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In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, Brendan M. Conner Esq. 2016 Streetwise and Safe

In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, Brendan M. Conner Esq.

Brendan M. Conner

The accompanying Article provides the first critical analysis of safe harbor laws, which rely on custodial arrests to prosecute or divert youth arrested for or charged with prostitution related offenses under criminal or juvenile codes to court supervision under state child welfare, foster care, or dependency statutes. This subject is a matter of intense debate nationwide, and on January 27, 2015 the House of Representatives passed legislation that would give preferential consideration for federal grants to states that have enacted a law that “discourages the charging or prosecution” of a trafficked minor and encourages court-ordered treatment and institutionalization. Nearly universally ...


Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, And The Fourth Amendment, Michael L. Rich 2016 Elon University School of Law

Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, And The Fourth Amendment, Michael L. Rich

Michael L Rich

At the conceptual intersection of machine learning and government data collection lie Automated Suspicion Algorithms, or ASAs, algorithms created through the application of machine learning methods to collections of government data with the purpose of identifying individuals likely to be engaged in criminal activity. The novel promise of ASAs is that they can identify data-supported correlations between innocent conduct and criminal activity and help police prevent crime. ASAs present a novel doctrinal challenge, as well, as they intrude on a step of the Fourth Amendment’s individualized suspicion analysis previously the sole province of human actors: the determination of when ...


Privately Failing: Recidivism In Public And Private Prisons, Lee N. Gilgan 2015 Willamette University

Privately Failing: Recidivism In Public And Private Prisons, Lee N. Gilgan

Lee N Gilgan

This study would add to available research regarding recidivism rates following incarceration in private prisons in contrast to incarceration in government-run prisons. This is a non-experimental meta-analysis viewing numerous studies discussing the effects of multiple covariants within public and private prisons. Based on the information and conclusion in these studies, we find that there is little overall consensus concerning the effects of increased privatization on recidivism. While many studies find certain aspects of privatization to have some potential effect on recidivism, there are many other aspects that either are out of scope or have a negative effect on recidivism. However ...


Investigating Jurors On Social Media, Caren Myers Morrison 2015 Georgia State University College of Law

Investigating Jurors On Social Media, Caren Myers Morrison

Pace Law Review

This essay proceeds in three parts. First, it examines the current state of jury investigations, and how they differ from those conducted in the past. Then, it describes the evolving legal and ethical positions that are combining to encourage such investigations. Finally, it offers a note of caution–condoning such investigations while keeping them hidden from jurors may be perceived as unfair and exploitative, risking a possible backlash from outraged jurors. Instead, I propose a modest measure to provide notice and explanation to jurors that their online information is likely to be searched, and why.


#Snitches Get Stitches: Witness Intimidation In The Age Of Facebook And Twitter, John Browning 2015 Passman & Jones

#Snitches Get Stitches: Witness Intimidation In The Age Of Facebook And Twitter, John Browning

Pace Law Review

In order to better understand witness intimidation in the age of social media, one must examine both the forms it has taken as well as the response by law enforcement and the criminal justice system. As this article points out, the digital age has brought with it a host of new ways in which witnesses may be subjected to online harassment and intimidation across multiple platforms, and those means have been used to target not only victims and fact witnesses but even prosecutors and expert witnesses as well. The article will also examine potential responses to the problem of witness ...


My Ears Hear More Than English: Granting Multilingual Jurors Accommodations And Treating Multilingualism As A Common Type Of Juror Expertise, A. Lee Valentine II 2015 Boston College Law School

My Ears Hear More Than English: Granting Multilingual Jurors Accommodations And Treating Multilingualism As A Common Type Of Juror Expertise, A. Lee Valentine Ii

Boston College Law Review

To find an example of court-sanctioned discrimination against Spanish-speaking prospective jurors, one need not look further than the 2011 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit decision in United States v. Cabrera-Beltran. Three multilingual jurors were struck for cause during voir dire for not agreeing to ignore all Spanish-language evidence that would be presented at trial and adhere solely to the English-language interpretation, even if they detected errors in the interpretation. Although these jurors could have been accommodated, the court upheld the decision to strike them. In other cases, jurors with other types of expertise typically have not ...


“Cracking” The Code: Interpreting Sentence Reduction Requirements In Favor Of Eligibility For Crack Cocaine Offenders Who Avoided A Mandatory Minimum For Their Substantial Assistance To Authorities, Catherine DiVita 2015 Boston College Law School

“Cracking” The Code: Interpreting Sentence Reduction Requirements In Favor Of Eligibility For Crack Cocaine Offenders Who Avoided A Mandatory Minimum For Their Substantial Assistance To Authorities, Catherine Divita

Boston College Law Review

In 2010, the Fair Sentencing Act (“FSA”) increased the quantities triggering mandatory minimums for crack cocaine offenses and directed the U.S. Sentencing Commission (“USSC”) to make similar reductions to the crack cocaine guideline ranges. After the USSC made these changes retroactive, offenders sentenced in accordance with the previous scheme sought sentence reductions. Due to the circuit courts’ differing interpretations of the eligibility requirements for a reduction, similarly situated offenders who avoided a mandatory minimum for performing substantial assistance to authorities have experienced different outcomes. This Note argues that courts should consistently hold such offenders eligible for retroactive sentencing reductions ...


