Catalogs, 2015 SelectedWorks
Catalogs, Alex Stein, Gideon Parchomovsky
It is a virtual axiom in the world of law that legal norms come in two prototypes: rules and standards. The accepted lore suggests that rules should be formulated to regulate recurrent and frequent behaviors, whose contours can be defined with sufficient precision. Standards, by contrast, should be employed to address complex, variegated, behaviors that require the weighing of multiple variables. Rules rely on an ex ante perspective and are therefore considered the domain of the legislator; standards embody a preference for ex post, ad-hoc, analysis and are therefore considered the domain of courts. The rules/standards dichotomy has become ...
The Anti-Patent: A Proposal For Startup Immunity, 2015 SelectedWorks
The Anti-Patent: A Proposal For Startup Immunity, Amy L. Landers
Amy L. Landers
The controversy surrounding the current implementation of the patent system is well known. Some question whether the system has become entirely dysfunctional and disincentives innovation, particularly as the law operates within some industries. Moreover, early stage companies, particularly those just beginning to gain success, are particularly vulnerable targets for lawsuits. Notably, these same companies can be rich sources of important technological innovation.
Because the U.S. has always had a patent system, it is impossible to understand the intended and unintended consequences of eliminating this form of intellectual property protection even in a limited manner. As economist Fritz Machlup stated ...
California Egg Toss - The High Costs Of Avoiding Unenforceable Surrogacy Contracts, 2014 University of San Diego
California Egg Toss - The High Costs Of Avoiding Unenforceable Surrogacy Contracts, Jennifer Jackson
In an emotionally charged decision regarding surrogacy contracts, it is important to recognize the ramifications, costs, and policy. There are advantages to both “gestational carrier surrogacy” contracts and “traditional surrogacy” contracts. However, this paper focuses on the differences between these contracts using case law. Specifically, this paper will focus on the implications of California case law regarding surrogacy contracts. Cases such as Johnson v. Calvert and In Re Marriage of Moschetta provide a clear distinction between these contracts. This distinction will show that while gestational carrier surrogacy contracts are more expensive, public policy and court opinions will provide certainty and ...
Complexity And Simplicity In Law: A Review Essay (Cass R. Sunstein, Simpler 2013)), 2014 Syracuse University
Complexity And Simplicity In Law: A Review Essay (Cass R. Sunstein, Simpler 2013)), David M. Driesen
David M Driesen
This essay discusses Cass Sunstein’s book, Simpler, in order to advance our understanding of the concepts of complex and simple law. Many writers identify complexity with uncertainty and high cost. This essay argues that complexity bears no fixed relationship to costs or benefits. It also shows that complexity’s relationship to uncertainty is so ambiguous that it is profitable to treat complexity and uncertainty as separate concepts. It develops useful separate concepts of legal and compliance complexity that will aid efforts to simplify law, like the one Sunstein claims to have embarked upon. It also argues that complexity is ...
Troubled Waters: Diana Nyad And The Birth Of The Global Rules Of Marathon Swimming, Hadar Aviram
On September 3, 2013, Diana Nyad reported having completed a 110-mile swim from Cuba to Florida. The general enthusiasm about her swim was not echoed in the marathon swimming community, whose members expressed doubts about the integrity and honesty of the swim. The community debate that followed gave rise to the creation of the Global Rules of Marathon Swimming, the first effort to regulate the sport. This Article uses the community’s reaction to Nyad’s deviance to examine the role that crime and deviance plays in the creation and modification of legal structures. Relying on Durkheim’s functionalism theory ...
The Origins Of Affirmative Fiscal Action, 2014 SelectedWorks
The Origins Of Affirmative Fiscal Action, Mirit Eyal-Cohen
This article highlights an anomaly. It shows that two tax rules aimed to achieve a similar goal were introduced at the same time. Both meant to be temporary and bring economic stimuli, but received a dramatically different treatment. The less efficient or economically inferior survived. Its superior counterpart did not. The article reviews the reasons for this paradox. It shows that the reason is both political and an agency problem. The article not only enriches an important and ongoing debate that has received much attention in recent years, but also provides important lessons to policymakers.
