The Reentry Of Young Offenders: A Look At Successful Reintegration, 2014 McMaster University
The Reentry Of Young Offenders: A Look At Successful Reintegration, Samantha Bellmore
Open Access Dissertations and Theses
This qualitative study looks at the experiences of youth reentering their communities after serving a custodial sentence. Interviews were conducted from the perspectives of five key informants, including youth counselors and probation officers. Based on these conversations, the nuances of youth reentry were explored in-depth. These pages contain personal stories regarding the successes and challenges that come with reentry and reentry programming. Based on the findings and relevant literature, recommendations and suggestions on how to improve reentry are made. Further, in contrast to dominant recidivism-based understandings of success, this study promotes a more holistic understanding of successful reentry outcomes.
Magnifying Deterrence By Prosecuting Professionals, 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University
Magnifying Deterrence By Prosecuting Professionals, Scott Schumacher
Indiana Law Journal
This Article examines the recent series of criminal prosecutions against tax professionals and offshore bankers. These criminal cases, brought against the largest Swiss bank (UBS), the oldest Swiss bank (Wegelin), one of the largest accounting firms in the world (KPMG), as well as numerous lawyers and accountants, represent a dramatic shift for the U.S. Department of Justice. After decades of tolerating abusive tax shelters and tax haven banks, the government changed its policy. However, rather than indicting the individuals and corporations who invested in tax shelters or hid money in offshore accounts, the Justice Department indicted the lawyers, accountants ...
A Survey Of State Fetal Homicide Laws And Their Potential Applicability To Pregnant Women Who Harm Their Own Fetuses, 2014 Maurer School of Law: Indiana University
A Survey Of State Fetal Homicide Laws And Their Potential Applicability To Pregnant Women Who Harm Their Own Fetuses, Andrew S. Murphy
Indiana Law Journal
A discussion of the recent case in which a pregnant Indiana woman named Bei Bei Shuai was prosecuted for fetal homicide following a failed suicide attempt and later miscarriage. The Comment uses this case as a comparison point for different cases and statutes in all fifty states and suggests possible principles for a more unified doctrine and approach.
The New Policing Of Business Crime, 2014 Seattle University School of Law
The New Policing Of Business Crime, Rachel E. Barkow
Seattle University Law Review
The central goal of this Article is to describe the burgeoning turn to new policing techniques in the business crime context and to offer some initial thoughts on the promises and limits of the approach. Part II begins by explaining the traditional or “old policing” of business crime. After implementing an initial strategy that focused on pursuing individuals, the government turned its attention to the organizations where those individuals operated. It increased the sanctions for violators and sought to target companies in an effort to prompt them to adopt internal compliance pro-grams. The focus on company compliance programs was designed ...
Deferred Prosecutions In The Corporate Sector: Lessons From Libor, 2014 Seattle University School of Law
Deferred Prosecutions In The Corporate Sector: Lessons From Libor, Justin O'Brien, Olivia Dixon
Seattle University Law Review
Since 2008, the global economic downturn has significantly in-creased operating pressures on major corporations. Additionally, there has been a corresponding increase in corporate tolerance for corruption, which has coincided with a marked preference by regulators in settling, rather than litigating, enforcement actions. This Article argues that the expansion of prosecutorial authority without appropriate accountability restraints is a major tactical and strategic error. It evaluates whether the mechanism can be made subject to effective oversight. It argues that the current frame-work in the United States is highly problematic, leading to settlements that generate newspaper headlines but not necessarily cultural change. It ...
The Communication Decency Act Gone Wild: A Case For Renewing The Presumption Against Preemption, 2014 Seattle University School of Law
The Communication Decency Act Gone Wild: A Case For Renewing The Presumption Against Preemption, Ryan J.P. Dyer
Seattle University Law Review
Since its inception, the Internet has disseminated the most vital commodity known to man—information. But not all information is societally desirable. In fact, much of what the Internet serves to disseminate is demonstrably criminal. Nevertheless, in the effort to unbind the “vibrant and competitive free market” of ideas on the Internet, Congress enacted section 230 of the Communications Decency Act, which essentially grants immunity to interactive computer service providers from liability for information provided by a third party. This Comment suggests that, in certain contexts, courts applying section 230 immunity should reexamine the preemptive effect Congress intended section 230 ...
