In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, 2016 Streetwise and Safe
In Loco Aequitatis: The Dangers Of "Safe Harbor" Laws For Youth In The Sex Trades, Brendan M. Conner Esq.
Brendan M. Conner
The accompanying Article provides the first critical analysis of safe harbor laws, which rely on custodial arrests to prosecute or divert youth arrested for or charged with prostitution related offenses under criminal or juvenile codes to court supervision under state child welfare, foster care, or dependency statutes. This subject is a matter of intense debate nationwide, and on January 27, 2015 the House of Representatives passed legislation that would give preferential consideration for federal grants to states that have enacted a law that “discourages the charging or prosecution” of a trafficked minor and encourages court-ordered treatment and institutionalization. Nearly universally ...
Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, And The Fourth Amendment, 2016 Elon University School of Law
Machine Learning, Automated Suspicion Algorithms, And The Fourth Amendment, Michael L. Rich
Michael L Rich
At the conceptual intersection of machine learning and government data collection lie Automated Suspicion Algorithms, or ASAs, algorithms created through the application of machine learning methods to collections of government data with the purpose of identifying individuals likely to be engaged in criminal activity. The novel promise of ASAs is that they can identify data-supported correlations between innocent conduct and criminal activity and help police prevent crime. ASAs present a novel doctrinal challenge, as well, as they intrude on a step of the Fourth Amendment’s individualized suspicion analysis previously the sole province of human actors: the determination of when ...
The Judge Looked At The Consolidation Of Law And The Rights Of Criminal Policy Approach, Ali Reza Najariyan, Saeed Kharadmandi, Ali Asghar Azami, Kheyri Khazayi
ali reza najariyan
Criminal proceedings and the hostility of certain powers and procedures of the judicial system is particularly influenced by the classical justice system but now the interaction criminology in previous "posteriori" of the criminal's policy Legislative broad "Dlmas Marty" in comparison with the policy of criminal narrow "Feuerbach" in criminal purposes has portrayed legislative. the aim of the answers is "Sociality" participatory " de-Ironically " and consequently the " de prison " the criminal justice system although we have focused in this paper on their Muslim criminal policy, criminal policies of the Western model of a plurality of criminal policy in terms of the ...
Privately Failing: Recidivism In Public And Private Prisons, 2015 Willamette University
Privately Failing: Recidivism In Public And Private Prisons, Lee N. Gilgan
Lee N Gilgan
This study would add to available research regarding recidivism rates following incarceration in private prisons in contrast to incarceration in government-run prisons. This is a non-experimental meta-analysis viewing numerous studies discussing the effects of multiple covariants within public and private prisons. Based on the information and conclusion in these studies, we find that there is little overall consensus concerning the effects of increased privatization on recidivism. While many studies find certain aspects of privatization to have some potential effect on recidivism, there are many other aspects that either are out of scope or have a negative effect on recidivism. However ...
The 100-Plus Year Old Case For A Minimalist Criminal Law (Sketch Of A General Theory Of Substantive Criminal Law), Michele C. Materni
Mike C Materni
Criminal law defines the system of government of which it is the political expression; thus having a normative theory of substantive criminal law is paramount. U.S. criminal law has developed in the absence of such overarching theory, and is now plagued by overcriminalization. This article advances a model of a minimalist criminal law grounded on strong normative principles that are presented and defended not from the perspective of metaphysics or moral philosophy; but rather, in a historical and comparative perspective, as a matter of political choice. Core among those principles is the idea that in a liberal democracy the ...
Holistic Pregnancy: Rejecting The Theory Of The Adversarial Mother, 2015 Duquesne University School of Law
Holistic Pregnancy: Rejecting The Theory Of The Adversarial Mother, Rona Kaufman Kitchen
Rona Kaufman Kitchen
In its zealous effort to protect the lives and health of unborn children, the law frequently views the expecting mother with suspicion. In its most extreme form, the law regards the potential mother as a potential murderess. This perspective does not reflect the nature of pregnancy, it undermines the autonomy of loving mothers, and it is detrimental to children. Regardless of whether there is any conflict between mother and fetus, the State presumes the mother to be a threat to her fetus and subjugates her rights as a result. The State interferes with the mother’s autonomy, bodily integrity, parental ...
"Same Story Every Time / Being Black Is Not A Crime": Gun Regulations And Recurrent Patterns Of Government Control Of Black Americans In The Nineteenth And Twentieth Centuries, Joshua Kurzer Manson
Since the shooting death of Michael Brown in Ferguson, Missouri in August 2014, there has been a renewed national conversation on relations between law enforcement and communities of color. Subsequent shooting deaths of Black individuals, followed by grand jury non-indictments, have shifted the conversation to a systemic critique, revealing to some, and reminding others, of the deeply racialized nature of criminal justice in the United States. This thesis project is a work of American Political Development that analyzes the racialized developmental of the criminal justice system in the United States, providing context to the recent national conversation. Its purpose is ...
