In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, 2016 Streetwise and Safe
In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, Brendan M. Conner Esq.
Brendan M. Conner
The accompanying Article provides the first critical analysis of safe harbor laws, which rely on custodial arrests to prosecute or divert youth arrested for or charged with prostitution related offenses under criminal or juvenile codes to court supervision under state child welfare, foster care, or dependency statutes. This subject is a matter of intense debate nationwide, and on January 27, 2015 the House of Representatives passed legislation that would give preferential consideration for federal grants to states that have enacted a law that “discourages the charging or prosecution” of a trafficked minor and encourages court-ordered treatment and institutionalization. Nearly universally ...
Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, And The Fourth Amendment, 2016 Elon University School of Law
Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, And The Fourth Amendment, Michael L. Rich
Michael L Rich
At the conceptual intersection of machine learning and government data collection lie Automated Suspicion Algorithms, or ASAs, algorithms created through the application of machine learning methods to collections of government data with the purpose of identifying individuals likely to be engaged in criminal activity. The novel promise of ASAs is that they can identify data-supported correlations between innocent conduct and criminal activity and help police prevent crime. ASAs present a novel doctrinal challenge, as well, as they intrude on a step of the Fourth Amendment’s individualized suspicion analysis previously the sole province of human actors: the determination of when ...
The Judge Looked At The Consolidation Of Law And The Rights Of Criminal Policy Approach, Ali Reza Najariyan, Saeed Kharadmandi, Ali Asghar Azami, Kheyri Khazayi
ali reza najariyan
Criminal proceedings and the hostility of certain powers and procedures of the judicial system is particularly influenced by the classical justice system but now the interaction criminology in previous "posteriori" of the criminal's policy Legislative broad "Dlmas Marty" in comparison with the policy of criminal narrow "Feuerbach" in criminal purposes has portrayed legislative. the aim of the answers is "Sociality" participatory " de-Ironically " and consequently the " de prison " the criminal justice system although we have focused in this paper on their Muslim criminal policy, criminal policies of the Western model of a plurality of criminal policy in terms of the ...
Privately Failing: Recidivism In Public And Private Prisons, 2015 Willamette University
Privately Failing: Recidivism In Public And Private Prisons, Lee N. Gilgan
Lee N Gilgan
This study would add to available research regarding recidivism rates following incarceration in private prisons in contrast to incarceration in government-run prisons. This is a non-experimental meta-analysis viewing numerous studies discussing the effects of multiple covariants within public and private prisons. Based on the information and conclusion in these studies, we find that there is little overall consensus concerning the effects of increased privatization on recidivism. While many studies find certain aspects of privatization to have some potential effect on recidivism, there are many other aspects that either are out of scope or have a negative effect on recidivism. However ...
Holistic Pregnancy: Rejecting The Theory Of The Adversarial Mother, 2015 Duquesne University School of Law
Holistic Pregnancy: Rejecting The Theory Of The Adversarial Mother, Rona Kaufman Kitchen
Rona Kaufman Kitchen
In its zealous effort to protect the lives and health of unborn children, the law frequently views the expecting mother with suspicion. In its most extreme form, the law regards the potential mother as a potential murderess. This perspective does not reflect the nature of pregnancy, it undermines the autonomy of loving mothers, and it is detrimental to children. Regardless of whether there is any conflict between mother and fetus, the State presumes the mother to be a threat to her fetus and subjugates her rights as a result. The State interferes with the mother’s autonomy, bodily integrity, parental ...
42. Stolzenberg, S.N., & Lyon., T.D. (In Press). Repeated Self And Peer-Review Leads To Continuous Improvement In Child Interviewing Performance. Journal Of Forensic Social Work., 2015 University of Southern California
42. Stolzenberg, S.N., & Lyon., T.D. (In Press). Repeated Self And Peer-Review Leads To Continuous Improvement In Child Interviewing Performance. Journal Of Forensic Social Work., Thomas D. Lyon
Thomas D. Lyon
The present study examined whether a training model that focuses on consistent exposure to protocol procedure, self-evaluation, and intensive peer-review sessions could improve interviewers’ ability to adhere to best practices. Law students (N = 19) interviewed 5- to 10-year-old children on a weekly basis as part of a semester-long forensic child interviewing class. They transcribed their interviews, and participated in one-hour self and peer-reviews. The proportion of each question type was calculated (option-posing, Wh-, and open-invitations) within each interview for each interviewer. Across ten weeks of interviews, interviewers consistently improved their performance, decreasing the proportion of option-posing questions by 31% and ...