Infusing The Meaning Of “Cruel And Unusual” Through The Digital Public Sphere: How The Internet Can Change The Debate On The Morality Of Capital Punishment, Adam A. Marshall
Adam A Marshall
In this paper, I suggest new strategies that abolitionists should adopt in the debate over the morality of the death penalty. As the Eighth Amendment “draw[s] its meaning from the evolving standards of decency that mark the progress of a maturing society”, advocates for abolishing the death penalty should develop strategies based on the moral theories of Adam Smith to leverage the power of the internet and ensure all citizens feel the effects of the death penalty in order to stimulate debate over its morality. By examining these concepts through the case of Troy Davis, we can see how ...
Solving Batson, 2014 SelectedWorks
Solving Batson, Tania Tetlow
The Supreme Court faced an important ideological choice when it banned the racial use of peremptory challenges in Batson v. Kentucky. It could either ground the rule in equality rights designed to protect potential jurors from stereotyping, or it could base the rule on the defendant’s Sixth Amendment right to an “impartial jury” drawn from a fair cross-section of the community. By choosing Equal Protection analysis, the Court turned away from the defendant and the fair functioning of the criminal justice system and instead focused on protecting potential jurors. The Court thus built fatal error into the Batson rule ...
You Booze, You Bruise, You Lose: Analyzing The Constitutionality Of Florida’S Involuntary Blood Draw Statute In The Wake Of Missouri V. Mcneely, Francisco D. Zornosa
Francisco D Zornosa
No abstract provided.
Rationality, Insanity, And The Insanity Defense: Reflections On The Limits Of Reason, Theodore Y. Blumoff
Theodore Y. Blumoff
Individuals who suffer from chronic paranoid ideations live with deeply embedded conspiratorial delusions that are sometimes accompanied by unwanted visual and/or auditory stimuli, sometime neither: just psychotic delusions in which they feel as if they have lost control of their lives – and of course they have, albeit not from the performances of foreign forces. When those perceived forces persevere for even a fairly short period of time, they can dictate the performance of evil deeds that the individual ultimately feels helpless to oppose. What observations and findings from neuroscience make clear is that such individuals do not lack knowledge ...
Finding The Foregone Conclusions Of Encryption, 2014 SelectedWorks
Finding The Foregone Conclusions Of Encryption, Timothy A. Wiseman
Timothy A Wiseman
Encryption is commonly used to protect private information, for both legitimate and illegitimate reasons. Courts have been struggling to determine when, within the bounds of the Fourth and Fifth Amendments, the Courts may compel a defendant in a criminal case to decrypt their data.
This article argues that a broad use of the Forgone Conclusion doctrine would permit the Courts to order a defendant to decrypt their data when the prosecution can show with reasonable particularity the existence and location of the encrypted documents, that they are likely to be incriminating, and that the government can authenticate them without the ...
What Is An Accident?, 2014 SelectedWorks
What Is An Accident?, Daniel B. Yeager
daniel b yeager
Please consider for publication my attached 5000-word, 28-page, lightly annotated (39 footnotes) Essay, entitled “What Is an Accident?”
Here I attempt to decode the most frequently proferred excuse in and out of law. Surprisingly, as central as accidents are to questions of responsibility, their criteria have received almost no attention at all. From what I can tell, mine is the first sustained attempt to identify the grammar of accidents, an endeavor that follows up on similar efforts to do the same with the excuse of mistake in my book J.L. Austin and the Law: Exculpation and the Explication of ...
Willful Ignorance, Culpability And The Criminal Law, Alexander F. Sarch
University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series
When conviction of a given crime requires knowledge of some fact, courts commonly allow the defendant’s willful ignorance to satisfy this knowledge requirement. However, because most agree that willful ignorance is not actually a form of knowledge, the practice of allowing willful ignorance to substitute for knowledge calls out for justification. Why is it that some willfully ignorant defendants may be treated as if they possessed knowledge—even when they in fact did not? The traditional answer relies on the so-called “equal culpability thesis,” which provides that willful ignorance is just as culpable as knowing misconduct.
However, the equal ...
