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Comparative Tax Law Guide, Kim Brooks 2022 Dalhousie University Schulich School of Law

Comparative Tax Law Guide, Kim Brooks

OER Texts

This extended bibliography is designed to support comparative tax law study by students, policy-makers, and tax practitioners. Studying comparative tax law is pure joy. And in addition to that, it enables you to:

  • more deeply understand your own tax system and context;
  • learn about another country’s system and context;
  • draw general conclusions about tax law;
  • press for or support tax law change;
  • facilitate tax law harmonization or coordination among jurisdictions;
  • delve into the role of tax in the spread of higher-order values like fairness, equality, transparency, or privacy;
  • explain why a country’s tax laws are the way they ...


Municipal Fiber In The United States: A Financial Assessment, Christopher S. Yoo, Jesse Lambert, Timothy P. Pfenninger 2022 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Municipal Fiber In The United States: A Financial Assessment, Christopher S. Yoo, Jesse Lambert, Timothy P. Pfenninger

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Despite growing interest in broadband provided by municipally owned and operated fiber-to-the-home networks, the academic literature has yet to undertake a systematic assessment of these projects’ financial performance. To fill this gap, we utilize municipalities’ official reports to offer an empirical evaluation of the financial performance of every municipal fiber project in the U.S. operating in 2010 through 2019. An analysis of the actual performance of the resulting fifteen-project panel dataset reveals that none of the projects generated sufficient nominal cash flow in the short run to maintain solvency without infusions of additional cash from outside sources or debt ...


A Miser’S Rule Of Reason: Student Athlete Compensation And The Alston Antitrust Case, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2022 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

A Miser’S Rule Of Reason: Student Athlete Compensation And The Alston Antitrust Case, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The unanimous Supreme Court decision in NCAA v. Alston is its most important probe of antitrust’s rule of reason in decades. The decision implicates several issues, including the role of antitrust in labor markets, how antitrust applies to institutions that have an educational mission as well as involvement in a large commercial enterprise, and how much leeway district courts should have in creating decrees that contemplate ongoing administration.

The Court accepted what has come to be the accepted framework: the plaintiff must make out a prima facie case of competitive harm. Then the burden shifts to the defendant to ...


The Progressives' Antitrust Toolbox, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2022 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

The Progressives' Antitrust Toolbox, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

The period 1900 to 1930 was the Golden Age of antitrust theory, if not of enforcement. During that period courts and scholars developed nearly all of the tools that we use to this day to assess anticompetitive practices under the federal antitrust laws. In subsequent years antitrust policy veered to both the left and the right, but today seems to be returning to a position quite similar to the one that these Progressive adopted. Their principal contributions were (1) partial equilibrium analysis, which became the basis for concerns about economic concentration, the distinction between short- and long-run analysis, and later ...


Improvement Of Departmental Control Of Competent Authorities In The Field Of Juveniles, As An Important Factor In Increasing The Efficiency Of Prosecutorial Supervision Of Execution Of The Laws In This Area, Ibragimov Diyorbek Shuxrat o’g’li 2022 Academy of the General Prosecution office

Improvement Of Departmental Control Of Competent Authorities In The Field Of Juveniles, As An Important Factor In Increasing The Efficiency Of Prosecutorial Supervision Of Execution Of The Laws In This Area, Ibragimov Diyorbek Shuxrat O’G’Li

ProAcademy

The article provides a comprehensive critical analysis of the activities of the competent authorities to ensure the rights and legitimate interests of juveniles in our country. Also, by using practical examples, it was identified problems and shortcomings of departmental control activities of these responsible bodies. In addition, it theoretically analyzes the similarities and differences between “departmental supervision” and “prosecutorial supervision” in the field of juveniles. At the same time, cases of violations of the law, which are allowed by the competent authorities in this area, revealed in the course of inspections carried out by the prosecutor's offices, are described ...


Monopolizing And The Sherman Act, Herbert J. Hovenkamp 2022 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Monopolizing And The Sherman Act, Herbert J. Hovenkamp

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In one sentence § 2 of the Sherman Act condemns firms who “monopolize,” “attempt to monopolize” or “combine or conspire” to monopolize -- all without explanation. Section 2 is the antitrust law’s only provision that reaches entirely unilateral conduct, although it has often been used to reach collaborative conduct as well. In general, §2 requires greater amounts of individually held market power than do the other antitrust statutes, but it is less categorical about conduct. With one exception, however, the statute reads so broadly that criticisms of the nature that it is outdated cannot be based on faithful readings of the ...


Overhaul Of The Sdt Provisions In The Wto: Separating The Eligible From The Ineligible, Md. Rizwanul Islam 2021 North South University

Overhaul Of The Sdt Provisions In The Wto: Separating The Eligible From The Ineligible, Md. Rizwanul Islam

Pace International Law Review

The special and differential treatment (“SDT”) provisions have been a recurring feature in the agreements of the World Trade Organization (“WTO”) treaties. However, most analysts would probably agree that the many SDT provisions have been more aspirational than operational. Hence, there is little surprise that even a selective review of the WTO jurisprudence would demonstrate that the SDT provisions have, in most cases, not done enough for their intended beneficiaries. This paper will analyze the limitations of the SDT provisions with reference to the relevant WTO jurisprudence. It will seek to explore two potential avenues of endeavoring to make the ...


