Fourth Amendment Remedies As Rights: The Warrant Requirement, 2016 University of Maryland School of Law
Fourth Amendment Remedies As Rights: The Warrant Requirement, David C. Gray
David C. Gray
The constitutional status of the warrant requirement is hotly debated. Critics argue that neither the text nor history of the Fourth Amendment support a warrant requirement. Also questioned is the warrant requirement’s ability to protect Fourth Amendment interests. Perhaps in response to these concerns, the Court has steadily degraded the warrant requirement through a series of widening exceptions. The result is an unsatisfying jurisprudence that fails on both conceptual and practical grounds.
These debates have gained new salience with the emergence of modern surveillance technologies such as stingrays, GPS tracking, drones, and Big Data. Although a majority of the ...
In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, 2016 Streetwise and Safe
In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, Brendan M. Conner Esq.
Brendan M. Conner
The accompanying Article provides the first critical analysis of safe harbor laws, which rely on custodial arrests to prosecute or divert youth arrested for or charged with prostitution related offenses under criminal or juvenile codes to court supervision under state child welfare, foster care, or dependency statutes. This subject is a matter of intense debate nationwide, and on January 27, 2015 the House of Representatives passed legislation that would give preferential consideration for federal grants to states that have enacted a law that “discourages the charging or prosecution” of a trafficked minor and encourages court-ordered treatment and institutionalization. Nearly universally ...
Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, And The Fourth Amendment, 2016 Elon University School of Law
Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, And The Fourth Amendment, Michael L. Rich
Michael L Rich
At the conceptual intersection of machine learning and government data collection lie Automated Suspicion Algorithms, or ASAs, algorithms created through the application of machine learning methods to collections of government data with the purpose of identifying individuals likely to be engaged in criminal activity. The novel promise of ASAs is that they can identify data-supported correlations between innocent conduct and criminal activity and help police prevent crime. ASAs present a novel doctrinal challenge, as well, as they intrude on a step of the Fourth Amendment’s individualized suspicion analysis previously the sole province of human actors: the determination of when ...
Dangerous Dicta, 2015 University of Maryland School of Law
Dangerous Dicta, David C. Gray
David C. Gray
In United States v. Heller, the Court held that individuals have a Second Amendment right to keep and bear arms apart from their associations with state militias. Although that holding was and remains controversial, less attention has been paid to what the Heller Court had to say about the Fourth Amendment. Writing for the Court in Heller, Justice Scalia asserts that the phrase “right of the people” in the Fourth Amendment “unambiguously refers to individual rights, not ‘collective’ rights or rights that may only be exercised through participation in some corporate body.” By any definition, this is dicta. It is ...
Privately Failing: Recidivism In Public And Private Prisons, 2015 Willamette University
Privately Failing: Recidivism In Public And Private Prisons, Lee N. Gilgan
Lee N Gilgan
This study would add to available research regarding recidivism rates following incarceration in private prisons in contrast to incarceration in government-run prisons. This is a non-experimental meta-analysis viewing numerous studies discussing the effects of multiple covariants within public and private prisons. Based on the information and conclusion in these studies, we find that there is little overall consensus concerning the effects of increased privatization on recidivism. While many studies find certain aspects of privatization to have some potential effect on recidivism, there are many other aspects that either are out of scope or have a negative effect on recidivism. However ...
Rules Of Evidence For Your First Federal Or New York Trial, 2015 Columbia, Fordham & NYU Law Schools
Rules Of Evidence For Your First Federal Or New York Trial, Gerald Lebovits
No abstract provided.
When Are The People Ready? The Interplay Between Facial Sufficiency And Readiness Under Cpl Section 30.30, John H. Wilson
Pace Law Review
In this article, we will explore the intersecting concepts of conversion, facial sufficiency, and readiness. As we shall see, readiness for trial does not necessarily follow from the conversion of a complaint and dismissal on CPL section 30.30 grounds does not necessarily follow from a finding of facial insufficiency.
Re-Defining The Concept Of Mens Rea: A Challenge To The Common Approaches Employed Under Islamic Jurisprudence And Statute Law, 2015 Islamic Azad University Maragheh
Re-Defining The Concept Of Mens Rea: A Challenge To The Common Approaches Employed Under Islamic Jurisprudence And Statute Law, Fatemeh Ahadi
In the present paper the traditional and customary perspectives on the concept of Mens Rea are challenged and a new definition of the same is put forward. The challenge is based on the idea that the concepts in criminal law need evolution in order to keep their function and practicality. Such an evolution demands such a condition wherein, while granting the characteristics of adaptability with the contextual conditions and principles of criminal law, the maintenance of the same is ensured. The mens rea is customarily defined as ‘culpable state of mind of the accused when committing an offence under criminal ...
