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Automating Defeasible Reasoning In Law With Answer Set Programming, How Khang LIM, Avishkar MAHAJAR, Martin STRECKER, Meng Weng WONG 2022 Singapore Management University

Automating Defeasible Reasoning In Law With Answer Set Programming, How Khang Lim, Avishkar Mahajar, Martin Strecker, Meng Weng Wong

Centre for Computational Law

The paper studies defeasible reasoning in rule-based systems, in particular about legal norms and contracts. We identify rule modifiers that specify how rules interact and how they can be overridden. We then define rule transformations that eliminate these modifiers, leading in the end to a translation of rules to formulas. For reasoning with and about rules, we contrast two approaches, one in a classical logic with SMT solvers, which is only briefly sketched, and one using non-monotonic logic with Answer Set Programming solvers, described in more detail.


Patents And The Pandemic: Intellectual Property, Social Contracts, And Access To Vaccines, Peter Lee 2022 University of California, Davis, School of Law

Patents And The Pandemic: Intellectual Property, Social Contracts, And Access To Vaccines, Peter Lee

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

Through enormous public support and private initiative, biopharmaceutical firms developed safe and effective COVID-19 vaccines in record time. These remarkable vaccines represent humanity’s best chance to end the devastating pandemic. However, difficult questions about ownership and access have arisen alongside the development and deployment of these vaccines. Biopharmaceutical companies have patented many of the technologies underlying these vaccines, thus seeming to pit intellectual property rights against the objective of wide and rapid dissemination of these critical resources. While prevailing debates have been framed in the language of intellectual property, this Article suggests that contract principles can help break the ...


Upaya Pemerintah Terhadap Perlindungan Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional Batik Motif Parang Sebagai Warisan Budaya Dunia, Raden Zulfikar Supinarko Putra 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Upaya Pemerintah Terhadap Perlindungan Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional Batik Motif Parang Sebagai Warisan Budaya Dunia, Raden Zulfikar Supinarko Putra

"Dharmasisya” Jurnal Program Magister Hukum FHUI

Abstract

Batik is not just a design on a piece of cloth, more than that, batik is a soul that blends in the procession of Indonesian society. Since the baby has been carried with a batik cloth, weddings wear batik cloth until when they die they will be covered with batik cloth too usually. This fact become a consideration for UNESCO to establish Indonesian Batik as a Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in the Fourth Session of The Intergovernmental Committee. This research uses a normative legal research method that is descriptive and analytical using a statutory ...


Perbedaan Akad Wakalah Bil Ujrah Dan Akad Qard Terhadap Permasalahan Akad Pembelian Barang Dalam Kehidupan Sehari-Hari, Zendy Sellyfio Ardiana 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Perbedaan Akad Wakalah Bil Ujrah Dan Akad Qard Terhadap Permasalahan Akad Pembelian Barang Dalam Kehidupan Sehari-Hari, Zendy Sellyfio Ardiana

"Dharmasisya” Jurnal Program Magister Hukum FHUI

Abstract

The wakalah bil ujrah and qard contract are contracts that often cause difficulties in implementing the purchase of goods in everyday life, both in safekeeping for purchasing goods and for buying and selling in general. Where if it is wrong in its application, it can cause income in a sale and purchase to be haraam due to an error in understanding the contract used and not describing benefit as the core of maqashid al-sharia which has an important role in determining Islamic law. The purpose of this paper is to find out how the solution to the application of ...


Tinjauan Yuridis Dalam Penyelesaian Pelanggaran Ham Berat Melalui Komisi Kebenaran Dan Rekonsiliasi Di Afrika Selatan Dan Indonesia, Tshana Erfandi 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Tinjauan Yuridis Dalam Penyelesaian Pelanggaran Ham Berat Melalui Komisi Kebenaran Dan Rekonsiliasi Di Afrika Selatan Dan Indonesia, Tshana Erfandi

"Dharmasisya” Jurnal Program Magister Hukum FHUI

Abstract

Several countries are currently developing a solution to the problem by establishing a particular commission. The commission works outside the courts, parliament and executive. In Indonesia, In Indonesia. The People's Consultative Assembly set a stipulation regarding the establishment of the National Center for Truth and Reconciliation: (NCTR) in 2000. This stipulation has the intent and purpose for national unity to identify existing problems, determine the conditions that must be made in order to achieve national reconciliation and establish policy direction as a guide to carry out the consolidation of unity of a nation. Whereas in South Africa, the ...


To License Or Not To License Reexamined: An Updated Report On Licensing Of Digital Examiners Under State Private Investigator Statutes, Thomas Lonardo, Alan Rea, Doug White 2022 Roger Williams University

To License Or Not To License Reexamined: An Updated Report On Licensing Of Digital Examiners Under State Private Investigator Statutes, Thomas Lonardo, Alan Rea, Doug White

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

In this update to the 2015 study, the authors examine US state statutes and regulations relating to licensing and enforcement of Digital Examiner functions under each state’s private investigator/detective statute. As with the prior studies, the authors find that very few state statutes explicitly distinguish between Private Investigators (PI) and Digital Examiners (DE), and when they do, they either explicitly require a license or exempt them from the licensing statute. As noted in the previous 2015 study there is a minor trend in which some states are moving to exempt DE from PI licensing requirements. We examine this ...


