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Foreign Direct Investment In The United States: Disclosure Regulations, Diane E. McNamara 2015 University of Georgia School of Law

Foreign Direct Investment In The United States: Disclosure Regulations, Diane E. Mcnamara

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Canadian Mortgage Law And Prepayment Penalties, Peter Spiro 2015 University of Toronto

Canadian Mortgage Law And Prepayment Penalties, Peter Spiro

Western Journal of Legal Studies

This article illustrates the imbalance of power between the mortgagor and mortgagee, which is particularly apparent for individual mortgagors. Prepayment and due on sale provisions are standard mortgage terms that contribute to this imbalance. Although these clauses purport to operate separately, in reality, both are frequently triggered by the sale of a property; the law of contract suggests that these provisions should not be enforceable. Relevant legislation is lacking in this area and should be reformed to provide more effective consumer protection while acknowledging that banks operate with the goal of maximizing business. A reasonable compromise would involve basing the ...


Through The Looking Glass: Series Llcs In 2015, Allen Sparkman 2015 None

Through The Looking Glass: Series Llcs In 2015, Allen Sparkman

Allen Sparkman

This Article examines the development of Series LLCs, reviews the existing series LLC legislation, discusses possible uses of Series LLCS, analyzes areas of uncertainty with respect to Series LLCs, and makes recommendation for the future development of the Series LLC concept.


Discriminatory Internal Taxation In The European Union: The Power Of The European Court Of Justice To Limit The Tax Sovereignty Of Member-States Under Article 110 Of The Tfeu, Jarrod Tudor 2015 Kent State University - Kent Campus

Discriminatory Internal Taxation In The European Union: The Power Of The European Court Of Justice To Limit The Tax Sovereignty Of Member-States Under Article 110 Of The Tfeu, Jarrod Tudor

Jarrod Tudor

Protectionism can come in a variety of methods including the use of internal taxation policies that discriminate against imports making those imports more expensive on the domestic market and thus favoring domestically-produced goods. Discriminatory taxation policies have been developed by member-states to mask protectionism by distinguishing products based on import status, product similarity, product life cycle, consumption, tax collection practices, transportation charges, and state aid. The Framers of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union (TFEU) wrote Article 110 with the objective in mind to prohibit internal taxation policies from discriminating against goods in made in other member-states ...


Super Liens To The Rescue? A Case Against Special Districts In Real Estate Finance, Christopher K. Odinet 2015 Southern University Law Center

Super Liens To The Rescue? A Case Against Special Districts In Real Estate Finance, Christopher K. Odinet

Christopher K. Odinet

In a time of limited resources and sluggish economic growth, competition between cities has become palpable, and the race for new investment often dictates the public agenda. To that end, the explosive growth of public-private partnerships between local governments and private investors has resulted in the creation of a myriad of special taxing districts, the purposes of which are limited only by the imagination. Of particular concern has been the growth of certain real estate development-related districts. Although first conceived to fund critical improvements where conventional credit was not available, in more recently years these special districts have been used ...


When Lenders Can Legally Provide Loans With Effective Annual Interest Rates Above 1,000 Percent, Is It Time For Congress To Consider A Federal Interest Cap On Consumer Loans?, Victor D. Lopez 2015 Hofstra University

When Lenders Can Legally Provide Loans With Effective Annual Interest Rates Above 1,000 Percent, Is It Time For Congress To Consider A Federal Interest Cap On Consumer Loans?, Victor D. Lopez

Victor D. Lopez

The question of whether interest rates should be regulated for the good of society has been debated by secular and religious authorities for millennia. Restrictions on the highest rate of interest allowed by law (if any) are generally set by the states. In the U.S., whether citizens are protected against unreasonably high interest rates is generally a matter for state legislatures to decide. In this article, the current laws of the 50 states and the District of Columbia are examined with regards to the issue of usury, as well as the challenges posed by federal law for states who ...


The Elephant In The Room, Troy B. Albert 2015 Lewis & Clark Law School

The Elephant In The Room, Troy B. Albert

Troy B Albert

Every 15 minutes, a poacher kills an elephant for its ivory. If this rate continues, the African elephant could become extinct in 20 years. Although federal law has strictly regulated the ivory market for several decades, the United States remains one of the largest markets for illegal wildlife products in the world. Because there are little to no enforcement mechanisms or verification processes by which to definitively distinguish legal from illegal ivory after reaching domestic markets, illegal ivory is easily mixed in with legal stocks. New regulations have been promulgated but are they enough?