Criminal Responsibility For Arbitrators In Chinese Law: Perversion Of Law In Commercial Arbitration, 2015 Southwest University (China)
Criminal Responsibility For Arbitrators In Chinese Law: Perversion Of Law In Commercial Arbitration, Duan Xiaosong
Pace International Law Review
This article is prompted by a recent Chinese criminal provision governing the impartiality of arbitration. The goals of the article fare to critically examine the new criminal statute created by the provision and to put forward some proposals for reform, which could be employed to resolve the tension that exists between arbitrator impartiality and deference to arbitration. Although the new provision appears to eliminate the abuse of arbitral power, it may raise more questions than it resolves. This article explores the problems and undertakes a comparative analysis of the corresponding U.S. provision, as well as an analysis of some ...
Social Media Thoughtcrimes, 2015 Pace University
Social Media Thoughtcrimes, Daniel S. Harawa
Pace Law Review
As people live out their lives online, what is protected expression and what is criminal speech? This article begins to explore this fine distinction, and advocates for a shift in the way online speech is protected vis-à-vis the First Amendment. Part I provides examples of criminalized social media activity and explores why people seemingly treat online speech as private communications. Part II looks at existing jurisprudence regarding the criminalization of speech and First Amendment protections. And Part III attempts to determine where to draw the line by advocating for a return to simpler times in First Amendment jurisprudence.
Death By Bullying: A Comparative Culpability Proposal, 2015 Pace University School of Law
Death By Bullying: A Comparative Culpability Proposal, Audrey Rogers
Pace Law Review
This article explores the possibility and advisability of imposing homicide charges against bullies, a controversial approach because of the serious causation questions it poses. Nonetheless, there is precedent for holding a person criminally culpable for a victim’s suicide. A notorious case involved the head of the Ku Klux Klan who was convicted of murder after the woman he raped killed herself by swallowing poison, “distracted by pain and shame so inflicted upon her.” Some may see her shame as analogous to gay teens who commit suicide after being bullied about their sexual orientation. But perhaps the law should not ...
The Constitution And Revenge Porn, 2015 Pace University School of Law
The Constitution And Revenge Porn, John A. Humbach
Pace Law Review
While the Supreme Court has recognized a number of circumstances that justify government impingements on free expression, the Court has been extremely reluctant to permit speech restrictions that discriminate based on a message’s content, its viewpoint, or the speaker. It has nearly always refused to tolerate such discrimination unless the case falls within one of the several historically established exceptions to First Amendment protection. Because of the special place that the modern First Amendment cases accord to content discrimination (and the allied discriminations based on viewpoint and speaker), any statutes designed specifically to outlaw revenge porn as such would ...
The Challenges Of Preventing And Prosecuting Social Media Crimes, 2015 University of Dayton School of Law
The Challenges Of Preventing And Prosecuting Social Media Crimes, Thaddeus Hoffmeister
Pace Law Review
The adoption and use of social media by a broad spectrum of criminal defendants has raised some significant challenges for those tasked with crime prevention. This article will look at those challenges through the lens of three cases involving social media: United States v. Drew, United States v. Sayer, and United States v. Cassidy. However, prior to beginning that examination, this article will briefly discuss and categorize the various ways criminal defendants employ social media.
My Ears Hear More Than English: Granting Multilingual Jurors Accommodations And Treating Multilingualism As A Common Type Of Juror Expertise, A. Lee Valentine Ii
Boston College Law Review
To find an example of court-sanctioned discrimination against Spanish-speaking prospective jurors, one need not look further than the 2011 U.S. Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit decision in United States v. Cabrera-Beltran. Three multilingual jurors were struck for cause during voir dire for not agreeing to ignore all Spanish-language evidence that would be presented at trial and adhere solely to the English-language interpretation, even if they detected errors in the interpretation. Although these jurors could have been accommodated, the court upheld the decision to strike them. In other cases, jurors with other types of expertise typically have not ...
“Cracking” The Code: Interpreting Sentence Reduction Requirements In Favor Of Eligibility For Crack Cocaine Offenders Who Avoided A Mandatory Minimum For Their Substantial Assistance To Authorities, 2015 Boston College Law School
“Cracking” The Code: Interpreting Sentence Reduction Requirements In Favor Of Eligibility For Crack Cocaine Offenders Who Avoided A Mandatory Minimum For Their Substantial Assistance To Authorities, Catherine Divita
Boston College Law Review
In 2010, the Fair Sentencing Act (“FSA”) increased the quantities triggering mandatory minimums for crack cocaine offenses and directed the U.S. Sentencing Commission (“USSC”) to make similar reductions to the crack cocaine guideline ranges. After the USSC made these changes retroactive, offenders sentenced in accordance with the previous scheme sought sentence reductions. Due to the circuit courts’ differing interpretations of the eligibility requirements for a reduction, similarly situated offenders who avoided a mandatory minimum for performing substantial assistance to authorities have experienced different outcomes. This Note argues that courts should consistently hold such offenders eligible for retroactive sentencing reductions ...
