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Abandoning The Subjective And Objective Components Of A Well-Founded Fear Of Persecution, Grace Kim 2021 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Abandoning The Subjective And Objective Components Of A Well-Founded Fear Of Persecution, Grace Kim

Northwestern Journal of Law & Social Policy

Current asylum law requires that asylum seekers prove that they have a “well-founded fear of persecution.” However, a “well-founded fear”—the evidentiary standard in asylum cases—has remained ambiguous and difficult to apply in asylum cases. In Cardoza-Fonseca, the Supreme Court held that an asylum seeker can establish a well-founded fear with less than a 50% probability of future persecution. Although the Supreme Court sought to clarify the meaning of a well-founded fear, the decision has complicated the evidentiary standard by implying that it consists of two parts: the subjective component and objective component. The “subjective” component—the asylum seekers ...


Discovering And Enforcing A Human Right To Environmental Protection, Mélanne Andromecca Civic 2021 American University

Discovering And Enforcing A Human Right To Environmental Protection, Mélanne Andromecca Civic

Journal of Natural Resources & Environmental Law

No abstract provided.


Digital Health Passes In The Age Of Covid-19: Are “Vaccine Passports” Lawful And Ethical?, Lawrence O. Gostin, I. Glenn Cohen, Jana Shaw 2021 Georgetown University - Law Center - O'Neill Institute for National and Global Health Law

Digital Health Passes In The Age Of Covid-19: Are “Vaccine Passports” Lawful And Ethical?, Lawrence O. Gostin, I. Glenn Cohen, Jana Shaw

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

As COVID-19 vaccination rates in high-income countries increase, governments are proposing or implementing digital health passes (DHPs) (vaccine “passports” or “certificates”). Israel uses a “green pass” smartphone application permitting vaccinated individuals’ access to public venues (eg, gyms, hotels, entertainment). The European Union plans a “Digital Green Certificate” enabling free travel within the bloc (see eTable in the Supplement). New York is piloting an IBM “Excelsior Pass,” confirming vaccination or negative SARS-CoV-2 test status through confidential data transfers to fast-track business reopenings. This paper examines the benefits of DHPs, scientific challenges, and whether they are lawful and ethical.


The New Managerialism: Courts, Positive Duties, And Economic And Social Rights, Katharine G. Young 2021 Boston College Law School

The New Managerialism: Courts, Positive Duties, And Economic And Social Rights, Katharine G. Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

An inseparable component of liberal constitutionalism is the respect accorded to so-called negative rights, which rest on duties of government restraint. But just as governments must have their hands tied, in this model, they must also work to secure rights, by actively and effectively planning, regulating, budgeting, and monitoring. These positive duties are particularly pronounced for so-called positive rights, which guarantee access to goods, services and opportunities such as social security, education, health care, land, food, water, sanitation, or to a clean environment. Of course, it is clear that so-called negative rights require both duties of commission and restraint; just ...


The Canons Of Social And Economic Rights, Katharine G. Young 2021 Boston College Law School

The Canons Of Social And Economic Rights, Katharine G. Young

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

Social and economic rights occupy an unsettled place in any global canon of constitutional democracy and human rights. This Article, appearing in a collection of Global Canons in an Age of Uncertainty (S. Choudhry, M. Hailbronner & M. Kumm, eds., OUP) recommends a contender for canonical status, at the same time as it problematizes the search. Insofar as the search for a canon reveals the boundaries of what may be considered exemplary claims of constitutional and democratic practice, the 2000 South African case of Republic of South Africa v. Grootboom is canonical for its treatment of social and economic rights. This ...


Foreign Cyber Interference In Elections, Michael N. Schmitt 2021 University of Reading

Foreign Cyber Interference In Elections, Michael N. Schmitt

International Law Studies

In the 2020 U.S. elections, Russia authorized and conducted influence operations designed to support former President Trump, although it did not attempt to alter any technical aspect of the voting process. Russia was not alone. Iran mounted a multi-pronged covert influence campaign intended to undercut Trump’s reelection prospects, while other foreign actors–like Lebanese Hizballah, Cuba, and Venezuela–also tried to influence the election. Interestingly, China did not conduct operations designed to alter the outcome, although it did consider doing so. The phenomenon of election meddling, however, extends well beyond the United States to such countries as Austria ...


Ozone Depletion, Developing Countries, And Human Rights: Seeking Better Ground On Which To Fight For Protection Of The Ozone Layer, Victor Williams 2021 City University of New York

Ozone Depletion, Developing Countries, And Human Rights: Seeking Better Ground On Which To Fight For Protection Of The Ozone Layer, Victor Williams

Journal of Natural Resources & Environmental Law

No abstract provided.


