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The Doctrinal Toll Of "Information As Speech", Kyle Langvardt 2015 University of Detroit Mercy School of Law

The Doctrinal Toll Of "Information As Speech", Kyle Langvardt

Kyle Langvardt

The courts over the past two decades have reached a near-consensus that computer code, along with virtually every flow of data on the Internet, is “speech” for First Amendment purposes. Today, newer information technologies such as 3D printing, synthetic biology, and digital currencies promise to remake whole other spheres of non-expressive economic activity in the Internet's image. The rush to claim First Amendment protections for these non-expressive but code-dependent technologies has already begun with a lawsuit claiming First Amendment privileges for the Internet distribution of 3D-printable guns. Many similar suits will surely follow, all pursuing the common dream of ...


The High Price Of Poverty: A Study Of How The Majority Of Current Court System Procedures For Collecting Court Costs And Fees, As Well As Fines, Have Failed To Adhere To Established Precedent And The Constitutional Guarantees They Advocate., Trevor J. Calligan 2015 St. Mary's School of Law, Texas

The High Price Of Poverty: A Study Of How The Majority Of Current Court System Procedures For Collecting Court Costs And Fees, As Well As Fines, Have Failed To Adhere To Established Precedent And The Constitutional Guarantees They Advocate., Trevor J. Calligan

Trevor J Calligan

No abstract provided.


Keeping Pace: The U.S. Supreme Court And Evolving Technology, Brian Thomas 2015 Ursinus College

Keeping Pace: The U.S. Supreme Court And Evolving Technology, Brian Thomas

Politics Summer Fellows

Contemporary mainstream discussions of the Supreme Court are often qualified with the warning that the nine justices are out of touch with everyday American life, especially when it comes to the newest and most popular technologies. For instance, during oral argument for City of Ontario v. Quon, a 2010 case that dealt with sexting on government-issued devices, Chief Justice John Roberts famously asked what the difference was “between email and a pager,” and Justice Antonin Scalia wondered if the “spicy little conversations” held via text message could be printed and distributed. While these comments have garnered a great deal of ...


Rethinking The Context Of Hate Speech Regulation, Robert Kahn 2015 University of St. Thomas School of Law

Rethinking The Context Of Hate Speech Regulation, Robert Kahn

Robert Kahn

In this essay I review Michael Herz and Peter Molnar (eds.) The Content and Context of Hate Speech: Rethinking Regulation and Responses (Cambridge University Press 2012). As I show in the review, the Herz and Molnar volume advances our understanding of comparative hate speech regulation in three ways. First, the essays suggest that local context has a role to play in understanding, assessing, and applying hate speech regulations, even in an age when online hate speech is pressuring states and regions to reach common solutions to these problems. Second, the essays rebut the commonly held premise that the United States ...


Charting The Course For Use Of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems In Newsgathering, Mickey H. Osterreicher 2015 Pepperdine University

Charting The Course For Use Of Small Unmanned Aerial Systems In Newsgathering, Mickey H. Osterreicher

Pepperdine Law Review

News organizations and individual journalists eagerly anticipate safely utilizing Small Unmanned Aerial Systems (sUAS) for newsgathering purposes as lawmakers integrate sUAS into the National Air Space (NAS). For now, these potential users may be flying over an "unchartered" regulatory landscape while the FAA struggles to complete its administrative rulemaking. In order to better understand how media organizations and individual journalists intend to use sUAS for newsgathering purposes, the National Press Photographers Association (NPPA) developed a survey consisting of twenty-one multiple choice questions, with space for elaboration, and three questions seeking narrative responses. The survey was distributed via email to approximately ...


First Amendment Cosmopolitanism, Skepticism, And Democracy, Timothy Zick 2015 William & Mary Law School

First Amendment Cosmopolitanism, Skepticism, And Democracy, Timothy Zick

Faculty Publications

This is a response to Professor Ronald J. Krotoszynski, Jr.’s review of my book, The Cosmopolitan First Amendment: Protecting Transborder Expressive and Religious Liberties (Cambridge University Press, 2014). The response explains the basic principles of First Amendment cosmopolitanism and highlights the importance of the First Amendment’s transborder dimension. It also responds to skeptical and critical reactions to some of the book’s arguments. Finally, the response elaborates on First Amendment cosmopolitanism’s relationship to democratic values.