Civil Asset Forfeiture In Massachusetts: A Flawed Incentive Structure And Its Impact On Indigent Property Owners, 2015 Boston College Law School
Civil Asset Forfeiture In Massachusetts: A Flawed Incentive Structure And Its Impact On Indigent Property Owners, Andrew Crawford
Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice
All fifty states and the federal government have civil asset forfeiture laws that enable law enforcement agencies to seize property that they suspect has been involved in the commission of a crime. Although there are many benefits to the system, there are also many flaws. The entire structure of the civil asset forfeiture system, at both the federal and state levels, creates incentives for abuse by law enforcement. This Note advocates for a series of changes to the current forfeiture law in Massachusetts, including requiring a heightened burden of proof, providing counsel to indigent property owners, and reforming the incentive ...
A Forgiveness Law: The Path To Solve The Peace Versus Justice Dilemma, 2015 Boston College Law School
A Forgiveness Law: The Path To Solve The Peace Versus Justice Dilemma, Juan Carlos Portilla
Boston College Journal of Law & Social Justice
The peace process between the Colombian government and the Colombian guerrillas provides a case study to examine the operation of a forgiveness law under international law. In 2012, the Colombian Congress passed a legal framework for peace, which essentially provided amnesty for those accused of international crimes. While amnesty trades justice for peace, the forgiveness law proposal for Colombia would secure justice and peace together. Unlike amnesty, the forgiveness law proposal is lawful under international law, for it guarantees prosecution of international crimes, discovery of the truth, a fair trial, adjudication of individual criminal responsibility, redress for victims, guarantees of ...
41. Ahern, E.C., Stolzenberg, S.N., & Lyon, T.D. (In Press). Do Prosecutors Use Interview Instructions Or Build Rapport With Child Witnesses? Behavioral Sciences And The Law., 2015 University of Southern California
41. Ahern, E.C., Stolzenberg, S.N., & Lyon, T.D. (In Press). Do Prosecutors Use Interview Instructions Or Build Rapport With Child Witnesses? Behavioral Sciences And The Law., Thomas D. Lyon
Thomas D. Lyon
This study examined the quality of interview instructions and rapport-building provided by prosecutors to 168 5- to 12-year-old children testifying in child sexual abuse cases, preceding explicit questions about abuse allegations. Prosecutors failed to effectively administer key interview instructions, build rapport, or rely on open-ended narrative producing prompts during this early stage of questioning. Moreover, prosecutors often directed children’s attention to the defendant early in the testimony. The productivity of different types of wh- questions varied, with what/how questions focusing on actions being particularly productive. The lack of instructions, poor quality rapport-building, and closed-ended questioning suggest that children ...
Institutionalized Racism And The Death Penalty, 2015 Chapman University
Institutionalized Racism And The Death Penalty, Ashleigh Ellis
Student Research Day Abstracts and Posters
Overtime, support for capital punishment has evolved. Compared to previous decades, support has changed amongst different variables such as: age, race, gender, and political perspective; therefore, today, these variables have changed the amount of support for it. For example, as of today, 6 states have repealed the death penalty with New Jersey being the first in 2007 to do so in 40 years. As memories of Jim Crow and the Civil Rights era have faded due to generational replacement, American society today still has this racial gap, however it is due to this racial resentment or symbolic resentment that the ...
Electroshock Injustice Coming To Athens-Clarke County Part 2: More On The "Benefits" Of Police Tasering, 2015 University of Georgia School of Law
Electroshock Injustice Coming To Athens-Clarke County Part 2: More On The "Benefits" Of Police Tasering, Donald E. Wilkes Jr.
This article reviews the Athens-Clarke County police department's arguments in implementing tasers and argues against using them in police enforcement.
Everybody’S Going Surfing: The Third Circuit Approves The Warrantless Use Of Internet Tracking Devices In United States V. Stanley, Emily W. Andersen
Boston College Law Review
On June 11, 2014, in United States v. Stanley, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Third Circuit held that the warrantless use of a tracking device to detect the location of a wireless signal was not a search in violation of the Fourth Amendment. The court reasoned that because the defendant was using his neighbor’s open wireless network, the defendant did not have a reasonable expectation of privacy. The court’s reasoning was based on a belief that the use of an open wireless network, which is not password protected, is “likely illegal.” This comment argues that ...