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No Need To Reinvent The Wheel: The Positive Relationship Between Green Technology And Patient Enforcement, Addison S. Fowler 2024 Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law

No Need To Reinvent The Wheel: The Positive Relationship Between Green Technology And Patient Enforcement, Addison S. Fowler

Villanova Environmental Law Journal

No abstract provided.


A Look Into Nagpra: Application, Issues, And The Future, Gabrielle Despain 2024 University of Wyoming College of Law

A Look Into Nagpra: Application, Issues, And The Future, Gabrielle Despain

Wyoming Law Review

During Colonization, American Indian tribes lost homes, language, and culture. The Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) was passed to help rebuild the relationship with American Indian tribes after it had been destroyed during colonization. NAGPRA sets forth laws regarding the repatriation of remains and cultural objects which are being held in museums and by federal agencies. The legislative history behind this act shows Congress worked hard to find the best device to help with repatriation. However, NAGPRA’s language left holes in the law which led to different issues argued in litigation. Many American Indians began feeling that …


Decentralized Autonomous Organizations: To Statutorily Organize Or Not?, David M. Grant, Eric M. Kirby, Steven Hawkins 2024 Southern Utah University

Decentralized Autonomous Organizations: To Statutorily Organize Or Not?, David M. Grant, Eric M. Kirby, Steven Hawkins

Wyoming Law Review

This Article explores the evolving concept of decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs) in the context of Web3 technology. It raises critical questions about whether DAOs truly represent a step forward in limiting liability in entity governance structures or if they risk centralizing the decentralized. The text discusses the potential of DAOs to address regulatory and tax challenges while also highlighting concerns about their legitimacy and security. It compares the governance structures of traditional entities to DAOs and contemplates the reasons for formal organization pursuant to state statute. The Article further delves into some of the statutory laws in specific states recognizing …


Wanted: A Prudential Framework For Crypto Assets, Lee Reiners, Sangita Gazi 2024 Department of Economics at Duke University and at Duke Law

Wanted: A Prudential Framework For Crypto Assets, Lee Reiners, Sangita Gazi

Arkansas Law Review

This Article summarizes the limited publicly available data on banks’ exposure to crypto assets and offers several specific examples of how U.S. banks engage in crypto-related businesses. It then examines past guidance issued by U.S. bank regulators and explains why this guidance lacks sufficient detail to clarify the prudential requirements associated with the various crypto-related activities in which banks are engaged. The Article then assesses the adequacy of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision’s final prudential standard for crypto-asset exposures, issued in December 2022, and finds that the measure fails to adequately address the unique risks various crypto-asset activities pose …


Just Because They Say It: Does The U.S. Really Have The “First-Ever Comprehensive Framework” For Digital Assets?, Carol R. Goforth 2024 University of Arkansas in Fayetteville

Just Because They Say It: Does The U.S. Really Have The “First-Ever Comprehensive Framework” For Digital Assets?, Carol R. Goforth

Arkansas Law Review

On March 9, 2022, President Biden made history by signing an Executive Order on Ensuring Responsible Development of Digital Assets. On September 16, 2022, the White House released a fact sheet proclaiming that it had produced the “First Ever Comprehensive Framework for Responsible Development of Digital Assets,” based on nine reports stemming from the Executive Order. This Article is divided into two main parts. Part one reviews the reports received by the White House, explaining what they address while pointing out open issues for which no particular direction is established. Part two assesses regulatory gaps in the crypto space in …


Keynote Address By Cftc Commissioner Kristin Johnson, Kristin N. Johnson 2024 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Keynote Address By Cftc Commissioner Kristin Johnson, Kristin N. Johnson

Arkansas Law Review

Today, our markets are witnessing a transformative moment marked by exceptional, rapidly evolving innovation. To better understand this transformation, we might inquire about the nature of these novel financial instruments, intermediaries, and the underlying technologies that fuel an ever-expanding adoption. Thinking critically about these issues may inform our understanding of the intermediaries or lack thereof, and financial products that characterize this moment in the history and evolution of financial markets.


Cracking Down On Egg Law: Legal Discrepancies Impacting Sales Of Ungraded Eggs In Texas, Parker Benton 2024 St. Mary's University

Cracking Down On Egg Law: Legal Discrepancies Impacting Sales Of Ungraded Eggs In Texas, Parker Benton

St. Mary's Law Journal

No abstract provided.


The Right To Procreate By Nontraditional Methods, Elizabeth Kreager 2024 St. Mary's University

The Right To Procreate By Nontraditional Methods, Elizabeth Kreager

St. Mary's Law Journal

No abstract provided.