Leases As Forms, David A. Hoffman, Anton Strezhnev 2021 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Leases As Forms, David A. Hoffman, Anton Strezhnev

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

We offer the first large scale descriptive study of residential leases, based on a dataset of ~170,000 residential leases filed in support of over ~200,000 Philadelphia eviction proceedings from 2005 through 2019. These leases are highly likely to contain unenforceable terms, and their pro-landlord tilt has increased sharply over time. Matching leases with individual tenant characteristics, we show that unlawful terms are surprisingly likely to be associated with more expensive leaseholds in richer, whiter parts of the city. This result is linked to landlords' growing adoption of shared forms, originally created by non-profit landlord associations, and more recently ...


Antitrust By Algorithm, Cary Coglianese, Alicia Lai 2021 University of Pennsylvania Carey Law School

Antitrust By Algorithm, Cary Coglianese, Alicia Lai

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Technological innovation is changing private markets around the world. New advances in digital technology have created new opportunities for subtle and evasive forms of anticompetitive behavior by private firms. But some of these same technological advances could also help antitrust regulators improve their performance. We foresee that the growing digital complexity of the marketplace will necessitate that antitrust authorities increasingly rely on machine-learning algorithms to oversee market behavior. In making this transition, authorities will need to meet several key institutional challenges—building organizational capacity, avoiding legal pitfalls, and establishing public trust—to ensure successful implementation of antitrust by algorithm.


Prosecutorial Supervisions Of The Implementation Of Anti-Torture Legislation: An Analysis Of International Law And National Legislation, Barno Kadirova 2021 Academy of the General Prosecution office

Prosecutorial Supervisions Of The Implementation Of Anti-Torture Legislation: An Analysis Of International Law And National Legislation, Barno Kadirova

ProAcademy

This article examines the analysis of national legislation and international law on the prevention of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment, international standards, principles of responsibility and the improvement of prosecutorial control over the implementation of anti-torture legislation. In addition, the role of prosecutorial oversight in the prevention of torture is based on the views of legal scholars and practitioners, as well as appeals to the prosecutor's office by the Prosecutor General's Office about illegal actions by law enforcement officers and torture by the Supreme Court. Information on criminal cases on torture is provided ...


Procedural Order Of Carrying Out Expertise On Criminal Cases, Istam Rustamovich Astanov 2021 Academy of the General Prosecution office

Procedural Order Of Carrying Out Expertise On Criminal Cases, Istam Rustamovich Astanov

ProAcademy

Production of expertise on a scene in parallel with its survey in most cases is impossible for the reasons of procedural character: inspection of a scene is, as a rule, performed before initiation of legal proceedings that doesn't allow the investigator before making decision on its excitement to appoint expertise. At the same time to reveal signs of a crime and to fix traces it according to law requirements sometimes happens it is simply impossible without carrying out expert research. It was the cause of statement by us of a question of possibility of purpose of expertise before initiation ...


Legal Nature, Historical Developments Of Expertise And Comparative Analysis Of The Legislation Of Foreign Countries, Astanov Istam Rustamovich, Astanov Shuxrat Rustamovich 2021 Academy of the General Prosecution office

Legal Nature, Historical Developments Of Expertise And Comparative Analysis Of The Legislation Of Foreign Countries, Astanov Istam Rustamovich, Astanov Shuxrat Rustamovich

ProAcademy

This article is About expertise on criminal affairs is the separate give special status a type of the expertise, different carrying out research from the person possessing special knowledge. Expertise on criminal affairs differs from other types of expertise by that it is appointed and carried out according to strictly and precisely established Code of criminal procedure rather. The part second of article 153 Criminal Procedure Code of Moldova, devote interrogation the expert, consolidates norm on which it is forbidden to make interrogation before submission of the expert opinion and its studying. Fixing of such rule in part the second ...


Proving Economic Loss For In-And-Out Traders In Light Of First Solar, Daniel Roy Settana III 2021 University of Miami School of Law

Proving Economic Loss For In-And-Out Traders In Light Of First Solar, Daniel Roy Settana Iii

University of Miami Business Law Review

Federal courts have grappled with the issue of whether or not to include in-and-out traders in federal securities class action lawsuits. One set of courts has excluded in-and-out traders on the grounds that they could not prove loss causation, while another set of courts has included in-and-out traders because of the possibility that they could prove that they had suffered a loss. In Mineworker’s Pension Scheme versus First Solar, Inc., the Ninth Circuit recently addressed what should be the correct standard for loss causation. While the Ninth Circuit’s decision resolved its own intra-circuit split, the Court’s decision ...