Hardship: A Remedy For Changed Circumstances In International Commercial Contracts, Raul Henrique Pereira de Souza Fleury 2015 American University Washington College of Law

Hardship: A Remedy For Changed Circumstances In International Commercial Contracts, Raul Henrique Pereira De Souza Fleury

Raul Henrique Pereira de Souza Fleury

Long-term commercial transactions can transform into an agreement far different than the anticipated by the parties due to unforeseeable circumstances. In the international field such possibility is greater. This places a hard burden to business persons around the globe, since their mutual purpose is to see their business transaction achieve its goal. In trying to assess and manage the potential negative effects of changed circumstances, international business practice had developed the hardship clause. This article focus on the historical origin and development of the hardship clause, its requirements, the adoption of similar remedies by domestic legislation, and how it has ...


Some Basic Marxist Concepts To Understand Income Tax, John Passant 2015 University of Wollongong; Australian National University

Some Basic Marxist Concepts To Understand Income Tax, John Passant

John Passant

The paper introduces readers to some basic Marxist concepts to give the building blocks for an alternative understanding of tax and perhaps even to inspire some to use these concepts and ideas in their future research. It argues that the tax system reflects the phenomena of wealth and income and that there is a deeper reality obscured and ignored by the income tax system as an outcrop of a capitalist system which does the same. This deeper reality is that capital exploits workers and that profit, rent, interest and the like are the money form of the unpaid labour of ...


Yates V. United States: The Supreme Court Lets Florida Fisherman Off The Hook For Sarbanes-Oxley Charge, Collin McCarthy 2015 Golden Gate University School of Law

Yates V. United States: The Supreme Court Lets Florida Fisherman Off The Hook For Sarbanes-Oxley Charge, Collin Mccarthy

GGU Law Review Blog

Capt. of a commercial fishing boat was charge under Sarbanes-Oxley of “destruction, alteration, or falsification of records in Federal investigations and bankruptcy,” to wit, fish illegally caught.


Broad Shareholder Value And The Inevitable Role Of Conscience, Paul D. Weitzel, Zachariah J. Rodgers 2015 Davis Polk & Wardwell, LLP

Broad Shareholder Value And The Inevitable Role Of Conscience, Paul D. Weitzel, Zachariah J. Rodgers

Paul D. Weitzel

This article proposes an integrative solution to the modern debate on corporate purpose, the question of whether directors and officers must solely maximize profits or whether they may consider the effects on employees, the environment or the community. Many find pure profit maximization unseemly and suggest alternative theories, typically arguing that corporations owe a duty to a broader range of stakeholders. This position is inconsistent with the case law and unnecessary to allow conscience in the board room. We resolve the issue more simply by acknowledging that the purpose of a corporation is to promote the shareholders’ interests, which includes ...


Recovery Of Damages For Lost Profits: The Historical Development, Robert M. Lloyd, Nicholas J. Chase 2015 University of Tennessee, Knoxville

Recovery Of Damages For Lost Profits: The Historical Development, Robert M. Lloyd, Nicholas J. Chase

Robert M Lloyd

ABSTRACT

Recovery of Damages for Lost Profits: The Historical Development

The rule of Hadley v. Baxendale is widely considered the most important rule of contract damages. In fact, however, the rule that damages must be proven with reasonable certainty is far more important in the modern practice of law. The reasonable certainty rule originated in Roman law and came to the common law through the civil law of Western Europe, developing first in the United States and spreading from the United States to England.

The rule of Hadley v. Baxendale developed much in the same way, and, contrary to popular ...


Directors’ Defence Of Reliance On Professional Advisers Under Anglo-Australian Law, Wai Yee Wan 2015 Singapore Management University

Directors’ Defence Of Reliance On Professional Advisers Under Anglo-Australian Law, Wai Yee Wan

Research Collection School Of Law

This paper analyses the issue of whether directors may use reliance on professional advice as a defence to a claim for breach of duty to exercise care, skill and diligence under common law or companies legislation in England and Australia. While England and Australia share the same common law tradition and have similar statutory provisions on the standard of care of directors, an English court generally regards a director as acting reasonably when he seeks advice from a qualified and independent professional adviser in a specialist matter within his expertise. In the absence of any conflict of interest, reliance is ...