The Law And Economics Of Microfinance, 2014 SelectedWorks
The Law And Economics Of Microfinance, Katherine Helen Mary Hunt
Katherine Helen Mary Hunt
Financial inclusion may be jargon which appeals to international donors and academics, but the strategic implementation in developing countries is often based on international du jour priorities, such as microfinance. The topic of microfinance is highly debated in the academic literature, although little empirical work has been published. Further, no literature to date has considered microfinance from a law and economics perspective. This paper seeks to contribute to the gap in the literature by considering how microfinance has evolved to address the credit market failure, and how microfinance regulation should be designed to promote long term financial inclusion via financially ...
Encouraging Cooperation: Harmonizing The Battle Of Association And Mortgagee Lien Priority In America’S Common Interest Communities, Christian J. Bromley
Christian J Bromley
As the United States grappled with millions of foreclosures in recent years, the delinquency of mortgage and community association payments threatened the sustainability of over 300,000 common interest communities that house 63.4 million Americans. When owners of residential property fall behind on mortgage and association assessments, a battle for lien priority emerges between the associations and mortgagees. Each respectively holds a lien on the property to secure the debt owed to them, but it is the priority of these liens that determines the amount the lienholder recovers from a foreclosure sale.
There is no uniform approach to priority ...
The Road Most Travel: Is The Executive’S Growing Preeminence Making America More Like The Authoritarian Regimes It Fights So Hard Against?, Ryan T. Williams
Ryan T. Williams
Since September 11, 2001, the Executive branch of the Unites States government continues to accumulate power beyond which is granted to it under the U.S. Constitution. This Article examines how the Executive wields this additional power through a secret surveillance program, the indefinite detention of terror suspects, and the implementation of a kill list, where Americans and non-Americans alike are targeted and killed without any judicial determination of guilt or innocence. Moreover, Congress and the Judiciary have condoned the Executive’s unconstitutional power accumulation by not only remaining idle and refusing to challenge this taking, but by preventing other ...
Avoiding The Road To Ferc-Dom: The Supreme Court Affirms The Right To Contract In Morgan Stanley V. Snohomish, Jorge A. Mestre
Jorge A Mestre
No abstract provided.
Federal Court Rulemaking And Litigation Reform: An Institutional Approach, 2014 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Federal Court Rulemaking And Litigation Reform: An Institutional Approach, Stephen B. Burbank, Sean Farhang
The purpose of this article is to advance understanding of the role that federal court rulemaking has played in litigation reform. For that purpose, we created original data sets that include (1) information about every member of the Advisory Committee on Civil Rules who served from 1960 to 2013, and (2) every proposal for amending the Federal Rules that the Advisory Committee approved for consideration by the Standing Committee during the same period and that had implications for private enforcement. We show that, beginning in 1971, when a succession of Chief Justices appointed by Republican Presidents have chosen committee members ...
Narrow Tailoring, Compelling Interests, And Free Exercise: On Aca, Rfra And Predictability, Mark Strasser
The holding in Burwell v. Hobby Lobby Stores, Incorporated was narrow in scope—closely held, for-profit corporations must be afforded an exemption from providing insurance coverage for a few types of contraception if the corporation has religious objections to providing that coverage. In addition, the exemption requirement was based on a construction of federal statute rather than on the Constitution’s free exercise guarantees. Both the narrowness of the holding and the Court’s express disavowal that it was offering a constitutional analysis might make the opinion appear relatively inconsequential. However, because the opinion changes the focus and standards of ...
Obamacare Interrupted: Obstructive Federalism And The Consumer Information Blockade, Katherine Vukadin
Millions of Americans are now insured through the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and implementation forges ahead nationwide. Nevertheless, some states remain defiant. The ACA’s foundation in cooperative federalism lets states embrace or reject some of the laws’ most significant tenets—one such rejection is the southern states’ widely-criticized refusal to expand Medicaid. Less well known and little criticized, however, is certain states’ quiet rejection of a second, equally significant underpinning of the ACA: informational transparency for consumers. Lack of informational transparency means lower enrollment, but also less consumer protection and higher health insurance rates.
This article posits that the ...
