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Flint Drinking Water Contamination: Frames Of Reference, Clifford Villa 2017 University of New Mexico

Flint Drinking Water Contamination: Frames Of Reference, Clifford Villa

Clifford J. Villa

Presentation given at Harvard Law School on Flint, Michigan, lead toxicity and what we can do as a matter of law.


Is The "Act Of God" Dead?, Clifford Villa 2017 University of New Mexico

Is The "Act Of God" Dead?, Clifford Villa

Clifford J. Villa

In more than twenty years with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) before joining the legal academy, I saw many communities affected by fires, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, and other natural disasters. However, I never saw a case where the act of God defense prevailed against environmental liability. Confirming this personal experience, I later learned that the number of reported cases where the act of God defense had prevailed against environmental liability, under all statutes and all federal circuits, was also exactly zero. This raises two obvious questions: (1) why does the act of God defense so often fail? and ...


Is The "Act Of God" Dead?, Clifford Villa 2017 University of New Mexico

Is The "Act Of God" Dead?, Clifford Villa

Faculty Scholarship

In more than twenty years with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) before joining the legal academy, I saw many communities affected by fires, floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, and other natural disasters. However, I never saw a case where the act of God defense prevailed against environmental liability. Confirming this personal experience, I later learned that the number of reported cases where the act of God defense had prevailed against environmental liability, under all statutes and all federal circuits, was also exactly zero.

This raises two obvious questions: (1) why does the act of God defense so often fail? and ...


Earthquakes In The Oilpatch: The Regulatory And Legal Issues Arising Out Of Oil And Gas Operation Induced Seismicity, Monika U. Ehrman 2017 University of Oklahoma College of Law

Earthquakes In The Oilpatch: The Regulatory And Legal Issues Arising Out Of Oil And Gas Operation Induced Seismicity, Monika U. Ehrman

Georgia State University Law Review

This article reviews the scientific theories and studies regarding induced seismicity, in addition to examining the current regulatory framework and litigation arising out of these seismic events. Lastly, it provides strategies to aid stakeholders and identifies challenges likely to arise in the future.

Part I of this Article provides a review of the geoscience theories regarding natural and induced seismicity. Part II reviews the current scientific literature regarding a possible relationship between certain oil and gas operations and induced seismicity. Part III reviews the existing regulatory structure addressing seismicity in affected states, including possible applicable environmental legislation. Part IV discusses ...


The Home-Field Disadvantage: Tort Liability And Immunity For Paid Physicians During Disasters Within The Pacific Northwest Emergency Management Arrangement Member States, Stephen Seely 2017 Seattle University School of Law

The Home-Field Disadvantage: Tort Liability And Immunity For Paid Physicians During Disasters Within The Pacific Northwest Emergency Management Arrangement Member States, Stephen Seely

Seattle University Law Review

This Note identifies how the Pacific Northwest Emergency Management Arrangement member states of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington apply tort liability and immunity to medical professionals during times of disaster. This Note also identifies an example statutory scheme that, if enacted, will provide equal protection to all physicians who provide care to disaster victims, regardless of their local or out-of-state status.


Tears In Heaven: Religiously And Culturally Sensitive Laws For Preventing The Next Pandemic, Eloisa C. Rodriguez-Dod, Aileen Maria Marty, Elena Maria Marty-Nelson 2017 Selected Works

Tears In Heaven: Religiously And Culturally Sensitive Laws For Preventing The Next Pandemic, Eloisa C. Rodriguez-Dod, Aileen Maria Marty, Elena Maria Marty-Nelson

Eloisa C Rodríguez-Dod

This Article argues that laws created to curtail the spread of deadly contagious diseases need to be drafted and implemented in ways that maximize acceptance of an affected communities’ cultural and religious beliefs. When laws are put in place that are inconsistent with community mores, the overall goal of stopping an epidemic is threatened. Communities often distrust government and other relief organizations who mandate rules and regulations that impinge their religious and cultural beliefs; thus, these regulations geared at helping communities can paradoxically undermine the goal of preventing the spread of infectious disease.

This Article focuses on the need for ...


Tears In Heaven: Religiously And Culturally Sensitive Laws For Preventing The Next Pandemic, Eloisa C. Rodriguez-Dod, Aileen Maria Marty, Elena Maria Marty-Nelson 2017 The Catholic University of America, Columbus School of Law

Tears In Heaven: Religiously And Culturally Sensitive Laws For Preventing The Next Pandemic, Eloisa C. Rodriguez-Dod, Aileen Maria Marty, Elena Maria Marty-Nelson

Catholic University Law Review

This Article argues that laws created to curtail the spread of deadly contagious diseases need to be drafted and implemented in ways that maximize acceptance of an affected communities’ cultural and religious beliefs. When laws are put in place that are inconsistent with community mores, the overall goal of stopping an epidemic is threatened. Communities often distrust government and other relief organizations who mandate rules and regulations that impinge their religious and cultural beliefs; thus, these regulations geared at helping communities can paradoxically undermine the goal of preventing the spread of infectious disease.

