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On Local Fracking Bans: Policy And Preemption In New Mexico, Alex Ritchie 2017 University of New Mexico School of Law

On Local Fracking Bans: Policy And Preemption In New Mexico, Alex Ritchie

Alex Ritchie

In the midst of the hydraulic fracturing revolution, elected officials in Mora County, New Mexico recently banned all oil and gas production within the county. But the officials went even further, stripping corporations of constitutional rights and declaring the constitutions of the United States and the state of New Mexico illegal if interpreted as inconsistent with the ordinance. Why would a small rural county like Mora with no oil and gas operations to speak of adopt such an extreme ordinance? This article applies economics, political choice, and localism theories to argue that Mora County’s decision may be at least ...


Urban Development Legislation For Cities, By Cities, Kellen Zale 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Urban Development Legislation For Cities, By Cities, Kellen Zale

Maine Law Review

Thank you so much for inviting me to speak as part of this symposium. It is a great honor to be here in the company of such distinguished speakers to learn about the impressive legacy of Senator Muskie. My presentation today connects the legacy of Senator Muskie, and specifically, his work on urban development and Model Cities, to contemporary urban development legislation. Thus, this presentation picks up where my co-panelist, Don Nicoll, left off, by considering how the Model Cities legacy is both a foundation of and a counterpoint to contemporary urban development policies and programs. While urban development legislation ...


Model Cities, Senator Muskie And Creative Federalism, Donald E. Nicoll 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Model Cities, Senator Muskie And Creative Federalism, Donald E. Nicoll

Maine Law Review

The odd couple partnership of Senator Edmund S. Muskie and President Lyndon B. Johnson in the passage of the Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966 is a story with several subplots and insights into their different approaches to the art of democratic governance. For Senator Muskie, the president’s proposal was based on valid concepts, but he doubted the legislation’s viability in the Senate and he had serious reservations about its timeliness and capacity to address the problems the legislation was supposed to solve. The President was determined that the ambitious initiative, developed by a secret task ...


Edmund Muskie's Creative Federalism And Urban Development, Peter Pitegoff 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Edmund Muskie's Creative Federalism And Urban Development, Peter Pitegoff

Maine Law Review

How fitting it is to view urban development policy today with reference to Edmund Muskie and his role as U.S. Senator from Maine in the 1966 enactment of the Model Cities Program. The University of Maine School of Law is honored that the Maine Law Review 2014 symposium is part of this centennial celebration of Ed Muskie’s life and work. His wide-ranging career brought Muskie from Maine—where he served as state legislator and Governor—to national and global affairs as Senator, Secretary of State, and Vice Presidential nominee, and in other prominent leadership roles. We are fortunate ...


Maine's Open Lands: Public Use Of Private Land, The Right To Roam And The Right To Exclude, Peter H. Kenlan 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Maine's Open Lands: Public Use Of Private Land, The Right To Roam And The Right To Exclude, Peter H. Kenlan

Maine Law Review

On a late summer afternoon, a boy pilots a small boat toward a deserted beach while another crouches in the bow with an anchor poised and ready. As the boat gently scrapes to a halt, the anchor lands in the wet sand with a dull thud and the two boys splash ashore. Equipped only with peanut butter sandwiches, they set off along the beach looking for tide pools. Behind them, they leave only a few ephemeral footprints--readily erased by the waves. On a bright and clear February morning, a man rides his snowmobile along a well-traveled trail. The scenery flashes ...


Lotting Large: The Phenomenon Of Minimum Lot Size Laws, Paul Boudreaux 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Lotting Large: The Phenomenon Of Minimum Lot Size Laws, Paul Boudreaux

Maine Law Review

A dominant feature of American metropolitan areas is large lot zoning—the policy through which only house lots of a minimum size are permitted. This practice of "lotting large" contributes greatly to the sprawling nature of American suburbs. By restraining the supply of housing, large lot zoning laws please existing suburban homeowners. But they harm all other segments of the American populace, including the million new households who seek a home in the United States each year. This article explains how courts have been unwilling or unable to impose any meaningful restraints on local governments. It develops a simple economic ...