Reflexiones Con Respecto Al Equilibrio De Poderes Y Los Procesos Contra Aforados.®, Daniel Fernando Gomez Tamayo
Daniel Fernando Gómez Tamayo
La Fiscalía y el FBI creen que tienen el poder de interrogar e investigar a cualquier persona. Lo cierto es que los funcionarios públicos tienen límites constitucionales y no pueden desconocer los derechos y las libertades civiles reconocidos por los precedentes de la Altas Cortes. Pero, ¿quién investiga el abuso del poder de los forenses infiltrados en prensa, radio, noticieros, en el sector privado y en el sector público? ¿Quién investiga a los hijos de Álvaro Uribe Velez por las supuestas irregularidades publicadas en los mass media?
Babies Behind Bars: An Evaluation Of Prison Nurseries In American Female Prisons And Their Potential Constitutional Challenges, 2015 Pace University School of Law
Babies Behind Bars: An Evaluation Of Prison Nurseries In American Female Prisons And Their Potential Constitutional Challenges, Seham Elmalak
Pace Law Review
This note opens the prison doors and delves into the United States female prison system, primarily focusing on the positive and negative impact of nursery programs on mothers and children, along with potential constitutional claims that can be brought against these programs. Part I provides a general background about the American prison system, and briefly touches on the constitutional standards of prisoners’ rights. It also discusses the history and development of female prisons and illustrates the rapid increase of female incarceration. Part II focuses on the prevalence of mothers within the female population in prisons. Part III introduces prison nursery ...
When Are The People Ready? The Interplay Between Facial Sufficiency And Readiness Under Cpl Section 30.30, John H. Wilson
Pace Law Review
In this article, we will explore the intersecting concepts of conversion, facial sufficiency, and readiness. As we shall see, readiness for trial does not necessarily follow from the conversion of a complaint and dismissal on CPL section 30.30 grounds does not necessarily follow from a finding of facial insufficiency.
Re-Defining The Concept Of Mens Rea: A Challenge To The Common Approaches Employed Under Islamic Jurisprudence And Statute Law, 2015 Islamic Azad University Maragheh
Re-Defining The Concept Of Mens Rea: A Challenge To The Common Approaches Employed Under Islamic Jurisprudence And Statute Law, Fatemeh Ahadi
In the present paper the traditional and customary perspectives on the concept of Mens Rea are challenged and a new definition of the same is put forward. The challenge is based on the idea that the concepts in criminal law need evolution in order to keep their function and practicality. Such an evolution demands such a condition wherein, while granting the characteristics of adaptability with the contextual conditions and principles of criminal law, the maintenance of the same is ensured. The mens rea is customarily defined as ‘culpable state of mind of the accused when committing an offence under criminal ...
Should Mere Direct Participation In Hostilities Be Treated As A War Crime?, Andrea Harrison
This article attempts to argue that acts that constitute mere direct participation in hostilities during armed conflict should not be treated as war crimes, but rather should be criminalized domestically, or addressed through amnesties when appropriate. In order to support this argument, the author looks at both International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and International Criminal Law (ICL) and their respective treatment of direct participation in hostilities. The author then examines offenses within the 2009 Military Commissions Act which would normally be deemed as mere participation in hostilities and compares these to offenses normally found under international law. Finally, the author explains ...
United States V. Mobley: Another Failure In Crime Of Violence Analysis, 2015 University of Akron
United States V. Mobley: Another Failure In Crime Of Violence Analysis, Samantha Rutsky
Akron Law Review
No abstract provided.
Mirandizing Terrorism Suspects? The Public Safety Exception, The Rescue Doctrine, And Implicit Analogies To Self-Defense, Defense Of Others, And Battered Woman Syndrome, 2015 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law
Mirandizing Terrorism Suspects? The Public Safety Exception, The Rescue Doctrine, And Implicit Analogies To Self-Defense, Defense Of Others, And Battered Woman Syndrome, Bruce Ching
Catholic University Law Review
In its 1984 decision New York v. Quarles, the Supreme Court announced the public safety exception, under which statements made by un-Mirandized suspects can be admissible when made in response to questions reasonably asked to protect the safety of the arresting officers or the general public. During the investigation of terrorism cases, law enforcement agencies have begun to extend the time of un-Mirandized questioning of suspects, with the hope that courts will find that the public safety exception makes the suspects’ statements admissible in the ensuing prosecutions.
This Article argues that in announcing the public safety exception, the ...
