europe was exposed to the issue of surrogacy for the first time on a large scale. Three years later, in 1988, the famous case of Baby M drew the attention of the American public to surrogacy as well. These two cases implicated fundamental ethical and legal issues regarding domestic surrogacy and triggered a fierce debate about motherhood, child-bearing, and the relationship between procreation, science and commerce. These two cases exemplified the debate regarding domestic surrogacy - a debate that has now been raging for decades. Contrary to the well-known ...


Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, yehezkel Margalit 2016 SelectedWorks

Bridging The Gap Between Intent And Status: A New Framework For Modern Parentage, Yehezkel Margalit

Hezi Margalit

The last few decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the conceptualization and methodologies of determining legal parentage in the U.S. and other countries in the western world. Through various sociological shifts, growing social openness and bio-medical innovations, the traditional definitions of family and parenthood have been dramatically transformed. This transformation has led to an acute and urgent need for legal and social frameworks to regulate the process of determining legal parentage. Moreover, instead of progressing in a piecemeal, ad-hoc manner, the framework for determining legal parentage should be comprehensive. Only a comprehensive solution will address the differing needs of ...


Holistic Pregnancy: Rejecting The Theory Of The Adversarial Mother, Rona Kaufman Kitchen 2015 Duquesne University School of Law

Holistic Pregnancy: Rejecting The Theory Of The Adversarial Mother, Rona Kaufman Kitchen

Rona Kaufman Kitchen

In its zealous effort to protect the lives and health of unborn children, the law frequently views the expecting mother with suspicion. In its most extreme form, the law regards the potential mother as a potential murderess. This perspective does not reflect the nature of pregnancy, it undermines the autonomy of loving mothers, and it is detrimental to children. Regardless of whether there is any conflict between mother and fetus, the State presumes the mother to be a threat to her fetus and subjugates her rights as a result. The State interferes with the mother’s autonomy, bodily integrity, parental ...


Contemplating Abortion: Hiv-Positive Women's Decision To Terminate Pregnancy, Sarah MacCarthy, Jennifer Rasanathan, Ann Crawford-Roberts, Ines Dourado, Sofia Gruskin 2015 RAND Corporation

Contemplating Abortion: Hiv-Positive Women's Decision To Terminate Pregnancy, Sarah Maccarthy, Jennifer Rasanathan, Ann Crawford-Roberts, Ines Dourado, Sofia Gruskin

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Research on pregnancy termination largely assumes HIV status is the only reason why HIV-positive women contemplate abortion. As antiretroviral treatment (ART) becomes increasingly available and women are living longer, healthier lives, the time has come to consider the influence of other factors on HIV-positive women’s reproductive decision-making. Because ART has been free and universally available to Brazilians for more than two decades, Brazil provides a unique context in which to explore these issues. A total of 25 semi-structured interviews exploring women’s pregnancy termination decision-making were conducted with women receiving care at the Reference Centre for HIV/AIDS in ...


Should Divorce Be More Taxing?: Structuring Tax Reduction To Reduce Inequality, Stephanie H. McMahon 2015 University of Cincinnati College of Law

Should Divorce Be More Taxing?: Structuring Tax Reduction To Reduce Inequality, Stephanie H. Mcmahon

Indiana Journal of Law and Social Equality

Current law makes divorce a time for minimizing some couples’ taxes. The group who benefit from the reduction are unlikely to be those in greatest financial need following divorce. Existing divorce-related taxation focuses on shifting the tax burden between spouses, the implicit and explicit elections that enable this shifting, and the classification of who should be entitled to this tax reduction. This article argues that Congress should focus tax reduction on those with minimal resources following divorce to ensure an equitable distribution of the nation’s tax burden. This article proposes an alternative tax regime more consistent with mitigating inequality ...


“Alimony For Your Eggs”: Fertility Compensation In Divorce Proceedings, Katelin Eastman 2015 Pepperdine University

“Alimony For Your Eggs”: Fertility Compensation In Divorce Proceedings, Katelin Eastman

Pepperdine Law Review

This Comment explores the history and reasoning behind divorce in the United States, examines contemporary alimony jurisprudence, and assesses the viability of fertility compensation in divorce proceedings, arguing that there is, in fact, a legal basis for awarding such reparation upon divorce. Part II surveys divorce at common law and details the impact of the Uniform Marriage and Divorce Act (UMDA) and its introduction of no-fault divorce. Part III discusses alimony under New Jersey state law, with particular emphasis on reimbursement alimony after the Reiss trilogy, the Crews marital standard of living, and the impact of Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART ...


Fearing The Bogeyman: How The Legal System's Overreaction To Perceived Danger Threatens Families And Children, David Pimentel 2015 Pepperdine University

Fearing The Bogeyman: How The Legal System's Overreaction To Perceived Danger Threatens Families And Children, David Pimentel

Pepperdine Law Review

In the last generation, American parenting norms have shifted dramatically, reflecting a near obsession with child safety and especially the risk of stranger abduction. A growing body of literature shows, however, that the threats to children are more imagined than real, and that the effort to protect children from these “bogeymen” may be doing more harm than good. Advocates of “Free-Range” parenting argue that giving children a long leash can help them learn responsibility, explore the world outside, get physical exercise, and develop self-sufficiency. But the State, usually acting through Child Protective Services (CPS), is likely to second-guess parents’ judgments ...


