Fourth Amendment Remedies As Rights: The Warrant Requirement, 2016 University of Maryland School of Law
Fourth Amendment Remedies As Rights: The Warrant Requirement, David C. Gray
David C. Gray
The constitutional status of the warrant requirement is hotly debated. Critics argue that neither the text nor history of the Fourth Amendment support a warrant requirement. Also questioned is the warrant requirement’s ability to protect Fourth Amendment interests. Perhaps in response to these concerns, the Court has steadily degraded the warrant requirement through a series of widening exceptions. The result is an unsatisfying jurisprudence that fails on both conceptual and practical grounds.
These debates have gained new salience with the emergence of modern surveillance technologies such as stingrays, GPS tracking, drones, and Big Data. Although a majority of the ...
In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, 2016 Streetwise and Safe
In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, Brendan M. Conner Esq.
Brendan M. Conner
The accompanying Article provides the first critical analysis of safe harbor laws, which rely on custodial arrests to prosecute or divert youth arrested for or charged with prostitution related offenses under criminal or juvenile codes to court supervision under state child welfare, foster care, or dependency statutes. This subject is a matter of intense debate nationwide, and on January 27, 2015 the House of Representatives passed legislation that would give preferential consideration for federal grants to states that have enacted a law that “discourages the charging or prosecution” of a trafficked minor and encourages court-ordered treatment and institutionalization. Nearly universally ...
The Culture Of Mass Incarceration: Why "Locking Them Up And Throwing Away The Key" Isn't Working And How Prison Conditions Can Be Improved, 2016 Lincoln Memorial University - Duncan School of Law
The Culture Of Mass Incarceration: Why "Locking Them Up And Throwing Away The Key" Isn't Working And How Prison Conditions Can Be Improved, Melanie M. Reid
Melanie M. Reid
No abstract provided.
Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, And The Fourth Amendment, 2016 Elon University School of Law
Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, And The Fourth Amendment, Michael L. Rich
Michael L Rich
At the conceptual intersection of machine learning and government data collection lie Automated Suspicion Algorithms, or ASAs, algorithms created through the application of machine learning methods to collections of government data with the purpose of identifying individuals likely to be engaged in criminal activity. The novel promise of ASAs is that they can identify data-supported correlations between innocent conduct and criminal activity and help police prevent crime. ASAs present a novel doctrinal challenge, as well, as they intrude on a step of the Fourth Amendment’s individualized suspicion analysis previously the sole province of human actors: the determination of when ...
Fourth Amendment Time Machines (And What They Might Say About Police Body Cameras), 2016 University of Oklahoma College of Law
Fourth Amendment Time Machines (And What They Might Say About Police Body Cameras), Stephen E. Henderson
Stephen E Henderson
When it comes to criminal investigation, time travel is increasingly possible. Despite longstanding roots in traditional investigation, science is today providing something fundamentally different in the form of remarkably complete digital records. And those records not only store our past, but thanks to data mining and big data, in many circumstances they are eerily good at predicting our future. So, now that we stand on the threshold of investigatory time travel, how should the Fourth Amendment and legislation respond? How should we approach bulk government capture, such as by a solar-powered drone employing wide-area persistent stare technology? Is it meaningfully ...
Teaching Criminal Procedure: Why Socrates Would Use Youtube, 2016 University of Oklahoma College of Law
Teaching Criminal Procedure: Why Socrates Would Use Youtube, Stephen E. Henderson, Joseph Thai
Stephen E Henderson
In this invited contribution to the Law Journal’s annual teaching volume, we pay some homage to the great philosopher whose spirit allegedly guides our classrooms, but in service of two concrete goals. One, we employ dialogue to describe the “nuts and bolts” of teaching criminal procedure, most of which are equally relevant to any doctrinal law school course (including course description, office hours, seating charts and attendance, class decorum and recording, student participation, laptops, textbooks, class preparation and presentation, and exams). Two, we explain the benefits of using multimedia in the classroom, including a few of the many modules ...
"Immigrants Are Not Criminals": Respectability, Immigration Reform, And Hyperincarceration, 2016 University of Miami School of Law
"Immigrants Are Not Criminals": Respectability, Immigration Reform, And Hyperincarceration, Rebecca Sharpless
Scholars and law reformers advocate for better treatment of immigrants by invoking a contrast with people convicted of a crime. This Article details the harms and limitations of a conceptual framework that relies on a contrast with people—citizens and noncitizens—who have been convicted of a criminal offense and proposes an alternate approach that better aligns with the racial critique of our criminal justice system. Noncitizens with a criminal record are overwhelmingly low-income people of color. While some have been in the United States for a short period of time, many have resided in the United States for much ...
