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A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations Of The Bitcoin Economy, Benjamin W. Akins JD, LLM, Jennifer L. Chapman JD, CPA, Jason M. Gordon JD, MBA 2015 SelectedWorks

A Whole New World: Income Tax Considerations Of The Bitcoin Economy, Benjamin W. Akins Jd, Llm, Jennifer L. Chapman Jd, Cpa, Jason M. Gordon Jd, Mba

Benjamin W. Akins

Bitcoin is a virtual, cryptocurrency growing rapidly in influence throughout the world. Numerous characteristics associated with the bitcoin system, including low transaction costs and greater user privacy, make it appealing as a medium of electronic payment. The number of users of bitcoin, including merchants accepting the currency as a form of payment, has grown considerably in recent years. Estimates indicate that there are more than 60,000 active bitcoin users as of September 2012, with nearly 11 million bitcoins in existence. According to the latest estimates, bitcoin market capitalization is roughly $9 billion. The growth of bitcoin as an accepted ...


Pari Passu To Gunboats: Nml V. Argentina, Vassilis Paliouras 2014 SelectedWorks

Pari Passu To Gunboats: Nml V. Argentina, Vassilis Paliouras

Bocconi Legal Papers

This article provides a detailed overview of the latest litigation saga before the courts of the state of New York between NML Capital, a distressed debt hedge fund owned by Elliott Management Corporation, and Argentina. The two of them arguably constitute the most aggressive players in the area of sovereign debt, and it comes with no surprise that much of the relative law has been framed by disputes to which, either one or both of them, were parties. At the heart of the present dispute was the interpretation of the pari passu (originally meaning “on equal step/footing”) clause that ...


Exporting Fatca, Joshua D. Blank, Ruth Mason 2014 NELLCO

Exporting Fatca, Joshua D. Blank, Ruth Mason

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

The Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA) represents a powerful response by the United States to flagrant offshore tax evasion. Although the new reporting regime has been criticized as unilateral and extraterritorial, this short article, prepared for a symposium hosted by Pepperdine Law Review, shows that multilateralism and cooperation so far have been the keys to implementing FATCA. In addition to spurring bilateral Intergovernmental Agreements (IGAs) to implement FATCA, and copycat legislation in other jurisdictions, for many countries, the FATCA reporting requirements represent an aspirational new global standard for automatic exchange of information – one that would supplement, if not replace ...


Taxing Offshore Transactions In India And The Territoriality Clause - A Case For Substantial Constitutional Limitations On Indian Parliament's Power To Retrospectively Amend The Income Tax Act, Khagesh Gautam 2014 SelectedWorks

Taxing Offshore Transactions In India And The Territoriality Clause - A Case For Substantial Constitutional Limitations On Indian Parliament's Power To Retrospectively Amend The Income Tax Act, Khagesh Gautam

Khagesh Gautam

No abstract provided.


Igas Vs. Maatm: Has Tax Bilateralism Outlived Its Usefulness?, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Gil Savir 2014 University of Michigan Law School

Igas Vs. Maatm: Has Tax Bilateralism Outlived Its Usefulness?, Reuven S. Avi-Yonah, Gil Savir

Law & Economics Working Papers

The main concern about the IGAs is that they enshrine the bilateral model of tax information exchange that has dominated the 20th century. Unfortunately, there are good reasons to believe this bilateral model does not work, especially when IGAs are signed with countries like the Cayman Islands who have no interest in reciprocity and every interest in making them not work.

Instead, there is an alternative. In response to the financial crisis and the outrage it caused in Europe about tax evasion by the wealthy, the OECD has proposed a Multilateral Agreement for Administrative Assistance in Tax Matters (MAATM), which ...


United States National Report On Tax Privacy, Joshua D. Blank 2013 NELLCO

United States National Report On Tax Privacy, Joshua D. Blank

New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers

This National Report was prepared for a conference titled Tax Secrecy and Tax Transparency – The Relevance of Confidentiality in Tax Law, which took place in July 2012 in Rust, Austria and was co-hosted by the Institute for Austrian and International Tax Law at the Vienna University of Economics and Business and by Örebro University, Sweden. The Report describes the current tax privacy protections that apply to taxpayers in the United States and provides an overview of the policy considerations that have contributed to their enactment. Portions of this Report were originally published, in part, in Joshua D. Blank, In Defense ...


Waiting For Perseus: A Sur-Reply To Professors Graetz And Warren, Ruth Mason, Michael S. Knoll 2013 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Waiting For Perseus: A Sur-Reply To Professors Graetz And Warren, Ruth Mason, Michael S. Knoll

Faculty Scholarship

This manuscript responds to Income Tax Discrimination: Still Stuck in a Labyrinth of Impossibility by Professors Michael Graetz and Alvin Warren (121 Yale L.J. 1118). In that article, Professors Graetz and Warren challenge many of the arguments we made in our own article entitled, “What is Tax Discrimination?” (121 Yale L.J. 1014). In our earlier article, we set out to accomplish two goals. First, we sought to identify the principle behind the doctrine of tax discrimination as that doctrine is applied by the U.S. Supreme Court and the Court of Justice of the European Union (ECJ) and ...