Tinjauan Hukum Peran Direktorat Jenderal Administrasi Hukum Umum Terhadap Beneficial Owner Pada Perseroan Terbatas Dalam Tindak Pidana Pencucian Uang, Mochamad Lutfi Suryana 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Tinjauan Hukum Peran Direktorat Jenderal Administrasi Hukum Umum Terhadap Beneficial Owner Pada Perseroan Terbatas Dalam Tindak Pidana Pencucian Uang, Mochamad Lutfi Suryana

"Dharmasisya” Jurnal Program Magister Hukum FHUI

Abstract

Money laundering is an attempt to disguise or obscure dirty money, the perpetrator of the crime of money laundering continues to try to disguise and hide assets and financial transactions by utilizing publicly listed companies as a means of committing the crime of money laundering. The state in particular through several agencies such as the Ministry of Finance, the Directorate General of Taxes, the Ministry of Law and Human Rights, the Directorate General of General Legal Administration, the Financial Services Authority (OJK), the Financial Transaction Analysis Reporting Center (PPATK), the Corruption Eradication Commission (KPK) are increasingly encourage openness to ...


Too Much Of A Good Thing? A Governing Knowledge Commons Review Of Abundance In Context, Michael J. Madison, Brett M. Frischmann, Madelyn Sanfilippo, Katherine J. Strandburg 2022 University of PIttsburgh School of Law

Too Much Of A Good Thing? A Governing Knowledge Commons Review Of Abundance In Context, Michael J. Madison, Brett M. Frischmann, Madelyn Sanfilippo, Katherine J. Strandburg

Articles

The economics of abundance, along with the sociology of abundance, the law of abundance, and so forth, should be re-framed, linked, and situated in a common context for empirical rather than conceptual research. Abundance may seem to be a new, big thing, between anxiety over information overload, Big Data, and related technological disruptions. But scholars know that abundance is an ancient phenomenon, which only seemed to disappear as twentieth century social science focused on scarcity instead. Restoring the study of abundance, and figuring out how to solve the problems that abundance might create, means shedding disciplinary blinders and going back ...


Cyber-Silencing The Community: Youtube, Divino Group, And Reimagining Section 230, Layla G. Maurer 2022 Case Western Reserve University School of Law

Cyber-Silencing The Community: Youtube, Divino Group, And Reimagining Section 230, Layla G. Maurer

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

Social media platforms, once simple messaging boards, have grown to colossal size. They are now a vital source of communication and connection, particularly for marginalized groups such as the LGBTQ+ community. Social media holds incredible sway over the news, political discourse, and entertainment that we consume, and the platforms we use are now able to sculpt conversations simply by allowing or disallowing (i.e., moderating) specific types of speech or content.

One indirect form of moderation is demonetization, a means by which content creators are disallowed revenue from advertisements on their hosted media. The consequence of improper demonetization is not ...


Tiktok The Musical: Copyright Issues Raised By The "Ratatouille" Musical, Paige V. Gagliardi 2022 University of Washington School of Law

Tiktok The Musical: Copyright Issues Raised By The "Ratatouille" Musical, Paige V. Gagliardi

Washington Journal of Law, Technology & Arts

TikTok the Musical: Copyright Issues Raised by the “Ratatouille” Musical, explores the growing trend in derivative works and the failures of current copyright law to address it. This article asserts that while derivative works are excellent creative outlets, a safe haven in a tumultuous world, allowing appropriation of copyrights via the fair use doctrine conflicts with the foundations of copyright law. This article argues that IP giants such as the Walt Disney Company have sent a dangerous message to the general public by allowing the TikTok trend of the #ratatouillemusical to become an actual musical: that unlicensed derivative works will ...


A Guide To Federal Broadband Funding Programs - Overview Of Bead (Updated) - June 2022, New York Law School 2022 New York Law School

A Guide To Federal Broadband Funding Programs - Overview Of Bead (Updated) - June 2022, New York Law School

Reports and Resources

No abstract provided.


Government By Code? Blockchain Applications To Public Sector Governance, Pedro Bustamante, Meina Cai, Marcela Gomez, Colin Harris, Prashabnt Krishnamurthy, Wilson Law, Michael J. Madison, Ilia Murtazashvili, Jennifer Brick Murtazashvili, Tymofiy Mylovanov, Nataliia Shapoval, Annette Vee, Martin B. H. Weiss 2022 University of Pittsburgh - School of Information Sciences, Students

Government By Code? Blockchain Applications To Public Sector Governance, Pedro Bustamante, Meina Cai, Marcela Gomez, Colin Harris, Prashabnt Krishnamurthy, Wilson Law, Michael J. Madison, Ilia Murtazashvili, Jennifer Brick Murtazashvili, Tymofiy Mylovanov, Nataliia Shapoval, Annette Vee, Martin B. H. Weiss

Articles

Studies of blockchain governance can be divided into analyses of the governance of blockchains (such as rules and power dynamics within a given network) and governance by blockchains (such as how blockchains can be implemented to improve self-governance of community-based peer production networks). Less emphasis has been placed on applications of distributed ledgers to public sector governance. Our review clarifies that the decentralization and distributive features that enable blockchains to link up loosely connected private organizations and public agencies to improve efficiency and transparency of government transactions. However, most blockchain applications lack clear advantages over the conventional digital recording of ...