Dangerous Dicta, 2015 University of Maryland School of Law
Dangerous Dicta, David C. Gray
David C. Gray
In United States v. Heller, the Court held that individuals have a Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms apart from their associations with state militias. Although that holding was and remains controversial, less attention has been paid to what the Heller Court had to say about the Fourth Amendment. Writing for the Court in Heller, Justice Scalia asserts that the phrase “right of the people” in the Fourth Amendment “unambiguously refers to individual rights, not ‘collective’ rights or rights that may only be exercised through participation in some corporate body.” By any definition, this is dicta. It is ...
Pinholster's Hostility To Victims Of Ineffective State Habeas Counsel, 2015 University of Michigan Law School
Pinholster's Hostility To Victims Of Ineffective State Habeas Counsel, Jennifer Utrecht
Michigan Law Review
Cullen v. Pinholster foreclosed federal courts from considering new evidence when reviewing 28 U.S.C. § 2254(d) petitions for claims previously adjudicated on the merits in state court. This decision has a particularly adverse effect on petitioners whose state habeas counsel left an incomplete or undeveloped record. This Note discusses strategies for victims of ineffective state habeas counsel to avoid the hostile mandate of Pinholster. It argues that, in light of Martinez v. Ryan’s recognition of the importance of counsel in initialreview collateral proceedings, courts should be wary of dismissing claims left un- or underdeveloped by ineffective state ...
The Future Of Confession Law: Toward Rules For The Voluntariness Test, 2015 University of Michigan Law School
The Future Of Confession Law: Toward Rules For The Voluntariness Test, Eve Brensike Primus
Michigan Law Review
Confession law is in a state of collapse. Fifty years ago, three different doctrines imposed constitutional limits on the admissibility of confessions in criminal cases: Miranda doctrine under the Fifth Amendment, Massiah doctrine under the Sixth Amendment, and voluntariness doctrine under the Due Process Clauses of the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments. But in recent years, the Supreme Court has gutted Miranda and Massiah, effectively leaving suspects with only voluntariness doctrine to protect them during police interrogations. The voluntariness test is a notoriously vague case-by-case standard. In this Article, I argue that if voluntariness is going to be the framework for ...
Procedural Triage, 2015 Harvard Law School
Procedural Triage, Matthew J.B. Lawrence
Fordham Law Review
Prior scholarship has assumed that the inherent value of a "day in court" is the same for all claimants, so that when procedural resources (like a jury trial or a hearing) are scarce, they should be rationed the same way for all claimants. That is incorrect. This Article shows that the inherent value of a "day in court" can be far greater for some claimants, such as first-time filers, than for others, such as corporate entities and that it can be both desirable and feasible to take this variation into account in doling out scarce procedural protections. In other words ...
The Admissibility Of Hearsay Evidence In New York State Sex Offender Civil Commitment Hearings After State V. Floyd Y.: Finding A Balance Between Promoting The General Welfare Of Sexual Assault Victims And Providing Due Process Of Law, 2015 Fordham University School of Law
The Admissibility Of Hearsay Evidence In New York State Sex Offender Civil Commitment Hearings After State V. Floyd Y.: Finding A Balance Between Promoting The General Welfare Of Sexual Assault Victims And Providing Due Process Of Law, Brittany K. Dryer
Fordham Law Review
In twenty states throughout the country, the government may petition for the civil commitment of detained sex offenders after they are released from prison. Although processes differ among the states, the government must generally show at a court proceeding that a detained sex offender both suffers from a mental abnormality and is dangerous and that this combination makes a detained sex offender likely to reoffend. At such court proceedings, both the government and the respondent will present evidence to either the court or the jury on these issues. As in most court proceedings, hearsay evidence is inadmissible at sex offender ...
Prejudicial Character Evidence: How The Circuits Apply Old Chief To Federal Rule Of Evidence 403, 2015 Fordham University School of Law
Prejudicial Character Evidence: How The Circuits Apply Old Chief To Federal Rule Of Evidence 403, Hannah J. Goldman
Fordham Law Review
It is a fundamental principle of the American justice system that a defendant should be judged on the facts of the case at issue and not for the defendant's general character or past indiscretions. Federal Rule of Evidence 404, which prohibits character evidence, addresses this issue. Rule 403 represents another principle of the justice system: the legal system favors admissibility of evidence over its exclusion. There are some exceptions to this principle, including when evidence is so highly prejudicial that it outweighs the benefits of its admission. As 404(b) character evidence is almost always highly prejudicial to the ...
