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Unsafe Harbor: The European Union's Demand For Heightened Data Privacy Standards In Schrems V. Irish Data Protection Commissioner, Christina Lam 2017 Boston College Law School

Unsafe Harbor: The European Union's Demand For Heightened Data Privacy Standards In Schrems V. Irish Data Protection Commissioner, Christina Lam

Boston College International and Comparative Law Review

In 1995, the European Union adopted the Data Protection Directive to govern the processing, use, and exchange of personal data. The United States refused to enact similar legislation, consequently jeopardizing ongoing and future data transfers with the European Union. To prevent economic catastrophe, the United States negotiated with the European Union to reach the Safe Harbor Agreement and, on July 26, 2000, the European Commission formally recognized the agreement as compliant with the Data Protection Directive in its Safe Harbor Decision. In 2013, U.S. data protection standards were once again placed under the microscope when Edward Snowden leaked information ...


Internet Tv: (Hopefully) Coming To A Computer Screen Near You, Nicholas Pellegrino 2017 Seton Hall University School of Law

Internet Tv: (Hopefully) Coming To A Computer Screen Near You, Nicholas Pellegrino

Seton Hall Circuit Review

No abstract provided.


Tomorrow's Inheritance: The Frontiers Of Estate Planning Formalism, David Horton 2017 University of California, Davis, School of Law

Tomorrow's Inheritance: The Frontiers Of Estate Planning Formalism, David Horton

Boston College Law Review

The rules that govern the creation of an estate plan are in flux. Courts once demanded strict adherence to the Wills Act. Yet, this legacy of hyper-vigilance is waning, as the Uniform Probate Code, the Restatement (Third) of Property, and ten states have adopted the harmless error rule. Meanwhile, trusts, which need not comply with the Wills Act, have eclipsed wills as the dominant method of posthumous wealth transmission. This Article explores three budding topics that threaten to further complicate this area. First, there are anecdotal accounts of decedents trying to make electronic wills. In both strict compliance and harmless ...


A Prescription For Excessive Drug Pricing: Leveraging Government Patent Use For Health, Hannah Brennan, Amy Kapczynski, Christine H. Monahan, Zain Rizvi 2017 Law Clerk to the Honorable Theodore McKee, Chief Judge, Third Circuit

A Prescription For Excessive Drug Pricing: Leveraging Government Patent Use For Health, Hannah Brennan, Amy Kapczynski, Christine H. Monahan, Zain Rizvi

Yale Journal of Law and Technology

High drug prices are creating serious health and fiscal problems in the United States today. This reality is vividly illustrated by recently approved
medicines to treat Hepatitis C. These new medicines can cure nearly everyone with this potentially fatal infection and may even enable the elimination of this disease. But the drugs' sticker price- close to $100,000- has meant that very few patients who could benefit from them can access them. This Article describes an approach, available under existing law, to bring about transformative reductions in the prices of these medicines, at least for federal programs and possibly beyond ...


Opening Pandora's Box: Analyzing The Complexity Of U.S. Patent Litigation, Jonathan H. Ashtor 2017 Associate, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher & Flom LLP;

Opening Pandora's Box: Analyzing The Complexity Of U.S. Patent Litigation, Jonathan H. Ashtor

Yale Journal of Law and Technology

Patent litigation is widely regarded as one of the most complex types of civil litigation, with costs often totaling millions of dollars and typical cases lasting years. Also, the burdens of patent case complexity land on both sides of the technological divide, as large producers face skyrocketing defense budgets and inventors and startups risk being ''priced out" from enforcing their rights. Yet, the complexity of patent cases is poorly understood as an empirical matter. Instead, patent litigation is generally accepted to be a ''Pandora's Box" of incalculable complexity, which, once opened, is only arduously and unpredictably concluded .


Credit Scoring In The Era Of Big Data, Mikella Hurley, Julius Adebayo 2017 Georgetown University Law Center

Credit Scoring In The Era Of Big Data, Mikella Hurley, Julius Adebayo

Yale Journal of Law and Technology

For most Americans, access to credit is an essential requirement for upward mobility and financial success. A favorable credit rating is necessary to purchase a home or car, to start a new business, to seek higher education, or to pursue other important goals. For many consumers, strong credit is also necessary to gain access to employment, rental housing, and essential services such as insurance. At present, however, individuals have very little control over how they are scored and have even less ability to contest inaccurate, biased, or unfair assessments of their credit. Traditional, automated credit-scoring tools raise longstanding concerns of ...