Data Is What Data Does: Regulating Based On Harm And Risk Instead Of Sensitive Data, Daniel J. Solove 2024 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Data Is What Data Does: Regulating Based On Harm And Risk Instead Of Sensitive Data, Daniel J. Solove

Northwestern University Law Review

Heightened protection for sensitive data is becoming quite trendy in privacy laws around the world. Originating in European Union (EU) data protection law and included in the EU’s General Data Protection Regulation, sensitive data singles out certain categories of personal data for extra protection. Commonly recognized special categories of sensitive data include racial or ethnic origin, political opinions, religious or philosophical beliefs, trade union membership, health, sexual orientation and sex life, and biometric and genetic data.

Although heightened protection for sensitive data appropriately recognizes that not all situations involving personal data should be protected uniformly, the sensitive data approach is …


Respect My Authority: The Past, Present, And Future Of The Public Authority, Tom J. Letourneau 2024 University of Maine School of Law

Respect My Authority: The Past, Present, And Future Of The Public Authority, Tom J. Letourneau

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

This comment synthesizes various historical aspects of motor vehicle infrastructure in the United States. The network of issues at play involves centuries of public policy decisions made at the local, state, and federal level, which twentieth century legal innovations hastened and curdled into the car culture we are all a part of today. The public authority is the paradigm of these legal innovations, but it has outlived its usefulness in the face climate change and burgeoning issues relating to urbanism.


30 Years Removed, Oil-Spill Liability Insurance's Evolution Since The 1989 Exxon Valdez Incident, Rejo Mathew 2024 Arcina Risk Group

30 Years Removed, Oil-Spill Liability Insurance's Evolution Since The 1989 Exxon Valdez Incident, Rejo Mathew

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

In the thirty years since the Exxon Valdez incident, much has changed. This article looks back at the events of the accident and the subsequent changes to the marine pollution insurance industry, from the statutes regulating oil tankers in 1989 to the Oil Pollution Act of the 1990. The regulatory framework resulting from the Exxon Valdez is examined and compared to the litigation deriving from the spill.


It's A Soft Shell Life For Me: The Case For Expanding Npdes Permitting To Include Causes Of Ocean Acidification, Natalie L. Nowatzke 2024 University of Maine School of Law

It's A Soft Shell Life For Me: The Case For Expanding Npdes Permitting To Include Causes Of Ocean Acidification, Natalie L. Nowatzke

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

Ocean acidification, a lesser-known counterpart to climate change, is primarily caused by the ocean’s absorption of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. This absorption, in turn, reduces the ocean’s pH, and has detrimental effects on the health of the entire ecosystem. This Comment examines the applicability of the “functional equivalent test,” coined by the Supreme Court in County of Maui v. Hawaii Wildlife Fund, to the causes of ocean acidification. Using this test, this Comment proposes expanding NPDES permitting under the Clean Water Act to cover some landbased sources emitting carbon dioxide.


Fishing Communities And Public Participation In Federal Decisionmaking: A Case Study Of Community Opposition To The Mid-Barataria Sediment Diversion Project, Stephanie Showalter Otts 2024 University of Maine School of Law

Fishing Communities And Public Participation In Federal Decisionmaking: A Case Study Of Community Opposition To The Mid-Barataria Sediment Diversion Project, Stephanie Showalter Otts

Ocean and Coastal Law Journal

In debates surrounding coastal restoration projects, the word “community” is heard frequently. Coastal restoration projects have the potential to affect a wide range of communities, both those which are place-based as well as communities of practice that are not geographically bound. However, the lack of a single, accepted definition of community can lead to faulty assumptions about who is being represented in policy debates which can undermine efforts to build consensus and support for coastal restoration efforts. This Article presents a case study of community conflicts and public participation surrounding a large, controversial coastal restoration project in Louisiana—the Mid-Barataria Sediment …


The Cruel And Unusual Punishment Of Prison Rape: Why The Prison Rape Elimination Act Failed And How To Fix It, Savannah G. Plaisted 2024 University of Massachusetts School of Law

The Cruel And Unusual Punishment Of Prison Rape: Why The Prison Rape Elimination Act Failed And How To Fix It, Savannah G. Plaisted

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Recent studies show the rate of sexual abuse endured in prisons has been steadily increasing. To remedy this issue, the Prison Rape Elimination Act was passed in 2003, however it has had no legitimate impact on the rate of sexual abuse in prisons due to the absence of mandatory rules upon prisons and a private right of action. This note will argue that prison rape is an Eighth Amendment violation but is not punished as one and that the Prison Rape Elimination Act failed to provide Survivors of prison sexual abuse with any legitimate recourse against violators of the law. …