Civil Asset Forfeiture In Massachusetts: A Flawed Incentive Structure And Its Impact On Indigent Property Owners, Andrew Crawford 2015 Boston College Law School

Civil Asset Forfeiture In Massachusetts: A Flawed Incentive Structure And Its Impact On Indigent Property Owners, Andrew Crawford

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

All fifty states and the federal government have civil asset forfeiture laws that enable law enforcement agencies to seize property that they suspect has been involved in the commission of a crime. Although there are many benefits to the system, there are also many flaws. The entire structure of the civil asset forfeiture system, at both the federal and state levels, creates incentives for abuse by law enforcement. This Note advocates for a series of changes to the current forfeiture law in Massachusetts, including requiring a heightened burden of proof, providing counsel to indigent property owners, and reforming the incentive ...


A Forgiveness Law: The Path To Solve The Peace Versus Justice Dilemma, Juan Carlos Portilla 2015 Boston College Law School

A Forgiveness Law: The Path To Solve The Peace Versus Justice Dilemma, Juan Carlos Portilla

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

The peace process between the Colombian government and the Colombian guerrillas provides a case study to examine the operation of a forgiveness law under international law. In 2012, the Colombian Congress passed a legal framework for peace, which essentially provided amnesty for those accused of international crimes. While amnesty trades justice for peace, the forgiveness law proposal for Colombia would secure justice and peace together. Unlike amnesty, the forgiveness law proposal is lawful under international law, for it guarantees prosecution of international crimes, discovery of the truth, a fair trial, adjudication of individual criminal responsibility, redress for victims, guarantees of ...


When Freedom Prevents Vindication: Why The Heck Rule Should Not Bar A Prisoner’S § 1983 Action In Deemer V. Beard, Alice Huang 2015 Boston College Law School

When Freedom Prevents Vindication: Why The Heck Rule Should Not Bar A Prisoner’S § 1983 Action In Deemer V. Beard, Alice Huang

Boston College Law Review

In 2014, in Deemer v. Beard, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit held that the Heck v. Humphrey rule required all plaintiffs seeking damages for unconstitutional conviction under § 1983 to demonstrate that the criminal proceeding in question terminated in their favor. This decision defies a majority of circuit courts, which have held that there exists an exception to Heck if the plaintiff does not have other federal means of redress. In its decision, the Third Circuit aligned itself with three other appellate courts that did not take a plaintiff’s lack of access to other means ...


A Criminal Defendant’S First Bite At The Constitutional Apple: The Eleventh Circuit’S Excessively Deferential Conception Of “Adjudication Of The Merits”, Chris Skall 2015 Boston College Law School

A Criminal Defendant’S First Bite At The Constitutional Apple: The Eleventh Circuit’S Excessively Deferential Conception Of “Adjudication Of The Merits”, Chris Skall

Boston College Law Review

On November 13, 2013, in Childers v. Floyd, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit found that Wyon Childers had failed to rebut the presumption that his Confrontation Clause claim was adjudicated on the merits. In this case, and a previous decision that led to it, the court conducted its habeas corpus review using a highly-deferential and vague conception of the threshold “adjudicated on the merits” inquiry. This Comment argues that the Eleventh Circuit and other circuits should reexamine their standards for determining whether federal claims have been adjudicated on the merits by state courts in order ...


Behind The Venire: Rationale, Rewards And Ramifications Of Heightened Scrutiny And The Ninth Circuit’S Extension Of Equal Protection To Gays And Lesbians During Jury Selection In Smithkline V. Abbott, James Lobo 2015 Boston College Law School

Behind The Venire: Rationale, Rewards And Ramifications Of Heightened Scrutiny And The Ninth Circuit’S Extension Of Equal Protection To Gays And Lesbians During Jury Selection In Smithkline V. Abbott, James Lobo

Boston College Law Review

On January 21, 2014, in SmithKline v. Abbott, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit held that heightened scrutiny applies to classifications based on sexual orientation, and equal protection forbids striking jurors because they are gay or lesbian. The Ninth Circuit interpreted the Supreme Court’s recent analysis in United States v. Windsor as applying heightened scrutiny, rather than rational basis review that has historically been used to assess issues surrounding sexual orientation. The Ninth Circuit also reasoned that given the historical exclusion and pervasive discrimination of gays and lesbians, this group requires equal protection. This Comment ...


Thirty-Two Years On The Federal Bench: Some Things I Have Learned, Judge Emmett Ripley Cox 2015 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Thirty-Two Years On The Federal Bench: Some Things I Have Learned, Judge Emmett Ripley Cox

Florida Law Review

In this Essay, prepared as the basis for the 2014 Dunwody Distinguished Lecture in Law at the University of Florida Levin College of Law, Judge Cox discusses a few things he learned from his experience as a trial judge and later as an appellate judge. Specifically, he addresses how the proliferation of federal law—both criminal and civil—imposes a real burden on the federal courts. This proliferation has negatively affected pleading and pretrial procedures in the federal court system. Additionally, he discusses what lawyers can do about these pleading and pretrial problems.