Center For Biological Diversity V. Jewell, Kirsa Shelkey 2016 University of Montana

Center For Biological Diversity V. Jewell, Kirsa Shelkey

Public Land and Resources Law Review

Following years of pressure to list the upper Missouri River population of Arctic grayling as an endangered or threatened species, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service issued a 2014 Finding that listing the fish was “not warranted at this time.” The Service relied on voluntary Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances in the Big Hole River Basin to determine that listing criteria under the Endangered Species Act was not met and therefore listing was not necessary. Ultimately, the court deferred to agency expertise and found that the Service’s decision not to list the Arctic grayling was reasonable.


Institutional Controls For Contaminated Sites: Help Or Hazard, Mary R. English, Robert B. Inerfeld 2016 University of New Hampshire

Institutional Controls For Contaminated Sites: Help Or Hazard, Mary R. English, Robert B. Inerfeld

RISK: Health, Safety & Environment

The authors discuss the different institutional controls available to control long term site remediation of hazardous waste to prevent exposure to residual contamination.


Tthe Requirement Of Domestic Participation In New Mining Ventures In Zambia, Muna Ndulo 2016 Unza School of Law

Tthe Requirement Of Domestic Participation In New Mining Ventures In Zambia, Muna Ndulo

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Agenda: Flpma Turns 40, University of Colorado Boulder. Getches-Wilkinson Center for Natural Resources, Energy, and the Environment 2016 University of Colorado Law School

Agenda: Flpma Turns 40, University Of Colorado Boulder. Getches-Wilkinson Center For Natural Resources, Energy, And The Environment

FLPMA Turns 40 (October 21)

The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) administers approximately 245 million acres of our public lands and yet, for most of our nation's history, these lands seemed largely destined to end up in private hands. Even when the Taylor Grazing Act of 1934 ushered in an important era of better managing public grazing districts and "promoting the highest use of the public lands," such use of our public lands still was plainly considered temporary, "pending its final disposal." It was not until 1976 with the passage of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act (FLPMA) that congress adopted a policy ...


When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle 2016 Berkeley Law

When Does Legal Flexibility Work In Environmental Law, Eric Biber, Josh Eagle

Eric Biber

Environmental law scholars, practitioners, and policymakers have wrestled for some time with the implications of climate change for environmental law. There is widespread, although not universal, agreement that climate change requires greater flexibility in environmental legal systems. Flexibility—reduced procedural requirements for administrative agency decision making and less rigid substantive standards—would allow the agencies that implement environmental law to adapt to a future world characterized by dynamic, uncertain changes in natural resource systems. According to its proponents, flexibility would make it easier for agencies to more frequently update their management or regulatory decisions to respond to changed conditions, and ...


The Middle Class, Urban Schools And Choice, Michael Lewyn 2016 Touro Law Center

The Middle Class, Urban Schools And Choice, Michael Lewyn

Michael E Lewyn

Urban schools tend to be less attractive to middle-class parents than suburban schools; as a result, the public school system generates suburban sprawl.  This talk discusses both egalitarian and market-oriented means of making cities more attractive to parents.


Exploiting Ambiguity In The Supreme Court: Cutting Through The Fifth Amendment With Transferable Development Rights, Trevor D. Vincent 2016 College of William & Mary Law School

Exploiting Ambiguity In The Supreme Court: Cutting Through The Fifth Amendment With Transferable Development Rights, Trevor D. Vincent

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Rlupia And The Limits Of Religious Institutionalism, Zachary A. Bray 2016 University of Kentucky

Rlupia And The Limits Of Religious Institutionalism, Zachary A. Bray

Zachary Bray

What special protections, if any, should religious organizations receive from local land use controls? The Religious Land Use and Institutionalized Persons Act (“RLUIPA”)—a deeply flawed statute—has been a magnet for controversy since its passage in 2000. Yet until recently, RLUIPA has played little role in debates about “religious institutionalism,” a set of ideas that suggest religious institutions play a distinctive role in developing the framework for religious liberty and that they deserve comparably distinctive deference and protection. This is starting to change: RLUIPA’s magnetic affinity for controversy has begun to connect conflicts over religious land use with ...


