Artificial Insemination From Donor (Aid) – From Status To Contract And Back Again?, Yehezkel Margalit
The last few decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the institutions of family and parenthood and an abandonment of the historical emphasis on their bionormative structures. These changes are the result of societal shifts with respect to public openness and technological innovations that segregate marital relations from sexuality and fertility. The resultant parenthood structures, which depart from traditional spousal and parental models, intensify the ability and need to determine legal parenthood in numerous unprecedented contexts. Sir Henry Maine famously stated that mankind is pacing from status toward contract. This theme has had particular resonance during the past half century in ...
California Putative Spouses: The Innocent, The Guilty, And The Law, 2014 SelectedWorks
California Putative Spouses: The Innocent, The Guilty, And The Law, Helen Y. Chang
Helen Y Chang
The purpose of this article is to examine the historical roots of the putative spouse doctrine and its implementation into California’s family and community property system. Although California has historically recognized the putative spouse doctrine to save otherwise void or voidable marriages, California’s actual application of the doctrine has been piecemeal with a resulting patchwork of inconsistent statutes and judicial decisions. For example, a putative spouse is a “surviving spouse” under California’s Probate Code for purposes of intestate succession but a putative spouse is not a “surviving spouse” under the same Code for purposes of a family ...
The Immigrant "Other": Racialized Identity And The Devaluation Of Immigrant Family Relations, 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University
The Immigrant "Other": Racialized Identity And The Devaluation Of Immigrant Family Relations, Anita Maddali
Indiana Law Journal
This Article explores how current terminations of undocumented immigrants’ parental rights are reminiscent of historical practices that removed early immigrant and Native American children from their parents in an attempt to cultivate an Anglo-American national identity. Today, children are separated from their families when courts terminate the rights of parents who have been, or who face, deportation. Often, biases toward undocumented parents affect determinations concerning parental fitness in a manner that, while different, reaps the same results as the removal of children from their families over a century ago. This Article examines cases in which courts terminated the parental rights ...
Doctoring Discrimination In The Same-Sex Marriage Debates, 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University
Doctoring Discrimination In The Same-Sex Marriage Debates, Elizabeth Sepper
Indiana Law Journal
As the legalization of same-sex marriage spreads across the states, some religious believers refuse to serve same-sex married couples. In the academy, a group of law and religion scholars frames these refusals as “conscientious objection” to the act of marriage. They propose “marriage conscience protection” that would allow public employees and private individuals or businesses to refuse to “facilitate” same-sex marriages. They rely on the theoretical premise that commercial actors’ objections to marriage are equivalent to doctors’ objections to controversial medical procedures. They model their proposal on medical conscience legislation, which allows doctors to refuse to perform abortions. Such legislation ...
A Family Tradition: Giving Meaning To Family Unity And Decreasing Illegal Immigration Through Anthropology, 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University
A Family Tradition: Giving Meaning To Family Unity And Decreasing Illegal Immigration Through Anthropology, Micah Bennett
Indiana Law Journal
My Note explores the family-preference provisions of the Immigration and Nationality Act and argues that they are far too limited, especially in light of the “family unity” policy that underscores the law. Using Mexico as a model, the Note relies on the discipline of anthropology to explain that family inherently drives immigration, and it refers to an allegory from a Mexican immigrant to demonstrate how the INA is ineffective. It then argues that immigration law could learn from anthropology—both its scholarship and its disciplinary ideals—to craft a more effective and better informed immigration law, which would further the ...
Transgender Inpportunity And Inequality: Evaluating The Crossroads Between Immigration And Transgender Individuals, 2014 Seattle University School of Law
Transgender Inpportunity And Inequality: Evaluating The Crossroads Between Immigration And Transgender Individuals, Alexandra Caggiano
Seattle University Law Review
Despite being married to a U.S. citizen, non-citizen transgender individuals and non-citizen spouses married to transgender U.S. citizens still face deportation today due to current immigration policies. When forced to return to their home countries, transgender individuals are likely to encounter violence from those who perpetuate hate towards transgender and gender non-conforming individuals. Instead of protecting these individuals, the United States continues to send people back to their native countries solely because those individuals do not fall within the narrowly constructed definition of marriage some states use that is legally recognized by federal courts. Transgender individuals receive disparate ...