“Not Ordinarily Relevant”: Bringing Family Responsibilities To The Federal Sentencing Table, 2015 Boston College Law School
“Not Ordinarily Relevant”: Bringing Family Responsibilities To The Federal Sentencing Table, Emily W. Andersen
Boston College Law Review
Incarceration results in negative social, psychological, and economic impacts on an inmate’s family and dependents. These impacts last well beyond the period of incarceration and can cause lifelong challenges. Federal statutes require courts to consider mitigating factors while calculating a sentence, including a defendant’s characteristics. Family ties and responsibilities are considered an aspect of a defendant’s characteristics. Yet the Federal Sentencing Guidelines significantly limit the extent to which courts can use family ties and responsibilities to reduce or alter a defendant’s sentence. This Note first argues that the Guidelines should be amended to indicate that courts ...
Who Shouldn't Prosecute The Police, 2015 NYU School of Law
Who Shouldn't Prosecute The Police, Kate Levine
New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers
The job of prosecuting police officers who commit crimes falls on local prosecutors, as it has in the wakes of the recent killings of Michael Brown and Eric Garner. Although prosecutors officially represent “the people,” there is no group more closely linked to prosecutors than the officers they work with daily. This article focuses on the undertheorized but critically important role that conflict of interest law plays in supporting the now-popular conclusion that local prosecutors should not handle cases against police suspects. Surprisingly, scholars have paid little attention to the policies and practices of local district attorneys who are tasked ...
Method Of Attack: A Supplemental Model For Hate Crime Analysis, 2015 Indiana University Maurer School of Law
Method Of Attack: A Supplemental Model For Hate Crime Analysis, Angela D. Moore
Indiana Law Journal
On October 28, 2009, the Matthew Shepard and James Byrd, Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act (HCPA) was signed into law by President Barack Obama. Two years later, between September and November of 2011, members of a Bergholz, Ohio, Amish community allegedly carried out five attacks in which they forcibly restrained, and cut the hair and beards of, members of other Amish communities. In September of 2012, a jury rendered a verdict in United States v. Mullet and found sixteen members of the Bergholz community—including Samuel Mullet, bishop of the community—guilty of HCPA violations. These were the first convictions ...
Preventing Dangerous Mentally Ill Individuals From Obtaining And Retaining Guns: New York’S Safe Act, James B. Jacobs, Zoe Fuhr
New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers
This article closely examines one facet of New York State's 2013 comprehensive gun control law that was passed in response to the massacre at Sandy Hook Elementary School in Newtown, Connecticut. Among other things, the "Safe Act" requires that medical care professionals report to the state the names of patients whom they believe likely to engage in conduct that would result in serious harm to self or others. Those who are reported are disqualified from owning or possessing a firearm for five years. If they have a firearms license, it will be revoked. If they have a firearm, it ...
Gender Injustice: System-Level Juvenile Justice Reforms For Girls, 2015 Boston College Law School
Gender Injustice: System-Level Juvenile Justice Reforms For Girls, Francine Sherman, Annie Balck
Boston College Law School Faculty Papers
Despite decades of attention, the proportion of girls in the juvenile justice system has increased and their challenges have remained remarkably consistent, resulting in deeply rooted systemic gender injustice. The literature is clear that girls in the justice system have experienced abuse, violence, adversity, and deprivation across many of the domains of their lives—family, peers, intimate partners, and community. There is also increasing understanding of the sorts of programs helpful to these girls. What is missing is a focus on how systems—and particularly juvenile justice systems—can be redesigned to protect public safety and support the healing and ...
Federalism, Federal Courts, And Victims' Rights, 2015 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law
Federalism, Federal Courts, And Victims' Rights, Michael E. Solimine, Kathryn Elvey
Catholic University Law Review
One of the most striking developments in American criminal law and procedure in the past four decades has been the widespread establishment of victims’ rights at both the federal and state levels. A conspicuous exception to the success of the victims’ rights movement has been the failure of Congress to pass a proposed amendment to the U.S. Constitution that would uniformly establish such rights in all federal and state courts. Advanced by both private organizations and state officials, and with bipartisan support in Congress, bills establishing a Victims’ Rights Amendment (VRA) have been introduced several times in the past ...
Israel, Palestine And The Icc., 2015 UCLA
Israel, Palestine And The Icc., Maria Isidora Thomas
Maria A Thomas Mrs
Academic Research with Professor Maximo Langer about the recent incorporation of Palestine to the ICC and the possible effects on its relations with Israel and the ongoing conflict.