Furtive Encryption: Power, Trust, And The Constitutional Cost Of Collective Surveillance, Jeffrey L. Vagle
Jeffrey L Vagle
Recent revelations of heretofore secret U.S. government surveillance programs have sparked national conversations about their constitutionality and the delicate balance between security and civil liberties in a constitutional democracy. Among the revealed policies asserted by the National Security Agency (NSA) is a provision found in the “minimization procedures” required under Section 702 of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act of 1978. This provision allows the NSA to collect and keep indefinitely any encrypted information collected from domestic communications—including the communications of U.S. citizens. That is, according to the U.S. government, the mere fact that a U.S ...
Back To The Future: The Constitution Requires Reasonableness And Particularity—Introducing The “Seize But Don’T Search” Doctrine, Adam Lamparello, Charles E. Maclean
Issuing one-hundred or fewer opinions per year, the United States Supreme Court cannot keep pace with opinions that match technological advancement. As a result, in Riley v. California and United States v. Wurie, the Court needs to announce a broader principle that protects privacy in the digital age. That principle, what we call “seize but don’t search,” recognizes that the constitutional touchstone for all searches is reasonableness.
When do present-day circumstances—the evolution in the Government’s surveillance capabilities, citizens’ phone habits, and the relationship between the NSA and telecom companies—become so thoroughly unlike those considered by the ...
Criminal Innovation And The Warrant Requirement: Reconsidering The Rights-Police Efficiency Trade-Off, Tonja Jacobi, Jonah Kind
It is routinely assumed that there is a trade-off between police efficiency and the warrant requirement. But existing analysis ignores the interaction between police investigative practices and criminal innovation. Narrowing the definition of a search or otherwise limiting the requirement for a warrant gives criminals greater incentive to innovate to avoid detection. With limited police resources to develop countermeasures, police will often be just as effective at capturing criminals when facing higher Fourth Amendment hurdles. We provide a game theoretic model that shows that when police investigation and criminal innovation are considered in a dynamic context, the police efficiency rationale ...
Crossing The Fault Line In Corporate Criminal Law, 2014 University of Pennsylvania
Crossing The Fault Line In Corporate Criminal Law, Amy Sepinwall
Amy J. Sepinwall
Why is it that so few bankers have been prosecuted and punished in the wake of the financial meltdown? Pundits are quick to point to inadequate funding for addressing financial crime or, more cynically, the revolving door between government regulatory agencies and Wall Street. But the ultimate answer may be at once more banal and more dispiriting, lying as it does at the very foundations of our criminal law.
The conception of responsibility underpinning much of our criminal law contemplates the individual in isolation from others. As a result, our criminal law has tremendous difficulty tracking culpability in organizational contexts ...
Constructing Autonomy: A Kantian Framework, 2014 SelectedWorks
Constructing Autonomy: A Kantian Framework, Bailey H. Kuklin
Bailey H. Kuklin
No abstract provided.
Bounties For Bad Behavior: Rewarding Culpable Whistleblowers Under The Dodd-Frank Act And Internal Revenue Code, Jennifer M. Pacella
Jennifer M. Pacella, Esq.
In 2012, Bradley Birkenfeld received a $104 million reward or “bounty” from the Internal Revenue Service (“IRS”) for blowing the whistle on his employer, UBS, which facilitated a major offshore tax fraud scheme by assisting thousands of U.S. taxpayers to hide their assets in Switzerland. Birkenfeld does not fit the mold of the public’s common perception of a whistleblower. He was himself complicit in this crime and even served time in prison for his involvement. Despite his conviction, Birkenfeld was still eligible for a sizable whistleblower bounty under the IRS Whistleblower Program, which allows rewards for whistleblowers who ...
Cohabiting With The Accused: The Formal Limits Of Spousal Privilege Affirmed In Van Der Heijden V. Netherlands, 2014 Boston College Law School
Cohabiting With The Accused: The Formal Limits Of Spousal Privilege Affirmed In Van Der Heijden V. Netherlands, Shae Fitzpatrick
Boston College International and Comparative Law Review
In the wake of Europe’s evolving social landscape of family life, the European Court of Human Rights’ (ECtHR) decision in Van der Heijden v. Netherlands sheds light on the scope of spousal privilege. The ECtHR found that the Netherlands’ interference in Van der Heijden’s nontraditional family life did not violate her Article 8 right guaranteed by the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms . In its decision, the ECtHR upheld the formal limits of Dutch spousal privilege even though it did not protect Van der Heijden in her de facto relationship with the accused. Despite ...