This Article focuses on the need for ...


The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Litigation: Proof Of Concept For The Manual For Complex Litigation And The 2015 Amendments To The Federal Rules Of Civil Procedure, John C. Cruden, Steve O'Rourke, Sarah D. Himmelhoch 2016 Environmental and Natural Resources Division of the United States Department of Justice

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Litigation: Proof Of Concept For The Manual For Complex Litigation And The 2015 Amendments To The Federal Rules Of Civil Procedure, John C. Cruden, Steve O'Rourke, Sarah D. Himmelhoch

Michigan Journal of Environmental & Administrative Law

On April 20, 2010, the oil rig Deepwater Horizon exploded in the Gulf of Mexico, killing eleven people and injuring seventeen more. Efforts to stop the spill failed. For the next eighty-seven days, hundreds of millions of barrels of oil poured into the Gulf. This catastrophe not only changed the lives of the families of the dead and injured and the communities who experienced the economic and social disruption of the spill – it challenged the survival of the ecosystem of the ninth largest water body in the world. The oil spill extended fifty miles offshore from Louisiana in the Gulf ...


Cash Is King: How Market-Based Strategies Have Corrupted Classrooms And Criminal Courts In Post-Katrina New Orleans, 39 Seattle U. L. Rev. 1199 (2016), Olympia Duhart, Hugh Mundy 2016 John Marshall Law School

Cash Is King: How Market-Based Strategies Have Corrupted Classrooms And Criminal Courts In Post-Katrina New Orleans, 39 Seattle U. L. Rev. 1199 (2016), Olympia Duhart, Hugh Mundy

Hugh Mundy

On many accounts, it is a tale of two cities. The headlines and marketing machines tout to the world that “The Big Easy is Back.” But beyond the celebrations and parades, the story for poor Katrina survivors is very different. While many residents and businesses are enjoying a resurgence a decade after Katrina stormed through, others in post-Katrina New Orleans have a different experience. More than ten years after Hurricane Katrina, the city still struggles with systemic failures. These problem areas include housing, health care, mental health treatment, employment, education, and the criminal justice system. All of these challenges are ...


Cash Is King: How Market-Based Strategies Have Corrupted Classrooms And Criminal Courts In Post-Katrina New Orleans, Olympia Duhart, Hugh Mundy 2016 Selected Works

Cash Is King: How Market-Based Strategies Have Corrupted Classrooms And Criminal Courts In Post-Katrina New Orleans, Olympia Duhart, Hugh Mundy

Hugh Mundy

On many accounts, it is a tale of two cities. The headlines and marketing machines tout to the world that “The Big Easy is Back.” But beyond the celebrations and parades, the story for poor Katrina survivors is very different. While many residents and businesses are enjoying a resurgence a decade after Katrina stormed through, others in post-Katrina New Orleans have a different experience. More than ten years after Hurricane Katrina, the city still struggles with systemic failures. These problem areas include housing, health care, mental health treatment, employment, education, and the criminal justice system. All of these challenges are ...


Cash Is King: How Market-Based Strategies Have Corrupted Classrooms And Criminal Courts In Post-Katrina New Orleans, Olympia Duhart, Hugh Mundy 2016 Seattle University School of Law

Cash Is King: How Market-Based Strategies Have Corrupted Classrooms And Criminal Courts In Post-Katrina New Orleans, Olympia Duhart, Hugh Mundy

Seattle University Law Review

On many accounts, it is a tale of two cities. The headlines and marketing machines tout to the world that “The Big Easy is Back.” But beyond the celebrations and parades, the story for poor Katrina survivors is very different. While many residents and businesses are enjoying a resurgence a decade after Katrina stormed through, others in post-Katrina New Orleans have a different experience. More than ten years after Hurricane Katrina, the city still struggles with systemic failures. These problem areas include housing, health care, mental health treatment, employment, education, and the criminal justice system. All of these challenges are ...


Making Sense Of 'Public' Emergencies, François Tanguay-Renaud 2016 Osgoode Hall Law School of York University

Making Sense Of 'Public' Emergencies, François Tanguay-Renaud

François Tanguay-Renaud

In this article, I seek to make sense of the oft-invoked idea of ‘public emergency’ and of some of its (supposedly) radical moral implications. I challenge controversial claims by Tom Sorell, Michael Walzer, and Giorgio Agamben, and argue for a more discriminating understanding of the category and its moral force.