In The Name Of The Child: Race, Gender, And Economics In Adoptive Couple V. Baby Girl, Bethany Berger
On June 25, 2013, the Supreme Court decided Adoptive Couple v. Baby Girl, holding that the Indian Child Welfare Act did not permit the Cherokee father in that case to object to termination of his parental rights. The case is ostensibly about a dispute between prospective adoptive parents and a biological father. This Article demonstrates that it is about a lot more than that. It is a microcosm of anxieties about Indian-ness, race, and the changing nature of parenthood. While made in the name of the child, moreover, the decision supports practices and policies that do not forward and may ...
Domestic Violence, Strategic Behavior, And Ideological Rent-Seeking, 2014 SelectedWorks
Domestic Violence, Strategic Behavior, And Ideological Rent-Seeking, F.E. Guerra-Pujol
This paper examines a number of empirical patterns, puzzles, and anomalies relating to the problem of domestic violence that heretofore have been overlooked in the scholarly literature and concludes that domestic violence legislation is the product of ‘ideological rent-seeking’ among issue-oriented pressure groups and, once enacted, often creates perverse incentives for strategic behavior.
The Beginning Of The End Of Coverture: A Reappraisal Of The Married Woman’S Separate Estate, Allison Anna Tait
Allison Anna Tait
Before statutory enactments in the nineteenth century granted married women a limited set of property rights, the separate estate trust was, by and large, the sole form of married women’s property. Although the separate estate allowed married women to circumvent the law of coverture, historians have generally viewed the separate estate as an ineffective vehicle for extending property rights to married women. In this Article, I reappraise the separate estate’s utility and argue that Chancery’s separate estate jurisprudence during the eighteenth century was a critical first step in the establishment of married women as property-holders. Separate estates ...
Marriage Equailty: Why Laws Restricting Same-Sex Couples' Rights Should Be Subject To Heightened Scrutiny Under Equal Protection Challenges., Cory A. Delellis
Cory A DeLellis
This thesis discusses why laws that restrict marital rights and recognition, on the basis of the couple’s sexual orientation, should be subject to a heightened or intermediate level of judicial scrutiny under Equal Protection challenges. This thesis addresses, analyzes, and suggests why sexual orientation – within the context of same-sex couples – should be considered a quasi-suspect class, rather than a non-suspect class, so that laws negatively impacting couples based on their sexual orientation are subjected to a fairer and more reasonable level of judicial scrutiny.
Homeschooling As A Constitutional Right: A Claim Under A Close Look At Meyer And Pierce And The Lochner-Based Assumptions They Made About State Regulatory Power, David M. Wagner
David N. Wagner
In 2012, a German family of would-be homeschoolers, the Romeikes, fled to the U.S. to escape fines and child removal for this practice, which has been illegal in Germany since 1938. The Sixth Circuit, in denying their asylum request, conspicuously did not slam the door on the possibility that if the Romeikes were U.S. citizens, they might have a right to homeschool. This article takes up that question, and argues that Meyer and Pierce, the classic cases constitutionalizing the right to use private schools, point beyond those holdings towards a right to homeschool; and that the permissible state ...
Cohabiting With The Accused: The Formal Limits Of Spousal Privilege Affirmed In Van Der Heijden V. Netherlands, 2014 Boston College Law School
Cohabiting With The Accused: The Formal Limits Of Spousal Privilege Affirmed In Van Der Heijden V. Netherlands, Shae Fitzpatrick
Boston College International and Comparative Law Review
In the wake of Europe’s evolving social landscape of family life, the European Court of Human Rights’ (ECtHR) decision in Van der Heijden v. Netherlands sheds light on the scope of spousal privilege. The ECtHR found that the Netherlands’ interference in Van der Heijden’s nontraditional family life did not violate her Article 8 right guaranteed by the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms . In its decision, the ECtHR upheld the formal limits of Dutch spousal privilege even though it did not protect Van der Heijden in her de facto relationship with the accused. Despite ...
V.C. V. Slovakia: A Reproductive Rights Victory Misses The Mark, 2014 Boston College Law School
V.C. V. Slovakia: A Reproductive Rights Victory Misses The Mark, Lindsay Hoyle
Boston College International and Comparative Law Review
In V.C. v. Slovakia, the European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) should have held that Slovakia’s intentional, systematic policy of coerced sterilization of Roma women violated the discrimination provision of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. The ECtHR, however, is reluctant to find Article 14 discrimination violations unless the government fails to effectively investigate concrete evidence suggesting racial animus, thereby amounting to a procedural violation. In V.C., a discrimination violation was nonetheless appropriate in light of the importance of the Convention rights violated, disproportionate accounts of hospitals sterilizing Roma women, and other ...