Call For Proposals 2021: The Social Practice Of Human Rights Conference, University of Dayton 2021 University of Dayton

Call For Proposals 2021: The Social Practice Of Human Rights Conference, University Of Dayton

Content presented at the Social Practice of Human Rights Conference

The global pandemic has rapidly broken down boundaries and structures—from personal to social to institutional. Long-standing practices and norms have changed radically to respond to the current crisis, while some institutional and political dynamics contrary to human rights and democracy have become further entrenched. New pressures on human rights are also heightened by the pandemic, including rights to privacy, access to health, and digital capitalism. This crisis has shown that for human rights, the perils and potentials have increased hand in hand.

The stark upending by the pandemic provides proof-of-concept for the disintegration of silos and the erosion of ...


The Concept Of Transparency In The Work Of The Courts And Its Role In The Administration Of Justice, ERKIN KUCHKARBAEVICH SABIROV 2021 Academy of the General Prosecution office

The Concept Of Transparency In The Work Of The Courts And Its Role In The Administration Of Justice, Erkin Kuchkarbaevich Sabirov

ProAcademy

The article examines the concept of transparency in the activities of the courts and its role in the administration of justice. Information about the private lives of persons who cannot be disclosed and will be heard in closed court shall be specified in detail and shall include personal audio and video recordings, photographs and films, electronic, digital and other documentary means in addition to personal correspondence and other personal messages. When the case is heard in closed session of the court, it should be borne in mind that the participation of persons under the age of sixteen is not allowed ...


Human Rights In Religions A Comparative Study Between Islam, Hinduism, And Magian Religion, Hamdi A. Al Sharqawi 2021 Qatar University-College of Sharia and Islamic Studies

Human Rights In Religions A Comparative Study Between Islam, Hinduism, And Magian Religion, Hamdi A. Al Sharqawi

Journal Sharia and Law

Human Rights are an essential part of the cultural patterns of Human Societies. The issue has a dialectical relationship with social behaviors and political practices that expresses itself in ideas and thoughts, which imposes itself on politicians and political thinkers especially in Western Civilization as we see it in Medieval and contemporary history of the West. Today it has become the issue that engages the arena of our Contemporary Politics and Thought. It is not suprising to see our thinkers and political leaders engaged in discussing it in all its dimensions.

Since Religion is an important constituent of human culture ...


Legal Protection For The Environmental Refugee, Dr. Alia Zakaria 2021 Assistant Professor of Public Law, College of Law, Al Ain University for Science and Technology, United Arab Emirates.

Legal Protection For The Environmental Refugee, Dr. Alia Zakaria

Journal Sharia and Law

In recent years, the environmental migrant movements have increased significantly around the world as a result of the recent environmental disasters, whether they were natural or man-made. Moreover, although the Global Compact on Refugees - adopted by the United Nations on 17/12/2018- has affirmed the climatic factors and natural disasters as causes for the increase of refugee movements, there are yet no binding legal provisions upon which the receiving countries are obligated by virtue of law to receive those environmental migrants.

In this regard, this current study sheds light on the concept of "Environmental Refugees" in specific; as the ...


Human Rights In The Era Of Artificial Intelligence “Figures, Opinions And Solutions”, Dr. Heidi issa Hassan 2021 Cairo University

Human Rights In The Era Of Artificial Intelligence “Figures, Opinions And Solutions”, Dr. Heidi Issa Hassan

Journal Sharia and Law

Technology has cast its shadow on us in most aspects of our lives and nothing has escaped its grip even human intelligence. Human intelligence now has a major rival known as "artificial intelligence" (AI). The main question is can machines think like humans?!

Since AI involves, in part, the dispensation with humans, then it is a matter that affects human rights, regardless of the manifestations, consequences or even scope of this dispensation.

Accordingly, this study has several problems to tackle: 1) the absence of adequate binding national and international provisions governing AI, 2) AI systems involve changing the way businesses ...


2020 Annual Report, Deirdre M. Smith Cumberland Legal Aid Clinic 2021 University of Maine School of Law

2020 Annual Report, Deirdre M. Smith Cumberland Legal Aid Clinic

Cumberland Legal Aid Clinic Annual Report

  • Program Overview 3
  • General Practice Clinic 5
  • Prisoner Assistance Clinic 6
  • Juvenile Justice Clinic 7
  • Refugee and Human Rights Clinic 9
  • Protection From Abuse Program 10
  • Staffing 11


Relieved Of All Punishment By Human Hands: The Status Of International Criminal Convictions, Dorothy M. Canevari 2021 William & Mary Law School

Relieved Of All Punishment By Human Hands: The Status Of International Criminal Convictions, Dorothy M. Canevari

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Family In The Balance: Barton V. Barr And The Systematic Violation Of The Right To Family Life In U.S. Immigration Enforcement, David Baluarte 2021 William & Mary Law School

Family In The Balance: Barton V. Barr And The Systematic Violation Of The Right To Family Life In U.S. Immigration Enforcement, David Baluarte

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

The United States systematically violates the international human right to family life in its system of removal of noncitizens. Cancellation of removal provides a means for noncitizens to challenge their removal based on family ties in the United States, but Congress has placed draconian limits on the discretion of immigration courts to cancel removal where noncitizens have committed certain crimes. The recently issued U.S. Supreme Court decision in Barton v. Barr illustrates the troubling trend of affording less discretion for immigration courts to balance family life in removal decisions that involve underlying criminal conduct. At issue was the “stop-time ...


Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady 2021 Dublin City Schools

Pornography: Social, Emotional And Mental Implications Among Adolescents, William Kelly Canady

National Youth Advocacy and Resilience Conference

This presentation will explain the historical development of pornography. It will highlight four segments: 1- Porn’s impact on brain development of reward pathways, ultimately increasing the appetite for more porn. 2- Porn can be a false substitute for real intimacy, resulting in decreased sexual satisfaction with a real person and increased verbal and physical aggression. 3- Porn promotes sex trafficking, promotes multiple sex partners and reduced STD prevention. 4- A review of interventions available to assist clients in navigating a lifestyle away from pornography.


Learning From The Past: Using Korematsu And Other Japanese Internment Cases To Provide Protections Against Immigration Detentions, Caleb Ward 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Learning From The Past: Using Korematsu And Other Japanese Internment Cases To Provide Protections Against Immigration Detentions, Caleb Ward

Arkansas Law Review

One of the darkest periods in modern United States history is reoccurring with mixed public approval. During World War II, the United States government enacted executive orders creating a curfew, proscribing living areas, and forcing the exclusion and detention of all Japanese descendants from the West Coast. The United States justified these grievous freedom and equality violations through an increased need for national security “because we [were] at war with [Japan].” However, this perceived increased need for national security came from a fraudulent assessment showing any Japanese-American could be planning espionage or sabotage of the United States. After the war ...


The European Convention For The Prevention Of Torture And Inhuman Or Degrading Treatment Or Punishment: Genesis Of An Exemplary Model Of International Control On Human Rights, Giovanni Distefano 2021 Professor of International Law At the University of Neuchatel

The European Convention For The Prevention Of Torture And Inhuman Or Degrading Treatment Or Punishment: Genesis Of An Exemplary Model Of International Control On Human Rights, Giovanni Distefano

Journal Sharia and Law

The 26 June 1987, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe adopted the “European Convention for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment”, which entered eventually into force two years later. Being closely intertwined with the European Convention of Human Rights (1950), the Torture Convention establishes a parallel monitoring system ensuring the respect of the subjective rights contained therein. In addition to the 1950 Convention, it introduces an absolutely novel mechanism aimed to address in a preventive and effective way the needs related to the protection of human dignity and other core human rights ...


The Concept Of Torture And Other Forms Of Cruel, Inhuman Or Degrading Treatment: Study On The Jurisprudence Of International Oversight Mechanisms On Human Rights, Mohammed Khalil Al Mousa 2021 College of Law, UAE University

The Concept Of Torture And Other Forms Of Cruel, Inhuman Or Degrading Treatment: Study On The Jurisprudence Of International Oversight Mechanisms On Human Rights, Mohammed Khalil Al Mousa

Journal Sharia and Law

Established principles of customary international law of human rights include prohibition of torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment. International Human Rights conventions and regional legislations recognize this principle. But the vast majority of these texts have not been exposed to the concept of torture and therefore cannot distinguish it from other prohibited forms of ill-treatment, with the exception of the United Nations Convention against Torture and other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment and regional conventions limited to defining torture, there is no other definition in the human rights conventions that addresses this concept.

It is noteworthy to add ...


Pornography, Its Harms, And A New Legal Strategy: Research And Experience In Japan, Seiya Morita, Caroline Norma 2021 Kokugakuin University

Pornography, Its Harms, And A New Legal Strategy: Research And Experience In Japan, Seiya Morita, Caroline Norma

Dignity: A Journal of Analysis of Exploitation and Violence

In this article we describe pornography’s harms in Japan, which are known about from surveys and research, and from the outreach and consulting activities of Japanese feminist-abolitionist groups. Among these are the Anti-Pornography and Prostitution Research Group (APP) and People Against Pornography and Sexual Violence (PAPS). We then propose a renewed classification scheme for pornography’s harms that centrally considers the experiences of victims in Japan. Lastly, we consider various legal approaches to addressing the myriad harms we describe and suggest possibilities for a new legal strategy. The article’s research comes from Japanese-language materials produced by the above-mentioned ...


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