"I'M Concerned About This Post": Combatting Fake News On Social Media, Jake Latimer 2022 Seattle University School of Law

"I'M Concerned About This Post": Combatting Fake News On Social Media, Jake Latimer

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

The public concern over the spread of “fake news” on social media has increased over the last decade. Large social networking platforms like Facebook and Twitter have attempted to address fake news by flagging it as misleading. Even former President Trump has seemingly exhibited a sense of paranoia over its spread. While the term “fake news” is often used as a political weapon to discredit unfavorable information and opinions, fake news refers to factually false or grossly misleading content likely designed to sway or entrench one’s opinion on a particular topic. The pervasiveness of this type of fake news ...


Metasoftware: Building Blocks For Legal Technology, Houman Shadab 2022 New York Law School

Metasoftware: Building Blocks For Legal Technology, Houman Shadab

Seattle Journal of Technology, Environmental & Innovation Law

This Article develops a novel concept in information technology called “metasoftware.” It then applies the concept of metasoftware to developing legal technology.

Metasoftware enables users to create the software of their choosing and stands in sharp contrast to traditional, functional. Functional software is the default type of software that is currently produced and includes word processing, email, social networking, enterprise resource management, online marketplaces, and video game software. Metasoftware, by contrast, is not functional. Metasoftware presents the user with a blank slate upon which to build functional software.

I argue that software is metasoftware to that extent that (1) it ...


Small Business Cybersecurity: A Loophole To Consumer Data, Matthew R. Espinosa 2022 St. Mary's University School of Law

Small Business Cybersecurity: A Loophole To Consumer Data, Matthew R. Espinosa

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Small businesses and small minority owned businesses are vital to our nation’s economy; therefore legislation, regulation, and policy has been created in order to assist them in overcoming their economic stability issues and ensure they continue to serve the communities that rely on them. However, there is not a focus on regulating nor assisting small businesses to ensure their cybersecurity standards are up to par despite them increasingly becoming a victim of cyberattacks that yield high consequences. The external oversight and assistance is necessary for small businesses due to their lack of knowledge in implementing effective cybersecurity policies, the ...


Prospects For Legal Analytics: Some Approaches To Extracting More Meaning From Legal Texts, Kevin D. Ashley 2022 University of Cincinnati College of Law

Prospects For Legal Analytics: Some Approaches To Extracting More Meaning From Legal Texts, Kevin D. Ashley

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


Ransomware, Cyber Sanctions, And The Problem Of Timing, Christine Abely 2022 New England Law | Boston

Ransomware, Cyber Sanctions, And The Problem Of Timing, Christine Abely

Boston College Law Review

This essay argues that the lack of a federal blanket prohibition against ransomware payments undermines the purpose and effectiveness of the U.S. sanctions regime. The U.S. cyber-related sanctions program suffers from an essential problem of timing: often payments to malicious cyber actors are not prohibited until those actors have been named to the Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons List (SDN) maintained by the Office of Foreign Assets Control in the U.S. Department of the Treasury. Yet those actors generally are not so designated until they have been identified as malicious through a completed or attempted attack ...


A Hacker “May” Have Accessed Your Data: Can Victims Of Data Breaches Sue Before Alleging Misuse?, John Landzert 2022 Boston College Law School

A Hacker “May” Have Accessed Your Data: Can Victims Of Data Breaches Sue Before Alleging Misuse?, John Landzert

Boston College Law Review

On February 4, 2021, in Tsao v. Captiva MVP Restaurant Partners, LLC, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit held that the mere existence of a data breach is insufficient to grant plaintiffs standing to sue the company that exposed their personal information. By doing so, the Eleventh Circuit aligned itself with the Second, Third, Fourth, and Eighth Circuits. In contrast, the Sixth, Seventh, Ninth, and D.C. Circuits have granted standing in such cases. This Comment argues that the Eleventh Circuit properly applied Supreme Court jurisprudence at the time it decided Tsao and, in light of ...


Enter The Battleverse: China's Metaverse War, Josh Baughman 2022 University of South Florida

Enter The Battleverse: China's Metaverse War, Josh Baughman

Military Cyber Affairs

No abstract provided.


Dirty Little Secrets: The Constitutional Feasibility Of Implementing Legislation To Compel Licensing Of Trade Secrets To End The Covid-19 Pandemic, Noah Olson 2022 University of Cincinnati College of Law

Dirty Little Secrets: The Constitutional Feasibility Of Implementing Legislation To Compel Licensing Of Trade Secrets To End The Covid-19 Pandemic, Noah Olson

The University of Cincinnati Intellectual Property and Computer Law Journal

No abstract provided.


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