The New Progressive Property And The Low-Income Housing Conflict, Zachary A. Bray 2016 University of Kentucky

The New Progressive Property And The Low-Income Housing Conflict, Zachary A. Bray

Zachary Bray

The foundation of property law has been much debated in recent years, as several scholars have sought to provide a theoretical alternative to what they call the dominant, “law-and-economics” approach to property. In place of the law-and-economics approach, these scholars advance a new theoretical approach, which I call “the new progressive property.” At its core, this new approach favors rules thought to promote the collective well-being of the larger community while ensuring that relatively disadvantaged members of society have access to certain basic resources. This Article explores the boundaries and practical implications of the new progressive property. To do so ...


Reconciling Development And Natural Beauty: The Promise And Dilemma Of Conservation Easements, Zachary A. Bray 2016 University of Kentucky

Reconciling Development And Natural Beauty: The Promise And Dilemma Of Conservation Easements, Zachary A. Bray

Zachary Bray

Local and regional private land trusts are among the most important and most numerous conservation actors in contemporary America, and conservation easements are perhaps the key land conservation tools used by these trusts. In recent decades, privately held conservation easements and local and regional private land trusts have grown at a rapid and increasing rate, and the total acreage protected by privately held conservation easements is now larger than some states. The early growth of privately held conservation easements met widespread approval, but more recently, contemporary conservation easement practice has attracted many critics, based in part on well-publicized national scandals ...


Case Study On The Galapagos Islands: Balance For Biodiversity & Migration, Cesar E. Neira 2016 Barry University School of Law

Case Study On The Galapagos Islands: Balance For Biodiversity & Migration, Cesar E. Neira

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

In this comment, the author will examine the Special Organic Law of the Galapagos. To better understand the impacts of the law, the comment will examine some of the more notable provisions of the 1998 version, and a few of the amended changes in 2015. Throughout this comment, themes such as migration and preserving biodiversity will be discussed. As we will see, this notion of balancing human needs and ecosystem in the islands is not always straight-forward.


Trouble In Paradise: Maintaining The Eu Ideal For Environmental Policy In Eestern Europe, Amanda L. Harb 2016 Barry University School of Law

Trouble In Paradise: Maintaining The Eu Ideal For Environmental Policy In Eestern Europe, Amanda L. Harb

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

Ten Central and Eastern European nations have joined the EU in the last decade. The conditions for joining the EU are scrupulous and expansive, covering everything from: election rules, food product labels, and battery disposal. CEE states who are newly inducted into the EU are currently striving to successfully implement the complete extent of collected EU law. Eastern Europe has long lagged behind the west in environmental policy. Extreme industrialization and widespread deregulation over the last century produced many areas with environmental degradation. The idea is that by adopting European environmental policy, Eastern European states can cash in on European ...


Too Many Humans, Dwindling Resources, And Not Enough Space, Jorge T. Martinez 2016 Barry University School of Law

Too Many Humans, Dwindling Resources, And Not Enough Space, Jorge T. Martinez

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

This paper will address the often-overlooked subject of human overpopulation and examine the role it plays in the environmental health of our planet. Part I will define overpopulation and how it is determined, as well as briefly examine animal overpopulations and their effects on the environment. Part II will turn to human population trends, the carrying capacity of humans on earth, and the environmental consequences of human overpopulation. The environmental issues currently faced in China, India, Africa, and other densely populated areas will be explored. Part III will analyze some of the legal solutions that have been implemented to curb ...


Equal Protection For Animals, Pat Andriola 2016 New York University School of Law

Equal Protection For Animals, Pat Andriola

Environmental and Earth Law Journal (EELJ)

This paper presents a simple argument: through a Dworkinian moral reading of the Constitution, nonhuman animals fall under the Supreme Court’s equal protection doctrinal framework for suspect classification. Therefore, nonhuman animals are protected by the Fourteenth Amendment. The moral principle underlying equal protection is the ensuring of government’s empathetic and equitable treatment toward not just subgroups of humans (which have been judicially delineated by social constructs of race, gender, sexuality, and other defining characteristics), but toward all sentient beings who may become victim to the “tyranny of the majority.


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