Out Of Balance: Wrong Turns In Public Employee Speech Law, Michael Toth 2015 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Out Of Balance: Wrong Turns In Public Employee Speech Law, Michael Toth

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Although scholars offer a variety of explanations for the modern Supreme Court’s public employee speech jurisprudence, they share a common presumption. According to the standard account, the modern era of public employee free speech law began in 1968, with the Court’s adoption of a balancing test in Pickering v. Board of Education. Contrary to this view, this Article argues that Pickering balancing is better characterized as a relic from a bygone era rather than the start of a new one. Balancing was once the Court’s standard method of judging First Amendment claims. When Pickering was decided, however ...


What The Frack? How Weak Industrial Disclosure Rules Prevent Public Understanding Of Chemical Practices And Toxic Politics, Benjamin W. Cramer 2015 Pennsylvania State University

What The Frack? How Weak Industrial Disclosure Rules Prevent Public Understanding Of Chemical Practices And Toxic Politics, Benjamin W. Cramer

Benjamin W. Cramer

Hydraulic fracturing, known colloquially as “fracking,” makes use of chemically-formulated fluid that is forced down a gas well at great pressure to fracture underground rock formations and release embedded natural gas. Many journalists, environmentalists, and public health advocates are concerned about what may happen if the fracking fluid escapes the well and contaminates nearby drinking water supplies. This article attempts a comprehensive analysis and comparison of all relevant fracking fluid disclosure regulations currently extant in the United States, and considers whether the information gained is truly useful for citizens, journalists, and regulators. In recent years the federal government and several ...


House Of Cards: How Rediscovering Republicanism Brings It Crashing Down, Jonathan E. Maddison 2015 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

House Of Cards: How Rediscovering Republicanism Brings It Crashing Down, Jonathan E. Maddison

Catholic University Law Review

Using Frank Underwood’s maniacal political journey in the Netflix series House of Cards as an example of what is wrong with American politics, this article argues that the Supreme Court’s misapplication of First Amendment principles in Citizens United and other key campaign finance cases plays a large and problematic role. Providing an extensive historical overview of republicanism and First Amendment jurisprudence, this article suggests that a return to republican ideals, while not perfect, is both the solution and proper tool of analysis to be used by the Supreme Court for campaign finance cases and beyond.


Here We Are Now, Entertain Us: Defining The Line Between Personal And Professional Context On Social Media, Raizel Liebler, Keidra Chaney 2015 John Marshall Law School

Here We Are Now, Entertain Us: Defining The Line Between Personal And Professional Context On Social Media, Raizel Liebler, Keidra Chaney

Pace Law Review

Social media platforms such as Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram allow individuals and companies to connect directly and regularly with an audience of peers or with the public at large. These websites combine the audience-building platforms of mass media with the personal data and relationships of in-person social networks. Due to a combination of evolving user activity and frequent updates to functionality and user features, social media tools blur the line of whether a speaker is perceived as speaking to a specific and presumed private audience, a public expression of one’s own personal views, or a representative viewpoint of an ...


Social Media Thoughtcrimes, Daniel S. Harawa 2015 Pace University

Social Media Thoughtcrimes, Daniel S. Harawa

Pace Law Review

As people live out their lives online, what is protected expression and what is criminal speech? This article begins to explore this fine distinction, and advocates for a shift in the way online speech is protected vis-à-vis the First Amendment. Part I provides examples of criminalized social media activity and explores why people seemingly treat online speech as private communications. Part II looks at existing jurisprudence regarding the criminalization of speech and First Amendment protections. And Part III attempts to determine where to draw the line by advocating for a return to simpler times in First Amendment jurisprudence.


The Constitution And Revenge Porn, John A. Humbach 2015 Pace University School of Law

The Constitution And Revenge Porn, John A. Humbach

Pace Law Review

While the Supreme Court has recognized a number of circumstances that justify government impingements on free expression, the Court has been extremely reluctant to permit speech restrictions that discriminate based on a message’s content, its viewpoint, or the speaker. It has nearly always refused to tolerate such discrimination unless the case falls within one of the several historically established exceptions to First Amendment protection. Because of the special place that the modern First Amendment cases accord to content discrimination (and the allied discriminations based on viewpoint and speaker), any statutes designed specifically to outlaw revenge porn as such would ...