Installation Failure: How The Predominant Purpose Test Has Perpetuated Software’S Uncertain Legal Status Under The Uniform Commercial Code, Spencer Gottlieb 2015 University of Michigan Law School

Installation Failure: How The Predominant Purpose Test Has Perpetuated Software’S Uncertain Legal Status Under The Uniform Commercial Code, Spencer Gottlieb

Michigan Law Review

Courts have struggled to uniformly classify software as a good or a service and have consequently failed to apply a consistent body of law in that domain. Instead, courts have relied on the predominant purpose test to determine whether the Uniform Commercial Code (“UCC”) or common law should apply to a given software contract. This test, designed for traditional goods and services that do not share software’s complexity or rapid advancement, has perpetuated the uncertainty surrounding software’s legal status. This Note proposes that courts adopt the substantial software test as an alternative to the predominant purpose test. Under ...


Insuring Floods: The Most Common And Devastating Natural Catastrophes In America, Christopher French 2015 Penn State Law

Insuring Floods: The Most Common And Devastating Natural Catastrophes In America, Christopher French

Christopher C. French

Flooding is the most common natural catastrophe Americans face, accounting for 90% of all damage caused by natural catastrophes. Hurricanes Katrina and Sandy, for example, collectively caused over $160 billion in damage, but only approximately 10% of the Hurricane Katrina victims and 50% of the Hurricane Sandy victims had insurance to cover their flood losses. Consequently, both their homes and lives were left in ruins in the wake of the storms. Nationwide, only approximately 7% of homeowners have insurance that covers flood losses even though the risk of flooding is only increasing as coastal areas continue to be developed and ...


Identifying The Honest Debtor: Section 727(A)(4)(A) Of The Bankruptcy Code And The Need For Consistency In Denial Of Discharge Proceedings, Andrew F. Emerson 2015 Palmer & Manuel LLP

Identifying The Honest Debtor: Section 727(A)(4)(A) Of The Bankruptcy Code And The Need For Consistency In Denial Of Discharge Proceedings, Andrew F. Emerson

Andrew Emerson

No abstract provided.


Identifying The Honest Debtor: Section 727(A)(4)(A) Of The Bankruptcy Code And The Need For Consistency In Denial Of Discharge Proceedings, Andrew F. Emerson 2015 Palmer & Manuel LLP

Identifying The Honest Debtor: Section 727(A)(4)(A) Of The Bankruptcy Code And The Need For Consistency In Denial Of Discharge Proceedings, Andrew F. Emerson

Andrew Emerson

No abstract provided.


Bridgefunding Is Crowdfunding For Startups Across The Private Equity Gap, Seth C. Oranburg 2015 Florida State University

Bridgefunding Is Crowdfunding For Startups Across The Private Equity Gap, Seth C. Oranburg

Seth C Oranburg

Title III of the JOBS Act of 2012, which attempts to encourage entrepreneurship by allowing startups and small business to sell stock to the general public over the Internet through “crowdfunding,” is completely backwards. Its ceiling should be a floor—the $1 million limit should be inverted. By capping startups at raising $1 million from crowdfunding, the JOBS Act does not address the private equity gap, a fundamental problem in startup markets, and exposes unsophisticated investors to risk and fraud.

This Article presents a regulatory framework premised on “bridgefunding,” an approach that this article develops to protect new investors by ...


Examining Success, Jonathan C. Lipson 2015 Temple University

Examining Success, Jonathan C. Lipson

Jonathan C. Lipson

Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code presumes that managers will remain in possession and control of a corporate debtor. This presents an obvious agency problem: these same managers may have gotten the company into trouble in the first place. The Bankruptcy Code thus includes checks and balances in the reorganization process, one of which is supposed to be an “examiner,” a private individual appointed to investigate and report on the debtor’s collapse.

We study their use in practice. Extending prior research, we find that examiners are exceedingly rare, despite the fact that they should be “mandatory” in large cases ...


Flexible Finality In Bankruptcy: The Right To Appeal A Denial Of Plan Confirmation, Joseph L. Nepowada 2015 Barry University

Flexible Finality In Bankruptcy: The Right To Appeal A Denial Of Plan Confirmation, Joseph L. Nepowada

Joseph L Nepowada

This Article examines the current state of the law interpreting what “finality” means in context of a bankruptcy proceeding and what effect that interpretation has on the appealability of certain orders, such as the denial of plan confirmation under a Chapter 13 bankruptcy proceeding. The article highlights nine courts of appeals and their decisions concerning the appealability of a denial of a plan confirmation and it is apparent that the courts are split with three courts of appeal allowing a debtor to appeal a denial of plan confirmation as a matter of right, while six courts of appeal will deny ...


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