Inmates’ E-Mails With Their Attorneys: Off-Limits For The Government?, 2015 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law
Inmates’ E-Mails With Their Attorneys: Off-Limits For The Government?, Amelia H. Barry
Catholic University Law Review
The attorney-client privilege is vital to inmates who otherwise have limited opportunities for private communications in prison. Traditionally, inmates have only been able to communicate with their attorneys via in-person visits, phone calls, and mailed letters. As federal inmates have begun using e-mail to converse with their attorneys, courts have had to determine if these conversations are protected by the attorney-client privilege. This Comment discusses courts’ approaches to this question, many of which have found that inmates’ e-mail communications with their attorneys are not privileged because by using the federal prison e-mail system, which warns users that conversations can be ...
Tasers Kill: Electroshock Injustice In Athens-Clarke County, Part 3, 2015 University of Georgia School of Law
Tasers Kill: Electroshock Injustice In Athens-Clarke County, Part 3, Donald E. Wilkes Jr.
The Athens-Clarke County Police Department’s campaign to popularize its decision to begin using taser electroshock weapons on the local citizenry must be recognized for what it is—a public-relations crusade based on clever misrepresentations and shifty evasions, as well as outright denials of fact. This articles reviews the the concerns about implementing tasers in Athens.
A Dangerous Situation – The Knowing Transmission Of Hiv In An Out-Of-Body Form And Whether New York Should Criminally Punish Those Who Commit Such An Act, Griffin C. Kenyon
Pace Law Review
In June 2013 the New York State Court of Appeals held that the saliva of a defendant afflicted with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus ("HIV”) does not constitute a dangerous instrument so as to support a conviction for aggravated assault. Despite this holding, the question remains whether the administration of HIV in an out-of-body form to another individual qualifies for dangerous instrument treatment so as to subject greater criminal liability under the New York State Penal Law (“Penal Law”). Another question remains – should New York punish those who knowingly transmit HIV to another individual? If so, should the punishment be charged ...
Criminal Mind Or Inculpable Adolescence? A Glimpse At The History, Failures, And Required Changes Of The American Juvenile Correction System, 2015 Pace University School of Law
Criminal Mind Or Inculpable Adolescence? A Glimpse At The History, Failures, And Required Changes Of The American Juvenile Correction System, Christopher J. Menihan
Pace Law Review
This Comment provides an historical analysis of the principles, understandings and laws that have formed and altered the American juvenile correction system. Part I offers an historical synopsis of the societal understanding that juvenile offenders are less culpable than their adult counterparts and explains the process by which this concept came to permeate early American common law. By discussing the early nineteenth-century juvenile correction reformation movement and the cases that followed, Part I also illustrates the development and early failures of the American juvenile correction system. Part II explains the history of juvenile waiver laws, from their early presence in ...
Slaying The Dragon: How The Law Can Help Rehab A Country In Crisis, 2015 Pace University School of Law
Slaying The Dragon: How The Law Can Help Rehab A Country In Crisis, Samantha Kopf
Pace Law Review
Motor-vehicle-related deaths consistently topped the accidental death count in the United States for decades. In 2009, for the first time, drug poisoning took over as the number one accidental killer. In 1980, approximately 6,100 people died from drug overdose. In the past ten years, the drug overdose rate for males and females, regardless of race, ethnicity and age, increased. In 2000, 4.1 per 100,000 people died from unintentional drug overdose; in 2010, that number rose to 9.7 per 100,000. The drug overdose epidemic, now the leading cause of unintentional death in the United States, warrants ...
Rapid Dna Testing, 2015 Santa Barbara College of Law
Rapid Dna Testing, Robert M. Sanger
Robert M. Sanger
In 2010, the FBI began the process of encouraging the development of Rapid DNA testing. Rapid DNA testing involves a fully automated process of developing a “short tandem repeat” (STR) profile from a reference sample. The process consists of automated extraction, amplification, separation, detection and allele calling without human intervention. In other words, it is a quick, hands free method of obtaining a DNA profile.
In this article we will look at this new and expanding area of scientific technology. We will also look at the efforts to regulate it and maintain appropriate scientific standards as well as the issues ...
The 100-Plus Year Old Case For A Minimalist Criminal Law (Sketch Of A General Theory Of Substantive Criminal Law), Mike C. Materni
Mike C Materni
Criminal law defines the system of government of which it is the political expression; thus having a normative theory of substantive criminal law is paramount. U.S. criminal law has developed in the absence of such overarching theory, and is now plagued by overcriminalization. This article advances a model of a minimalist criminal law grounded on strong normative principles that are presented and defended not from the perspective of metaphysics or moral philosophy; but rather, in a historical and comparative perspective, as a matter of political choice. Core among those principles is the idea that in a liberal democracy the ...