Should Mere Direct Participation In Hostilities Be Treated As A War Crime?, Andrea Harrison
This article attempts to argue that acts that constitute mere direct participation in hostilities during armed conflict should not be treated as war crimes, but rather should be criminalized domestically, or addressed through amnesties when appropriate. In order to support this argument, the author looks at both International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and International Criminal Law (ICL) and their respective treatment of direct participation in hostilities. The author then examines offenses within the 2009 Military Commissions Act which would normally be deemed as mere participation in hostilities and compares these to offenses normally found under international law. Finally, the author explains ...
Mirandizing Terrorism Suspects? The Public Safety Exception, The Rescue Doctrine, And Implicit Analogies To Self-Defense, Defense Of Others, And Battered Woman Syndrome, 2015 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law
Mirandizing Terrorism Suspects? The Public Safety Exception, The Rescue Doctrine, And Implicit Analogies To Self-Defense, Defense Of Others, And Battered Woman Syndrome, Bruce Ching
Catholic University Law Review
In its 1984 decision New York v. Quarles, the Supreme Court announced the public safety exception, under which statements made by un-Mirandized suspects can be admissible when made in response to questions reasonably asked to protect the safety of the arresting officers or the general public. During the investigation of terrorism cases, law enforcement agencies have begun to extend the time of un-Mirandized questioning of suspects, with the hope that courts will find that the public safety exception makes the suspects’ statements admissible in the ensuing prosecutions.
This Article argues that in announcing the public safety exception, the ...
Inmates’ E-Mails With Their Attorneys: Off-Limits For The Government?, 2015 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law
Inmates’ E-Mails With Their Attorneys: Off-Limits For The Government?, Amelia H. Barry
Catholic University Law Review
The attorney-client privilege is vital to inmates who otherwise have limited opportunities for private communications in prison. Traditionally, inmates have only been able to communicate with their attorneys via in-person visits, phone calls, and mailed letters. As federal inmates have begun using e-mail to converse with their attorneys, courts have had to determine if these conversations are protected by the attorney-client privilege. This Comment discusses courts’ approaches to this question, many of which have found that inmates’ e-mail communications with their attorneys are not privileged because by using the federal prison e-mail system, which warns users that conversations can be ...
Criminal Mind Or Inculpable Adolescence? A Glimpse At The History, Failures, And Required Changes Of The American Juvenile Correction System, 2015 Pace University School of Law
Criminal Mind Or Inculpable Adolescence? A Glimpse At The History, Failures, And Required Changes Of The American Juvenile Correction System, Christopher J. Menihan
Pace Law Review
This Comment provides an historical analysis of the principles, understandings and laws that have formed and altered the American juvenile correction system. Part I offers an historical synopsis of the societal understanding that juvenile offenders are less culpable than their adult counterparts and explains the process by which this concept came to permeate early American common law. By discussing the early nineteenth-century juvenile correction reformation movement and the cases that followed, Part I also illustrates the development and early failures of the American juvenile correction system. Part II explains the history of juvenile waiver laws, from their early presence in ...
Federal Programs And The Real Costs Of Policing, 2015 University of Virginia Law School
Federal Programs And The Real Costs Of Policing, Rachel A. Harmon
Rachel A. Harmon
Dozens of federal statutes authorize federal agencies to give money and power to local police departments and municipalities in order to improve public safety. While these federal programs encourage better coordination of police efforts and make pursuing public safety less financially costly for local communities, they also encourage harmful policing. Of course, policing often interferes with our interests in autonomy, privacy, and property, and those harms are often worthwhile in exchange for security and order. Federal public safety programs, however, are designed, implemented, and evaluated without reference to the nonbudgetary costs of policing. When those costs are high, federal programs ...
Disentangling Michigan Court Rule 6.502(G)(2): The "New Evidence" Exception To The Ban On Successive Motions For Relief From Judgment Does Not Contain A Discoverability Requirement, 2015 University of Michigan Law School
Disentangling Michigan Court Rule 6.502(G)(2): The "New Evidence" Exception To The Ban On Successive Motions For Relief From Judgment Does Not Contain A Discoverability Requirement, Claire V. Madill
Michigan Law Review
Michigan courts are engaging in a costly interpretative mistake. Confused by the relationship between two distinct legal doctrines, Michigan courts are conflating laws in a manner that precludes convicted defendants from raising their constitutional claims in postconviction proceedings. In Michigan, a convicted defendant who wishes to collaterally attack her conviction must file a 6.500 motion. The Michigan Court Rules generally prohibit “second or subsequent” motions. Nonetheless, section 6.502(G)(2) permits a petitioner to avoid this successive motion ban if her claim relies on “new evidence that was not discovered” before her original postconviction motion. Misguided by the ...