Fatal Fragments: The Effect Of Money Transmission Regulation On Payments Innovation, Benjamin Lo 2017 Yale Law School

Fatal Fragments: The Effect Of Money Transmission Regulation On Payments Innovation, Benjamin Lo

Yale Journal of Law and Technology

A revolution in payments technology is taking place, as entrepreneurs develop new and innovative ways to send, receive, and store money. However, payment startups are running headlong into a thicket of federal and state money transmitter regulations, which impose costly registration and reporting requirements to prevent money laundering and protect consumers. The regulatory burden is particularly heavy at the state level, since each state defines "money transmission" differently. Payments startups must deal with highly fragmented regulation across states early in their lives, resulting in large and often redundant compliance costs while offering comparatively less marginal benefit to consumers. However, this ...


When Competition Fails To Optimize Quality: A Look At Search Engines, Maurice E. Stucke, Ariel Ezrachi 2017 Professor, University of Tennessee College of Law

When Competition Fails To Optimize Quality: A Look At Search Engines, Maurice E. Stucke, Ariel Ezrachi

Yale Journal of Law and Technology

The European Commission's Statement of Objections forms the latest addition to the ongoing debate on the possible misuse of Google's position in the search engine market. The scholarly debate, however, has largely been over the exclusionary effects of search degradation. Less attention has been dedicated to the dimension of quality - whether and how a search engine, faced with rivals, could degrade quality on the free side. We set out to address this fundamental question: with the proliferation of numerous web search engines and their free usage and availability, could any search engine degrade quality? We begin our analysis ...


A Warrant To Hack: An Analysis Of The Proposed Amendments To Rule 41 Of The Federal Rules Of Criminal Procedure, Zach Lerner 2017 Yale Law School

A Warrant To Hack: An Analysis Of The Proposed Amendments To Rule 41 Of The Federal Rules Of Criminal Procedure, Zach Lerner

Yale Journal of Law and Technology

In 2013, a federal magistrate judge denied an FBI request for a remote access search warrant, concluding that, among other deficiencies, Rule 41 of the Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure prevented him from granting a warrant to hack a computer when the location of the device was not known. Just five months later, the DOJ proposed amendments to Rule 41 seeking to eliminate the territorial limits on search warrants in two cybercrime contexts: (1) when suspects conceal their online locations and identities; and (2) when malware af fects users in five or more districts. Despite approval from the necessary judicial ...


The Economic Calculus Of Fielding Autonomous Fighting Vehicles Compliant With The Laws Of Armed Conflict, Evan Wallach, Erik Thomas 2017 Circuit Judge, U.S. Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit; Adjunct Professor of Law, The George Washington University Law School

The Economic Calculus Of Fielding Autonomous Fighting Vehicles Compliant With The Laws Of Armed Conflict, Evan Wallach, Erik Thomas

Yale Journal of Law and Technology

The U.S. military and others worldwide have undergone a rapid evolution in the numbers, sophistication and lethality of the robotic weaponry that they deploy to the battlefield. The rate of transformation in the field of robotics and weapons technology raises numerous questions about what legal considerations should be made as we approach the step beyond remotely controlled drone weaponry to fully autonomous fighting vehicles as human operated weapons evolve into self-directed warriors.


The Racist Algorithm?, Anupam Chander 2017 University of California, Davis School of Law

The Racist Algorithm?, Anupam Chander

Michigan Law Review

Review of The Black Box Society: The Secret Algorithms That Control Money and Information by Frank Pasquale.


Regulating Robo Advice Across The Financial Services Industry, Tom Baker, Benedict G. C. Dellaert 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Regulating Robo Advice Across The Financial Services Industry, Tom Baker, Benedict G. C. Dellaert

Faculty Scholarship

Automated financial product advisors – “robo advisors” – are emerging across the financial services industry, helping consumers choose investments, banking products, and insurance policies. Robo advisors have the potential to lower the cost and increase the quality and transparency of financial advice for consumers. But they also pose significant new challenges for regulators who are accustomed to assessing human intermediaries. A well-designed robo advisor will be honest and competent, and it will recommend only suitable products. Because humans design and implement robo advisors, however, honesty, competence, and suitability cannot simply be assumed. Moreover, robo advisors pose new scale risks that are different ...


Making Democracy Harder To Hack, Scott Shackelford, Bruce Schneier, Michael Sulmeyer, Anne Boustead, Ben Buchanan, Amanda N. Craig Deckard, Trey Herr, Jessica Malekos Smith 2017 Indiana University Kelley School of Business

Making Democracy Harder To Hack, Scott Shackelford, Bruce Schneier, Michael Sulmeyer, Anne Boustead, Ben Buchanan, Amanda N. Craig Deckard, Trey Herr, Jessica Malekos Smith

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

With the Russian government hack of the Democratic National Convention email servers and related leaks, the drama of the 2016 U.S. presidential race highlights an important point: nefarious hackers do not just pose a risk to vulnerable companies; cyber attacks can potentially impact the trajectory of democracies. Yet a consensus has been slow to emerge as to the desirability and feasibility of reclassifying elections—in particular, voting machines—as critical infrastructure, due in part to the long history of local and state control of voting procedures. This Article takes on the debate—focusing on policy options beyond former Department ...