Weather Modification: A Modest Proposal, Lawrence A. Weirs 2016 University of Georgia School of Law

Weather Modification: A Modest Proposal, Lawrence A. Weirs

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Proactive Natural Disaster Recovery And Resilience In The Northeast: Should Governments Exercise Buyout Programs And, If Necessary, Eminent Domain, To Prevent Disaster?, Stellina Napolitano 2016 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

Proactive Natural Disaster Recovery And Resilience In The Northeast: Should Governments Exercise Buyout Programs And, If Necessary, Eminent Domain, To Prevent Disaster?, Stellina Napolitano

Pace Environmental Law Review

In light of the devastation left behind by the three most recent natural disasters in the northeast region—Hurricane Irene, Tropical Storm Lee, and Superstorm Sandy—local and state governments are now implementing “buyout programs” in order to protect the future of beachfront and flood-prone communities. These programs may not be a perfect solution, so, while positions differ on whether to pursue taking private properties by use of eminent domain, it may be a favorable option in order to attain the ultimate goal of safety and resilience against future disaster. Section II of this paper will analyze the background and ...


How Capital Markets Can Help Developing Countries Manage Climate Risk, Michael Bennett, Sophie Smyth 2016 The World Bank

How Capital Markets Can Help Developing Countries Manage Climate Risk, Michael Bennett, Sophie Smyth

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

Climate change is exacerbating the frequency and severity of catastrophic weather events around the world. The economic impact of these events on developing countries can be severe, and roll back years of development gains. To help face this growing challenge, the governments of developing countries need improved access to insurance and alternative risk transfer mechanisms to manage their exposure to climate risk. Multilateral development banks, such as the World Bank, can help. For example, they can catalyze the creation of sovereign risk pools and facilitate access for developing country governments to the substantial reinsurance capacity of the capital markets. The ...


Mitigation Of Climate Change Risks And Regulation By Insurance: A Feasible Proposal For China, Qihao He 2016 Boston College Law School

Mitigation Of Climate Change Risks And Regulation By Insurance: A Feasible Proposal For China, Qihao He

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

Climate change is one of the most fundamental challenges of our time. The extraordinary growth of greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions in China represents the single greatest obstacle to global climate change efforts in the coming decades. Meanwhile, China suffers from the adverse consequences of climate change. It has been recognized that two factors may increase climate change risks: (a) the increase in GHG emissions, which will increase the frequency and intensity of climate hazards; and (b) the increase of value-at-risk, such as the increased concentration of the world’s population and property in vulnerable areas. Therefore, mitigation of climate change ...


The Government’S Role In Climate Change Insurance, Peter Molk 2016 Willamette University College of Law

The Government’S Role In Climate Change Insurance, Peter Molk

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

There are no robust insurance markets for climate change insurance. While these markets would provide valuable loss-mitigation incentives, at the same time giving financial certainty to individuals and businesses that face staggering future liabilities, existing efforts have produced a fragmented set of private and public products that provide only piecemeal coverage. This Article examines the government’s role in providing unified markets for insuring climate change risk. Although innovations in reinsurance markets suggest that private insurers could cover discrete risks associated with climate change, such as flood or wind loss, climate change’s broader systemic risks present problems of scale ...


Incentivizing Municipalities To Adapt To Climate Change: Takings Liability And Fema Reform As Possible Solutions, David Dana 2016 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Incentivizing Municipalities To Adapt To Climate Change: Takings Liability And Fema Reform As Possible Solutions, David Dana

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

This Article addresses a central question of climate adaptation in the United States: how can municipalities, which are best positioned to take a lead in climate change adaptation efforts, be incentivized to do so? The Article analyzes and ultimately rejects as doctrinally unmoored and counterproductive one idea that has been suggested by commentators and arguably endorsed in a few noteworthy recent cases—that is, that municipalities and other governments be held liable under the Takings Clause for their failing to take adaptive measures that protect private property. Instead, the Article argues that municipalities should be given an incentive to adapt ...


Climate Change And Federal Crop Insurance, Chad G. Marzen, J. Grant Ballard 2016 Florida State University

Climate Change And Federal Crop Insurance, Chad G. Marzen, J. Grant Ballard

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

The federal crop insurance program is well-positioned today to promote resilient agricultural practices that mitigate the future impact of climate change. In light of climate change risk, this Article examines issues relating to climate change and the federal crop insurance program. Part I of this Article examines the present risk of climate change in agriculture and discusses recent steps taken to address climate change in agriculture in general, specifically within the federal crop insurance program. As a condition to federal crop insurance coverage, a farmer-insured must utilize “good farming practices” to obtain coverage for covered causes of loss. Part II ...


Lessons From U.S. Coastal Wind Pools About Climate Finance And Politics, Donald T. Hornstein 2016 University of North Carolina School of Law

Lessons From U.S. Coastal Wind Pools About Climate Finance And Politics, Donald T. Hornstein

Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review

The financial costs of extreme weather are profound, not only in terms of the distress of those immediately affected but also in broader, more long-term macroeconomic and public budgetary effects. This Article focuses on the role that private and public insurance can play, both positively and negatively, on these effects. It also provides one of the most detailed analyses in the legal literature to date on the finances of three state residual-risk wind pools in the Gulf and Southeastern United States that have been created specifically with hurricane risks in mind.


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