Investigating Jurors On Social Media, 2015 Georgia State University College of Law
Investigating Jurors On Social Media, Caren Myers Morrison
Pace Law Review
This essay proceeds in three parts. First, it examines the current state of jury investigations, and how they differ from those conducted in the past. Then, it describes the evolving legal and ethical positions that are combining to encourage such investigations. Finally, it offers a note of caution–condoning such investigations while keeping them hidden from jurors may be perceived as unfair and exploitative, risking a possible backlash from outraged jurors. Instead, I propose a modest measure to provide notice and explanation to jurors that their online information is likely to be searched, and why.
#Snitches Get Stitches: Witness Intimidation In The Age Of Facebook And Twitter, 2015 Passman & Jones
#Snitches Get Stitches: Witness Intimidation In The Age Of Facebook And Twitter, John Browning
Pace Law Review
In order to better understand witness intimidation in the age of social media, one must examine both the forms it has taken as well as the response by law enforcement and the criminal justice system. As this article points out, the digital age has brought with it a host of new ways in which witnesses may be subjected to online harassment and intimidation across multiple platforms, and those means have been used to target not only victims and fact witnesses but even prosecutors and expert witnesses as well. The article will also examine potential responses to the problem of witness ...
Summary Of Guitron (Miguel) V. State, 131 Nev. Adv. Op. 27 (May 21, 2015), 2015 Nevada Law Journal
Summary Of Guitron (Miguel) V. State, 131 Nev. Adv. Op. 27 (May 21, 2015), Aleem Dhalla
Nevada Supreme Court Summaries
The Court determined that (1) the State presented sufficient evidence for a jury to convict Guitron of incest and sexual assault, (2) the district court did err by not allowing Guitron to introduce evidence of the victims sexual knowledge, but this error was harmless, (3) the district court did err refusing to give the jury Guitron’s requested inverse elements instruction, but this error was also harmless, and (4) Guitron could not show that the district court erred by denying his Batson challenge.
My Ears Hear More Than English: Granting Multilingual Jurors Accommodations And Treating Multilingualism As A Common Type Of Juror Expertise, A. Lee Valentine Ii
Boston College Law Review
To find an example of court-sanctioned discrimination against Spanish-speaking prospective jurors, one need not look further than the 2011 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit decision in United States v. Cabrera-Beltran. Three multilingual jurors were struck for cause during voir dire for not agreeing to ignore all Spanish-language evidence that would be presented at trial and adhere solely to the English-language interpretation, even if they detected errors in the interpretation. Although these jurors could have been accommodated, the court upheld the decision to strike them. In other cases, jurors with other types of expertise typically have not ...
“Cracking” The Code: Interpreting Sentence Reduction Requirements In Favor Of Eligibility For Crack Cocaine Offenders Who Avoided A Mandatory Minimum For Their Substantial Assistance To Authorities, 2015 Boston College Law School
“Cracking” The Code: Interpreting Sentence Reduction Requirements In Favor Of Eligibility For Crack Cocaine Offenders Who Avoided A Mandatory Minimum For Their Substantial Assistance To Authorities, Catherine Divita
Boston College Law Review
In 2010, the Fair Sentencing Act (“FSA”) increased the quantities triggering mandatory minimums for crack cocaine offenses and directed the U.S. Sentencing Commission (“USSC”) to make similar reductions to the crack cocaine guideline ranges. After the USSC made these changes retroactive, offenders sentenced in accordance with the previous scheme sought sentence reductions. Due to the circuit courts’ differing interpretations of the eligibility requirements for a reduction, similarly situated offenders who avoided a mandatory minimum for performing substantial assistance to authorities have experienced different outcomes. This Note argues that courts should consistently hold such offenders eligible for retroactive sentencing reductions ...
Civil Asset Forfeiture In Massachusetts: A Flawed Incentive Structure And Its Impact On Indigent Property Owners, 2015 Boston College Law School
Civil Asset Forfeiture In Massachusetts: A Flawed Incentive Structure And Its Impact On Indigent Property Owners, Andrew Crawford
Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice
All fifty states and the federal government have civil asset forfeiture laws that enable law enforcement agencies to seize property that they suspect has been involved in the commission of a crime. Although there are many benefits to the system, there are also many flaws. The entire structure of the civil asset forfeiture system, at both the federal and state levels, creates incentives for abuse by law enforcement. This Note advocates for a series of changes to the current forfeiture law in Massachusetts, including requiring a heightened burden of proof, providing counsel to indigent property owners, and reforming the incentive ...