"I Do For My Kids": Negotiating Race And Racial Inequality In Family Court, Tonya L. Brito, David J. Pate Jr., Jia-Hui Stefanie Wong 2015 University of Wisconsin Law School

"I Do For My Kids": Negotiating Race And Racial Inequality In Family Court, Tonya L. Brito, David J. Pate Jr., Jia-Hui Stefanie Wong

Fordham Law Review

Socio-legal scholarship examining issues of access to justice is currently experiencing a renaissance. Renewed inquiry into this field is urgently needed. Studies confirm that only 20 percent of the legal needs of low- income communities are met and that the vast majority of unrepresented litigants are low income, creating what some call a “justice gap” that has become even more urgent in recent years. State tribunals that deal with high-stakes issues particularly relevant to low-income residents, such as family courts and housing courts, are seeing an increasing number of litigants, the majority of whom are unrepresented.


"First Food" Justice: Racial Disparities In Infant Feeding As Food Oppression, Andrea Freeman 2015 University of Hawai’i William S. Richardson School of Law

"First Food" Justice: Racial Disparities In Infant Feeding As Food Oppression, Andrea Freeman

Fordham Law Review

Tabitha Walrond gave birth to Tyler Isaac Walrond on June 27, 1997, when Tabitha, a black woman from the Bronx, was nineteen years old. Four months before the birth, Tabitha, who received New York public assistance, attempted to enroll Tyler in her health insurance plan (HIP), but encountered a mountain of bureaucratic red tape and errors. After several trips to three different offices in the city, Tabitha still could not get a Medicaid card for Tyler. Tabitha’s city caseworker informed her that she would have to wait until after Tyler’s social security card and birth certificate arrived to ...


Digging Beneath The Equality Language: The Influence Of The Fathers’ Rights Movement On Intimate Partner Violence Public Policy Debates And Family Law Reform, Kelly Alison Behre 2015 College of William & Mary Law School

Digging Beneath The Equality Language: The Influence Of The Fathers’ Rights Movement On Intimate Partner Violence Public Policy Debates And Family Law Reform, Kelly Alison Behre

William & Mary Journal of Women and the Law

In 2004, a fathers’ rights group formed in West Virginia to promote “Truth, Justice, and Equality in Family Law.” They created a media campaign including billboards and radio spots warning about the dangers of false allegations of domestic violence, sexual assault, and child abuse, even offering a $10,000 award to anyone who could prove false allegations of abuse were used against a parent in a custody case. In 2007, they released a study concluding that seventy-six percent of protection order cases were unnecessary or based on false allegations, and warned that protection orders were often filed to gain leverage ...


A Legal And Policy Argument For Bail Denial And Preventative Treatment For Batterers In The United States, Dawn Beichner, Robbin Ogle, Anne Garner, Daniel Anderson 2015 Illinois State University

A Legal And Policy Argument For Bail Denial And Preventative Treatment For Batterers In The United States, Dawn Beichner, Robbin Ogle, Anne Garner, Daniel Anderson

Papers in Women's and Gender Studies

Historically, battering has been a culturally and legally acceptable form of social control within the United States. This article provides an examination of how this legacy of social acceptance has influenced the development of laws and social policies related to battering. We provide a critique of our current approach to battering and our historical reliance on private or social helping agencies intended to hide and protect victims. We call for a transformation of our current policies that provides for the removal of the batterer—not the victim and her children—from the family home through a process of bail denial ...


Eliminating Financiers From The Equation: A Call For Court-Mandated Fee Shifting In Divorces, Bibeane Metsch-Garcia 2015 University of Michigan Law School

Eliminating Financiers From The Equation: A Call For Court-Mandated Fee Shifting In Divorces, Bibeane Metsch-Garcia

Michigan Law Review

Divorce can be prohibitively costly. Many struggle or simply cannot afford to pay divorce attorneys’ fees, and the economic effects of divorce on women are particularly acute. In the past few years, financing firms have emerged to fund nonmonied spouses, mostly women, who cannot afford to litigate divorces from their wealthy spouses. The services provided come with a hefty price tag: firms take large fees, and their involvement may lead to unethical and potentially damaging practices. This Note explains what third-party divorce finance firms are and why the use of firms is problematic, and offers an alternative, more equitable method ...