Over the course of his career Judge ...


A Legal And Policy Argument For Bail Denial And Preventative Treatment For Batterers In The United States, Dawn Beichner, Robbin Ogle, Anne Garner, Daniel Anderson 2015 Illinois State University

A Legal And Policy Argument For Bail Denial And Preventative Treatment For Batterers In The United States, Dawn Beichner, Robbin Ogle, Anne Garner, Daniel Anderson

Papers in Women's and Gender Studies

Historically, battering has been a culturally and legally acceptable form of social control within the United States. This article provides an examination of how this legacy of social acceptance has influenced the development of laws and social policies related to battering. We provide a critique of our current approach to battering and our historical reliance on private or social helping agencies intended to hide and protect victims. We call for a transformation of our current policies that provides for the removal of the batterer—not the victim and her children—from the family home through a process of bail denial ...


Confronting Cops In Immigration Court, Mary Holper 2015 College of William & Mary Law School

Confronting Cops In Immigration Court, Mary Holper

William & Mary Bill of Rights Journal

Part I of the Article outlines the police report problem by discussing the four situations in which police reports are used in immigration court, why police reports are unreliable, and the scope of the problem. Part II discusses criminal law’s treatment of police reports, focusing on the Confrontation Clause of the Sixth Amendment, which provides the constitutional justification for excluding police reports in criminal cases. Part III discusses the use of hearsay evidence in immigration cases, where hearsay is allowed due to the characterization of removal proceedings as civil, not criminal. While there has been a trend to reject ...


Burris V. State: Suggestions For The Continued Development Of The Rule For Admitting The Testimony Of Gang Experts, Michael Jacko 2015 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Burris V. State: Suggestions For The Continued Development Of The Rule For Admitting The Testimony Of Gang Experts, Michael Jacko

Endnotes

No abstract provided.


Following Orders: Campbell V. United States, The Waiver Of Appellate Rights, And The Duty Of Counsel, Jacob Szewczyk 2015 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

Following Orders: Campbell V. United States, The Waiver Of Appellate Rights, And The Duty Of Counsel, Jacob Szewczyk

Catholic University Law Review

In the 1984 case of Strickland v. Washington, the Supreme Court announced a two-pronged test to analyze whether a criminal defendant has received ineffective assistance of counsel. Since the rule was announced, the Court has expanded Strickland’s scope to apply to analyze counsel’s review at different stages of the criminal proceeding. This Comment addresses one issue that has remained unanswered by the Supreme Court: whether counsel’s failure to file a notice of appeal, after a defendant has waived his right to appeal through a plea bargain, constitutes ineffective assistance of counsel. This Comment discusses the circuit split ...


Stop Blaming The Prosecutors: The Real Causes Of Wrongful Convictions And Rightful Exonerations, And What Should Be Done To Fix Them, Adam Lamparello, Charles E. MacLean, James J. Berles 2015 Indiana Tech Law School

Stop Blaming The Prosecutors: The Real Causes Of Wrongful Convictions And Rightful Exonerations, And What Should Be Done To Fix Them, Adam Lamparello, Charles E. Maclean, James J. Berles

Adam Lamparello

Wrongfully convicted and rightfully exonerated criminal defendants spent, on average, ten years in prison before exoneration, and the ramifications to the defendants, the criminal justice system, and society are immeasurable.Prosecutorial misconduct, however, is not the primary cause of wrongful convictions. To begin with, although more than twenty million new adult criminal cases are opened in state and federal courts each year throughout the United States, there have been only 1,281 total exonerations over the last twenty-five years. In only six percent of those cases was prosecutorial misconduct the predominant factor resulting in those wrongful convictions. Of course, although ...


The Emerging Neoliberal Penality: Rethinking Foucauldian Punishment In A Profit-Driven Carceral System, Kevin Crow 2015 Martin Luther Universitat Halle-Wittenberg

The Emerging Neoliberal Penality: Rethinking Foucauldian Punishment In A Profit-Driven Carceral System, Kevin Crow

Kevin Crow

There is a new neoliberal penality emerging in the United States with four primary characteristics: (1) the death of rehabilitation, (2) the de-individualization of the criminal, (3) the emergence of a market for deviance, and (4) the managerialistic approach. The prison-industrial complex in the United States illustrates these pillars, but the pillars are not limited to the prison-industrial complex.

Foucault's concept of the prison as an institution primarily of individual normalization presupposes rehabilitation as the primary goal of the institution. This is no longer the case. Rather, the "penal culture" has shifted from one that views crime and imprisonment ...


O'Connor's Firsts, Phyllis Crocker 2015 University of Akron

O'Connor's Firsts, Phyllis Crocker

Akron Law Review

No abstract provided.


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