The Rationalization Of Policy: On The Relation Between Democracy And The Rule Of Law, Ofer Raban
What is the relation between democracy and the rule of law? Why did they develop more or less simultaneously, and why do we tend to conjoin them in describing good government? After all, the two are theoretically distinct: a non-democratic regime may operate with a robust rule of law (think of 18th Century England), and a government elected by popular vote may flout rule of law principles (think of Russia or Turkey or Pakistan). And yet, to repeat, there seems to be some mutual reinforcement—perhaps even some interdependence—between these two systems of political organization. This article will ...
Studying Is Dangerous? Possible Federal Remedies For Study Abroad Liability, 2014 SelectedWorks
Studying Is Dangerous? Possible Federal Remedies For Study Abroad Liability, Robert J. Aalberts, Chad G. Marzen, Darren A. Prum
Chad G. Marzen
Every year, thousands of U.S. students study abroad for academic credit. Study abroad programs have traditionally garnered strong congressional support, and proponents of the programs emphasize the educational, cultural, and diplomatic benefits from study abroad experiences.
Despite the many benefits of study abroad programs, risks are incurred overseas. In the past several years, a number of incidents have resulted in which students studying abroad have not only incurred physical harm, but in some instances have died while enrolled in a study abroad program. The current liability standards governing study abroad programs are murky. This article not only discusses the ...
Marriage Penalty: How Stacking Income Affects The Secondary Earner’S Decision To Work, Kevin M. Walsh
Kevin M Walsh
Our progressive tax rate structure is aimed at taxing citizens fairly and based on their ability to pay. The rate structure, however, partially loses its purpose when analyzing the income taxation of married individuals. If a married couple decides to file jointly they are sometimes taxed at higher rates than individuals are depending on the incomes of the couple. This has created what we know today as the “marriage penalty,” and it can serve as a deterrent to the secondary earner from working.
There is no simple solution to address how the marriage penalty, in combination with necessary expenses, affects ...
Trade, 2014 Purdue University
Trade, Bert Chapman
Libraries Faculty and Staff Scholarship and Research
Provides a historical overview of analysis of U.S. foreign trade policy during the early decades of the country's history. Examines bilateral U.S. trade relations with France and Great Britain, provides import and export statistics, details on commodities and products imports and exported, trade statistics, and information on the political and economic factors shaping U.S. trade during this period.
Breaking The Ice: How Plaintiffs May Establish Premises Liability In "Black Ice" Cases Where The Dangerous Condition Is By Definition Not Visible Or Apparent To The Property Owner, Hon. Mark C. Dillon
Hon. Mark C. Dillon
Plaintiffs that are injured as a result of encounters with "black ice," as distinguished from regular ice, face peculiar difficulties in establishing liability against property owners for the dangerous icy conditions on their premises. Black ice results from a unique process under certain conditions by which air bubbles are expelled from water during the freezing process, rendering the ice virtually invisible to the naked eye. Property owners therefore are not typically on actual or constructive notice of black ice conditions as to become subject to the legal requirement of undertaking measures to remedy the conditions. This article explores the law ...
Protecting The Sender: Liability Protection For The Senders Of Electronic Communication, Meredith W. Doherty
Meredith W. Doherty
As the technology of smartphones has progressed, electronic communication has become an integral and portable part of our daily lives. A recent New Jersey case highlighted the issue of holding the sender of a text message liable for injuries resulting from a motor vehicle accident in which the driver at fault was reading a text message from the sender at the time of the accident. This note focuses on the implications of such liability being imposed on senders of text messages as well as the slippery slope that could result, taking all forms of electronic communication, social media and mobile ...
Zero And The Rise Of Technological Lawmaking, 2014 Pace University
Zero And The Rise Of Technological Lawmaking, Max Stul Oppenheimer
Pace Law Review
This Article begins by identifying and drawing the outline of this previously unrecognized source of law: technology-made law. It then focuses on one paradigmatic case: changes in the meaning of “zero” and the closely related concept of a mathematical limit (for example a speed limit). It defines “zero” and demonstrates its explicit and implicit uses in law. It then posits that there are two ways to interpret a law involving a technological limit: a technology-static approach, in which comparisons are made using the technology available at the time the law was enacted, and a technology-dynamic approach, in which comparisons are ...