From Reynolds To Lawrence To Brown V. Buhman: Antipolygamy Statutes Sliding On The Slippery Slope Of Same-Sex Marriage, Stephen L. Baskind 2015 Univerisity of Texas at Arlington

From Reynolds To Lawrence To Brown V. Buhman: Antipolygamy Statutes Sliding On The Slippery Slope Of Same-Sex Marriage, Stephen L. Baskind

Stephen L Baskind

In 2003 in Lawrence v. Texas (striking Texas’ sodomy law), Justice Scalia predicted in his dissent the end of all morals legislation. If Justice Scalia is correct most, if not all, morals-based legislation may fall. For example, in recent years state laws prohibiting same-sex marriage have fallen to constitutional challenges. Ten years after Lawrence in 2013, a Utah Federal District Court in Brown v. Buhman, though feeling constrained by the 1878 Reynolds case (which rejected a First Amendment challenge to an antipolygamy law), nevertheless at the request of a polygamous family concluded that the cohabitation prong of Utah’s anti-bigamy ...


Whose Fault Is It Anyway?: Analyzing The Role “Fault” Plays In The Division Of Premarital Property If Marriage Does Not Ensue, Arielle L. Murphy 2015 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

Whose Fault Is It Anyway?: Analyzing The Role “Fault” Plays In The Division Of Premarital Property If Marriage Does Not Ensue, Arielle L. Murphy

Catholic University Law Review

Whenever an engagement comes to a premature end, the first question that seems to be asked is: “who gets the engagement ring?” This Comment seeks to answer this question. As societal views regarding marriage and a woman’s role within it began to change in the mid-twentieth century, courts started to recognize engagement rings as conditional gifts that were conditioned upon the marriage actually occurring. Even with this framework, states remain divided on whether fault should be included as part of the analysis in determining which party is entitled to the ring if an engagement ends before marriage occurs. This ...


Divorcing Into Debt: How Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention And Consumer Protection Act Created A New Class Member In America's Debtors' Prisons, Bobby A. Lean Jr. 2015 Barry University

Divorcing Into Debt: How Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention And Consumer Protection Act Created A New Class Member In America's Debtors' Prisons, Bobby A. Lean Jr.

Bobby A Lean Jr.

This paper takes a look into BAPCPA and how 11 U.S.C. § 523(a)(15) of the bankruptcy code creates a debtors' prison. It then compares the Florida courts and the Ohio courts and how creditors can use this section to potentially jail their debtors. Using policy analysis the paper turns to possible solutions and the cost there of.


The Law's Duty To Promote The Kinship System: Implications For Assisted Reproductive Techniques And For Proposed Redefinitions Of Familial Relations, Scott T. FitzGibbon 2015 Boston College Law School

The Law's Duty To Promote The Kinship System: Implications For Assisted Reproductive Techniques And For Proposed Redefinitions Of Familial Relations, Scott T. Fitzgibbon

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Kinship relations, in our society and in most, are organized systematically. That is to say, each kinship connection is constructed, conducted, and considered, not in isolation but by reference to the others. Your uncle is your father’s brother, in just about the same way as your own sibling is your brother and your children are one another’s brothers and sisters. Your spouse is the mother or father of your children, in just about the same way as your mother and father are your parents and the parents of your siblings. One’s beliefs and expectations about what each ...


Deconstructing Infanticide, Eric Vallillee 2015 University of Ottawa

Deconstructing Infanticide, Eric Vallillee

Western Journal of Legal Studies

The offence of infanticide is allegedly based in debunked and sexist ideas about women and pregnancy. This article demonstrates that this offence is both necessary and beneficial regardless of its alleged basis. This article outlines the elements of infanticide and examines the legislative history from Medieval England to its adoption in Canada before discussing contemporary discourses on infanticide with a particular focus on the application of modern medical science. This work argues there are two issues with the current offence: (1) the requirement of a “disturbed mind” in the accused resulting from childbirth or lactation; and (2) the lack of ...


Conciliare Vita E Lavoro. Verso Un Welfare Plurale, michele faioli 2015 Tor Vergata University

Conciliare Vita E Lavoro. Verso Un Welfare Plurale, Michele Faioli

Michele Faioli

La ricerca è volta a analizzare gli schemi di welfare privato nella dinamica della conciliazione vita/lavoro, mettendo in rilievo alcune inefficienze del sistema italiano, a livello pubblico nazionale e regionale. Anche mediante la comparazione con altri paesi europei, il team di ricerca propone la costituzione di un fondo bilaterale nazionale per l'erogazione di welfare privato in attuazione di modelli di conciliazione vita/lavoro (cd. FOPAC)


Concubinage And Union Libre: A Historical Comparison Of The Rights Of Unwed Cohabitants In Wrongful Death Actions In France And Louisiana, Robert F. Taylor 2015 McGeorge School of Law at the Salzburg Institute of International Law

Concubinage And Union Libre: A Historical Comparison Of The Rights Of Unwed Cohabitants In Wrongful Death Actions In France And Louisiana, Robert F. Taylor

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


The Property Rights Of Spouses Cohabiting Without Marriage In Israel - A Comparative Commentary, Menashe Shava 2015 Tel-Aviv University

The Property Rights Of Spouses Cohabiting Without Marriage In Israel - A Comparative Commentary, Menashe Shava

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


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