Regulating By Robot: Administrative Decision Making In The Machine-Learning Era, Cary Coglianese, David Lehr 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Regulating By Robot: Administrative Decision Making In The Machine-Learning Era, Cary Coglianese, David Lehr

Faculty Scholarship

Machine-learning algorithms are transforming large segments of the economy, underlying everything from product marketing by online retailers to personalized search engines, and from advanced medical imaging to the software in self-driving cars. As machine learning’s use has expanded across all facets of society, anxiety has emerged about the intrusion of algorithmic machines into facets of life previously dependent on human judgment. Alarm bells sounding over the diffusion of artificial intelligence throughout the private sector only portend greater anxiety about digital robots replacing humans in the governmental sphere. A few administrative agencies have already begun to adopt this technology, while ...


Enjoying Your "Free" App? The First Circuit's Approach To An Outdated Law In Yershov V. Gannett Satellite Information Network, Inc., Wendy Beylik 2017 Boston College Law School

Enjoying Your "Free" App? The First Circuit's Approach To An Outdated Law In Yershov V. Gannett Satellite Information Network, Inc., Wendy Beylik

Boston College Law Review

On April 29, 2016, in Yershov v. Gannett Satellite Information Network, Inc. (“Yershov II”), the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit held that the Video Privacy Protection Act (“VPPA”) of 1988 extended to a free application provider who disclosed its users’ GPS coordinates, phone identification numbers, and video histories to a data analytics company. In a similar case, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit held that the VPPA did not apply because the relationship was too weak to render the user a “subscriber” under the Act. The U.S. Court of Appeals for ...


Will Quants Rule The (Legal) World?, Edward K. Cheng 2017 Brooklyn Law School

Will Quants Rule The (Legal) World?, Edward K. Cheng

Edward Cheng

The quants are coming! And they are here to stay-so argues Professor Ian Ayres' in his new book, Super Crunchers, which details the brave new world of statistical prediction and how it has already begun to affect our lives. For years, academic researchers have known about the considerable and at times surprising advantages of statistical models over the considered judgments of experienced clinicians and experts. Today, these models are emerging all over the landscape. Whether the field is wine, baseball, medicine, or consumer relations, they are vying against traditional experts for control over how we make decisions. To be sure ...


Standing In The Future: The Case For A Substantial Risk Theory Of "Injury-In-Fact" In Consumer Data Breach Class Actions, Nicholas Green 2017 Boston College Law School

Standing In The Future: The Case For A Substantial Risk Theory Of "Injury-In-Fact" In Consumer Data Breach Class Actions, Nicholas Green

Boston College Law Review

The increasing digitalization of our personal and professional lives has generated corresponding growth in the amount of electronically stored private information in the hands of third parties. That private information is at risk of theft, loss, or manipulation. Employers that hold employee tax information and merchants that hold significant troves of consumer credit card data are particularly attractive targets. When hackers strike, victims often band together in federal class actions, naming the custodians of their private data as defendants. More and more, however, district courts are dismissing these class action claims at the doorstep for lack of Article III standing ...


Pass Parallel Privacy Standards Or Privacy Perishes, Anne T. McKenna 2017 Penn State Law

Pass Parallel Privacy Standards Or Privacy Perishes, Anne T. Mckenna

Anne T. McKenna

No abstract provided.


Lessons For Policymakers And Regulators On The (Predictable) Future Of The Digital Economy, Kevin Werbach 2017 University of Pennsylvania

Lessons For Policymakers And Regulators On The (Predictable) Future Of The Digital Economy, Kevin Werbach

Penn Wharton Public Policy Initiative

The next stage in the evolution of the digital economy involves the creation of what can be called the “Internet of the World”—an expanding web of transactions, anticipated today by on-demand platforms such as Uber and Airbnb, that eventually will occur across trillions of networked devices and penetrate every sphere of human activity. This brief looks at the many legal questions raised by these novel services, in particular, at the regulatory classification of on-demand services, as well as the application of antitrust provisions, the imposition of taxes and fees, and the assignment of liability to these new platforms.


Blocking Ad Blockers, 16 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 272 (2017), Tyler Barbacovi 2017 John Marshall Law School

Blocking Ad Blockers, 16 J. Marshall Rev. Intell. Prop. L. 272 (2017), Tyler Barbacovi

The John Marshall Review of Intellectual Property Law

The prevalence of ad blocking software (software that prevents the loading of web based advertisements) is a growing problem for website owners and content creators who rely on advertising revenue to earn money. While the number of ad block users continues to increase, there has thus far been no significant legal challenge to ad blocking in the United States. This comment examines how a website owner, through a combination of technological improvements and the anti-circumvention provisions of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, could successfully raise a legal challenge against the purveyors of ad blocking software.


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