Lessons For Today By The Deregulation Of Yesteryear: Analyzing Modern Capital Market Deregulation With Historical Examples, Jordan J. Saddoris 2021 University of Miami School of Law

Lessons For Today By The Deregulation Of Yesteryear: Analyzing Modern Capital Market Deregulation With Historical Examples, Jordan J. Saddoris

University of Miami Business Law Review

Financial market regulators in the US have proposed cutting down their own rulebooks in recent years. However, when it comes to deregulating modern capital markets, the outcomes of historical alterations of similar natures should serve as lessons in what works and what doesn’t. This comment analyzes three modern-day proposals to deregulate US financial markets, using historical actions to argue for the likely efficacy of each.


A Novel Dataset Measuring Change In Copyright Exceptions, Michael Palmedo 2021 American University Washington College of Law

A Novel Dataset Measuring Change In Copyright Exceptions, Michael Palmedo

Joint PIJIP/TLS Research Paper Series

Copyrights grant creators long periods of market exclusivity during which they or their agents have the exclusive right to reproduce and distribute their works. However, copyright exceptions limit their scope and strength. The laws on both copyright protection and copyright exceptions vary substantially from one country to the next. This working paper introduces a novel, survey-based dataset that describes changes to 24 countries’ laws on copyright exceptions over time. To explore the data, I construct two indices from subsets of the dataset; one that focus on exceptions related to ICT technologies and another that focuses on educational uses. The indices ...


High Time For A Change: How The Relationship Between Signatory Countries And The United Nations Conventions Governing Narcotic Drugs Must Adapt To Foster A Global Shift In Cannabis Law, Alexander Clementi 2021 Brooklyn Law School

High Time For A Change: How The Relationship Between Signatory Countries And The United Nations Conventions Governing Narcotic Drugs Must Adapt To Foster A Global Shift In Cannabis Law, Alexander Clementi

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Since the early 1970’s, the inclusion of cannabis and its byproducts in the United Nations Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs has mandated a strict prohibition on cultivation and use of the substance, which has led to a largely global practice of criminalization and imprisonment of anyone found to be in its possession. Yet recently, mostly in response to growing public health concerns, countries like Uruguay, Portugal, The Netherlands, Canada, and the United States have enacted laws which seek to decriminalize or even legalize cannabis use and possession. Yet, cannabis remains classified as a Schedule IV narcotic under the Single ...


Level-Up: Towards A More Competitive & Labor-Friendly E-Sports Industry, Andrew Ramstad 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Level-Up: Towards A More Competitive & Labor-Friendly E-Sports Industry, Andrew Ramstad

Brooklyn Journal of International Law

Despite humble beginnings, the advent of the modern internet has seen the explosion of e-sports into an industry commanding hundreds of millions of annual viewers and nearly a billion dollars in annual advertising revenue. Facilitating this expansion has been a shift from independently run competitive e-sports leagues to leagues created and operated by the developers of the league’s underlying game. This vertical integration by developers increases e-sports accessibility to viewers, but at the cost of decreased player bargaining power and professional flexibility. The integration further incentivizes ever-increasing working hours and self-destructive or rule-breaking behavior by players to stay competitive ...


Hostile Restructurings, Diane L. Dick 2021 University of Washington School of Law

Hostile Restructurings, Diane L. Dick

Washington Law Review

The conventional wisdom holds that out-of-court loan restructurings are mostly consensual and collaborative. But this is no longer accurate. Highly aggressive, nonconsensual restructuring transactions—what I call “hostile restructurings”—are becoming a common feature of the capital markets. Relying on hypertechnical interpretations of loan agreements, one increasingly popular hostile restructuring method involves issuing new debt that enjoys higher priority than the existing debt; another involves transferring the most valuable collateral away from existing lenders to secure new borrowing.

These transactions are distinguishable from normal out-of-court restructurings by their use of coercive tactics to overcome not only the traditional minority lender ...


You Are Not A Commodity: A More Efficient Approach To Commercial Privacy Rights, Benjamin T. Pardue 2021 University of Washington School of Law

You Are Not A Commodity: A More Efficient Approach To Commercial Privacy Rights, Benjamin T. Pardue

Washington Law Review

United States common law provides four torts for privacy invasion: (1) disclosure of private facts, (2) intrusion upon seclusion, (3) placement of a person in a false light, and (4) appropriation of name or likeness. Appropriation of name or likeness occurs when a defendant commandeers the plaintiff’s recognizability, typically for a commercial benefit. Most states allow plaintiffs who establish liability to recover defendants’ profits as damages from the misappropriation under an “unjust enrichment” theory. By contrast, this Comment argues that such an award provides a windfall to plaintiffs and contributes to suboptimal social outcomes. These include overcompensating plaintiffs and ...


It’S A Trap: A New Economic Model Addressing American Public Education, Nikhil A. Gulati 2021 Candidate for Juris Doctor, Notre Dame Law School, 2022

It’S A Trap: A New Economic Model Addressing American Public Education, Nikhil A. Gulati

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note will argue that, when looking at the quality of a school district, there is some theoretical threshold that determines whether the use of local property tax and zoning by a local government will be effective in increasing the quality of the locality’s schools. This theoretical threshold is conceptually akin to the basic economic idea of a poverty trap. If a locality’s schools are above this quality threshold, the corresponding local government will be able to effectively utilize property taxes and zoning to increase the quality of its schools. However, if it is below the threshold, the ...


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