Case Of S.H. And Others V. Austria: Practical Concern Over Individual Rights, 2014 Boston College Law School
Case Of S.H. And Others V. Austria: Practical Concern Over Individual Rights, David Kete
Boston College International and Comparative Law Review
The European Court of Human Rights upheld the constitutionality of the Austrian Artificial Procreation Act in November 2011. The Court decided the case on procedural grounds, claiming that the wide margin of appreciation given to European Union member states when there is no consensus within the EU on an issue. In doing so, the Court applied Articles 8 and 14 of the European Convention on Human Rights, but found that the procedural deference owed to the member state, Austria, outweighed the protections afforded by these articles. This Comment argues that while the court reached the correct result, it did so ...
An “I Do” I Choose: How The Fight For Marriage Access Supports A Per Se Finding Of Persecution For Asylum Cases Based On Forced Marriage, Natalie Nanasi
There is something special about marriage. The U.S. Supreme Court, in striking down anti-miscegenation laws, restrictions on the right to marry for disadvantaged groups, and most recently, the Defense of Marriage Act, has long recognized the marital union to be “sacred” and “fundamental to…existence.” Yet this analysis is dramatically different when courts consider asylum law, where a woman who is seeking refuge in the United States to protect her from a forced marriage abroad will likely be denied protection because the harm she fears is not considered to be a “persecutory” act. She may therefore be forced to ...
Facilitating Forgiveness And Reconciliation In “Good Enough” Marriages, 2014 Pepperdine University
Facilitating Forgiveness And Reconciliation In “Good Enough” Marriages, Solangel Maldonado
Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal
The article offers information on the long-term effects of divorce on children and parents under the analysis of the social science literatures. It informs that the U.S. Courts should encourage reconciliation between low-discord parents which in turn would help to save their marriage and protect their children from negative psychological effects of their divorce.
Same-Sex Divorce, 2014 The University of Akron School of Law
Same-Sex Divorce, Tracy A. Thomas
Tracy A. Thomas
Same-sex marriage is now legal in seventeen states and sixteen countries. The question increasingly being asked is how these couples can divorce. For those who remain in their home state or in a marriage equality state, the divorce process should be the same as for any other marriage. The problem arises because people are transient; couples often relocate for jobs or family, or they initially traveled out of their home state for the marriage. “In a highly mobile society, state bans on same-sex marriage have in many cases made untying the knot far harder than tying it in the first ...
In Who’S Best Interest? America’S Struggle To Eradicate Discrimination In Child Custody Decisions: Presumption-Based Reform, Jason R. Lee
Jason K. Lee
The history of child custody jurisprudence in the United States is riddled with inequality. Although significant steps have been taken to remedy these inequalities, more is needed to create a system of fairness and impartiality. Additionally, the failure of state laws to effectively recognize rights of children involved in custody disputes is patently discriminatory and likely unconstitutional. Through a long line of cases, the Supreme Court has held that children have at least some degree of constitutional rights. Those rights, normally, are derived from, and secondary to, the right of parents to make decisions for their children. That being said ...
Kenck V. State Of Montana, 2013 Mt 380, 2014 The University of Montana School of Law
Kenck V. State Of Montana, 2013 Mt 380, Calli Oiestad
Montana Law Review
Child support arrearages arising from a retroactive agreement to increase child support payments are not delinquent or overdue child support.
Multiplicity Of Marriage Forms In Contemporary South Africa, 2014 SelectedWorks
Multiplicity Of Marriage Forms In Contemporary South Africa, Roberto A. Garetto Ph.D.
Roberto A. Garetto Ph.D.
From the perspective of family law, South Africa seems particularly interesting as it recognizes a multiplicity of marriage forms, according to its laws: not only common law marriage, deeply linked with the traditions of Western culture, but also customary marriage and same-sex marriage. Customary marriage, a plural marriage practiced in the form of polygyny, is deeply related to the cultural identity of some South Africans; same-sex marriage is an innovation related to fundamental rights affirmed in the post-apartheid Constitution of 1996.
The South African Constitution has a highly advanced sensibility related to issues of human dignity, equality, and freedom. Both ...