Shareholder Primacy Versus Shareholder Accountability, William W. Bratton 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Shareholder Primacy Versus Shareholder Accountability, William W. Bratton

Seattle University Law Review

When corporations inflict injuries in the course of business, shareholders wielding environmental, social, and governance (“ESG”) principles can, and now sometimes do, intervene to correct the matter. In the emerging fact pattern, corporate social accountability expands out of its historic collectivized frame to become an internal subject matter—a corporate governance topic. As a result, shareholder accountability surfaces as a policy question for the first time. The Big Three index fund managers, BlackRock, Vanguard, and State Street, responded to the accountability question with ESG activism. In so doing, they defected against corporate legal theory’s central tenet, shareholder primacy. Shareholder primacy builds …


Public Primacy In Corporate Law, Dorothy S. Lund 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Public Primacy In Corporate Law, Dorothy S. Lund

Seattle University Law Review

This Article explores the malleability of agency theory by showing that it could be used to justify a “public primacy” standard for corporate law that would direct fiduciaries to promote the value of the corporation for the benefit of the public. Employing agency theory to describe the relationship between corporate management and the broader public sheds light on aspects of firm behavior, as well as the nature of state contracting with corporations. It also provides a lodestar for a possible future evolution of corporate law and governance: minimize the agency costs created by the divergence of interests between management and …


Corporate Law In The Global South: Heterodox Stakeholderism, Mariana Pargendler 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Corporate Law In The Global South: Heterodox Stakeholderism, Mariana Pargendler

Seattle University Law Review

How do the corporate laws of Global South jurisdictions differ from their Global North counterparts? Prevailing stereotypes depict the corporate laws of developing countries as either antiquated or plagued by problems of enforcement and misfit despite formal convergence. This Article offers a different view by showing how Global South jurisdictions have pioneered heterodox stakeholder approaches in corporate law, such as the erosion of limited liability for purposes of stakeholder protection in Brazil and India, the adoption of mandatory corporate social responsibility in Indonesia and India, and the large-scale program of Black corporate ownership and empowerment in South Africa, among many …


Robo-Voting: Does Delegated Proxy Voting Pose A Challenge For Shareholder Democracy?, John Matsusaka, Chong Shu 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Robo-Voting: Does Delegated Proxy Voting Pose A Challenge For Shareholder Democracy?, John Matsusaka, Chong Shu

Seattle University Law Review

Robo-voting is the practice by an investment fund of mechanically voting in corporate elections according to the advice of its proxy advisor— in effect fully delegating its voting decision to its advisor. We examined over 65 million votes cast during the period 2008–2021 by 14,582 mutual funds to describe and quantify the prevalence of robo-voting. Overall, 33% of mutual funds robo-voted in 2021: 22% with ISS, 4% with Glass Lewis, and six percent with the recommendations of the issuer’s management. The fraction of funds that robo-voted increased until around 2013 and then stabilized at the current level. Despite the sizable …


The Esg Information System, Stavros Gadinis, Amelia Miazad 2024 Seattle University School of Law

The Esg Information System, Stavros Gadinis, Amelia Miazad

Seattle University Law Review

The mounting focus on ESG has forced internal corporate decision-making into the spotlight. Investors are eager to support companies in innovative “green” technologies and scrutinize companies’ transition plans. Activists are targeting boards whose decisions appear too timid or insufficiently explained. Consumers and employees are incorporating companies sustainability credentials in their purchasing and employment decisions. These actors are asking companies for better information, higher quality reports, and granular data. In response, companies are producing lengthy sustainability reports, adopting ambitious purpose statements, and touting their sustainability credentials. Understandably, concerns about greenwashing and accountability abound, and policymakers are preparing for action.

In this …


Stakeholder Governance On The Ground (And In The Sky), Stephen Johnson, Frank Partnoy 2024 Seattle University School of Law

Stakeholder Governance On The Ground (And In The Sky), Stephen Johnson, Frank Partnoy

Seattle University Law Review

Professor Frank Partnoy: This is a marvelous gathering, and it is all due to Chuck O’Kelley and the special gentleness, openness, and creativity that he brings to this symposium. For more than a decade, he has been open to new and creative ways to discuss important issues surrounding business law and Adolf Berle’s legacy. We also are grateful to Dorothy Lund for co-organizing this gathering.

In introducing Stephen Johnson, I am reminded of a previous Berle, where Chuck allowed me some time to present the initial thoughts that led to my book, WAIT: The Art and Science of Delay. Part …


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