Social Justice, Social Norms And The Governance Of Social Media, Tal Z. Zarsky 2015 University of Haifa, Faculty of Law

Social Justice, Social Norms And The Governance Of Social Media, Tal Z. Zarsky

Pace Law Review

This article proceeds as follows: Part II briefly addresses the theoretical arguments regarding the pros and cons of various governance strategies, focusing on the advantages, disadvantages and pitfalls of reliance on private parties. In Part III, the article describes, in general terms, the above-mentioned empirical study, explaining its methodology, the specific challenges to its design and implementation, and how these were met. The discussion specifically centers on a survey taken to establish the nature of social norms. Part IV presents a specific test case: whether pseudonymity should be permitted in social media or should “real names” be mandatory. Part V ...


Tinkering With Success: College Athletes, Social Media And The First Amendment, Meg Penrose 2015 Texas A&M University School of Law

Tinkering With Success: College Athletes, Social Media And The First Amendment, Meg Penrose

Pace Law Review

Good law does not always make good policy. This article seeks to provide a legal assessment, not a policy directive. The policy choices made by individual institutions and athletic departments should be guided by law, but absolutely left to institutional discretion. Many articles written on college student-athletes’ social media usage attempt to urge policy directives clothed in constitutional analysis.

In this author’s opinion, these articles have lost perspective – constitutional perspective. This article seeks primarily to provide a legal and constitutional assessment so that schools and their athletic departments will have ample information to then make their own policy choices.


Abuse And Harassment Diminish Free Speech, Anita Bernstein 2015 Brooklyn Law School

Abuse And Harassment Diminish Free Speech, Anita Bernstein

Pace Law Review

Owen Fiss focused on “the robustness of public debate” to conclude on his last page: “The autonomy protected by the First Amendment and rightly enjoyed by individuals and the press is not an end in itself, as it might be in some moral code, but is rather a means to further the democratic values underlying the Bill of Rights.”

This article embraces the same values but more conservatively. Whereas Fiss defended state-sponsored coercion, I leave the government mostly outside the descriptions and arguments presented here. Scholars have sought to apply the law—of crimes, torts, intellectual property, and statutory allotments ...


Lane V. Franks: The Supreme Court Clarifies Public Employees’ Free Speech Rights, Thomas A. Schweitzer 2015 Touro Law Center

Lane V. Franks: The Supreme Court Clarifies Public Employees’ Free Speech Rights, Thomas A. Schweitzer

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Tyranny Of The Arrogant, Ignorant And Intolerant: The Liberal Movement To Undermine Free Speech, Hon. Loretta A. Preska 2015 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Tyranny Of The Arrogant, Ignorant And Intolerant: The Liberal Movement To Undermine Free Speech, Hon. Loretta A. Preska

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Five Justices Have Transformed The First Amendment’S Freedom Of Religion To Freedom From Religion, Gerald Walpin 2015 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Five Justices Have Transformed The First Amendment’S Freedom Of Religion To Freedom From Religion, Gerald Walpin

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Compromising Equality: An Analysis Of The Religious Exemption In The Employment Non-Discrimination Act And Its Impact On Lgbt Workers, Erik S. Thompson 2015 Boston College Law School

Compromising Equality: An Analysis Of The Religious Exemption In The Employment Non-Discrimination Act And Its Impact On Lgbt Workers, Erik S. Thompson

Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice

On November 7, 2013, the U.S. Senate passed the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (“2013 ENDA”), a bill that attempted to incorporate both sexual orientation and gender identity as protected classes under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The 2013 ENDA was an important initiative that addressed a long history of employment discrimination against gay, lesbian, bisexual, and transgendered employees. The bill, however, provided a broad exemption for religiously affiliated organizations operating in secular fields. This religious exemption excluded a significant number of organizations hiring secular-in-function employees from the bill’s prohibition of discriminatory practices. Although Congress dismissed ...


Return Fire: An En Banc Hearing In Wollschlaeger V. Governor Of Florida Is Necessary To Protect The First Amendment Rights Of Physicians, Erika Manderscheid 2015 Boston College Law School

Return Fire: An En Banc Hearing In Wollschlaeger V. Governor Of Florida Is Necessary To Protect The First Amendment Rights Of Physicians, Erika Manderscheid

Boston College Law Review

In 2014, in Wollschlaeger v. Governor of Florida, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit held that a Florida ban on physician speech about firearm ownership was a valid regulation of professional conduct. The court reasoned that because the speech took place within the physician-patient relationship it should be treated as professional conduct that may be regulated by the state and not subject to First Amendment scrutiny. This Comment argues that the Eleventh Circuit mischaracterized the speech as conduct and that an en banc hearing should be granted to reverse this decision to avoid a negative impact ...


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