United States National Report On Tax Privacy, Joshua D. Blank 2013 NELLCO

United States National Report On Tax Privacy, Joshua D. Blank

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

This National Report was prepared for a conference titled Tax Secrecy and Tax Transparency – The Relevance of Confidentiality in Tax Law, which took place in July 2012 in Rust, Austria and was co-hosted by the Institute for Austrian and International Tax Law at the Vienna University of Economics and Business and by Örebro University, Sweden. The Report describes the current tax privacy protections that apply to taxpayers in the United States and provides an overview of the policy considerations that have contributed to their enactment. Portions of this Report were originally published, in part, in Joshua D. Blank, In Defense ...


Are Cryptocurrencies 'Super' Tax Havens?, Omri Y. Marian 2013 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Are Cryptocurrencies 'Super' Tax Havens?, Omri Y. Marian

Faculty Publications

I describe the mechanisms by which cryptocurrencies — a subcategory of virtual currencies — could replace tax havens as the weapon-of-choice for tax-evaders. I argue such outcome is reasonably expected in the foreseeable future due to the contemporary convergence of two processes. The first process is the increasing popularity of cryptocurrencies, of which Bitcoin is the most widely recognized example. The second process is the transformation of financial intermediaries to agents in the service of tax authorities, as part of the fight against offshore tax evasion. Financial institutions are faced with increased governmental pressure to deliver information about account holders, to withhold ...


Jurisdiction To Tax Corporations, Omri Marian 2013 Boston College Law School

Jurisdiction To Tax Corporations, Omri Marian

Boston College Law Review

Corporate tax residence is fundamental to our federal income tax system. Whether a corporation is classified as “domestic” or “foreign” for U.S. federal income tax purposes determines the extent of tax jurisdiction the United States has over the corporation and its affiliates. Unfortunately, tax scholars seem to agree that the concept of corporate tax residence is “meaningless.” Underlying this perception are the ideas that corporations cannot have “real” residence because they are imaginary entities and because taxpayers can easily manipulate corporate tax residence tests. Commentators try to deal with the perceived meaninglessness by either trying to identify a normative ...


Moving Money: International Financial Flows, Taxes, Money Laundering & Transparency, Richard Gordon, Andrew P. Morriss 2013 SelectedWorks

Moving Money: International Financial Flows, Taxes, Money Laundering & Transparency, Richard Gordon, Andrew P. Morriss

Andrew P Morriss

Recent publicity over enormous estimates of “missing” wealth and the use of sophisticated tax strategies by companies like Apple, Google, and Starbucks have produced a demand that the wealthy pay a “fair” amount of tax regardless of their compliance with the letter of tax laws. In particular, the Tax Justice Network’s claim that $21-$32 trillion of “hidden” wealth remains untaxed has garnered considerable attention. In this paper we argue that these claims rest on poor data and analysis and mistakes about how financial transactions work. We further argue that the disputes are about fundamentally conflicting visions of how ...


The Taxation Of Cloud Computing And Digital Content, David Shakow 2013 University of Pennsylvania Law School

The Taxation Of Cloud Computing And Digital Content, David Shakow

Faculty Scholarship

“Cloud computing” raises important and difficult questions in state tax law, and for Federal taxes, particularly in the foreign tax area. As cloud computing solutions are adopted by businesses, items we view as tangible are transformed into digital products. In this article, I will describe the problems cloud computing poses for tax systems. I will show how current law is applied to cloud computing and will identify the difficulties current approaches face as they are applied to this developing technology.

My primary interest is how Federal tax law applies to cloud computing, particularly as the new technology affects international transactions ...


Through A Latte, Darkly: Starbucks's Stateless Income Planning, Edward D. Kleinbard 2013 BLR

Through A Latte, Darkly: Starbucks's Stateless Income Planning, Edward D. Kleinbard

University of Southern California Law and Economics Working Paper Series

In this report, Kleinbard reviews the recent Starbucks Corp. U.K. tax controversy (including a parliamentary inquiry), which revolved around the intersection of the company’s consistent unprofitability in the United Kingdom with large deductible intragroup payments to Dutch, Swiss, and U.S. affiliates. He also examines the company’s more recent submission to the House Ways and Means Committee. From those, Kleinbard draws two lessons.

First, if Starbucks can organize itself as a successful stateless income generator, any multinational company can. Starbucks follows a classic brick-and-mortar retail business model, with direct customer interactions in thousands of ‘‘high street’’ locations ...


An Exploratory Study Of Investment Compliance Management In The Enron Collapse, Valencia Tamir Johnson 2013 SelectedWorks

An Exploratory Study Of Investment Compliance Management In The Enron Collapse, Valencia Tamir Johnson

Valencia T Johnson

This paper is to critique a thesis titled An Exploratory Study of Investment Compliance Management in the Enron Collapse (2013). This thesis can be found on the IBLS database, and on the Thomas Jefferson School of Law record database. This paper mentions the Enron scandal that played a major role in shaking investors’ and stakeholders’ confidence, in part because the corporation’s administrators were able to conceal its losses for nearly five years. This thesis examines the history of Enron and describes the circumstances leading up to its collapse in 2001, paying particular attention to the violation of corporate governance ...


Apple Hearing: Observations From An Expert Witness, J. Richard Harvey 2013 BLR

Apple Hearing: Observations From An Expert Witness, J. Richard Harvey

Villanova University School of Law Working Paper Series

The US Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations held a highly publicized hearing on May 21, 2013 to discuss Apple, Inc.’s international tax planning. As the first expert witness, I had a ring-side seat to the hearing and Apple’s international tax planning.

One purpose of this article is to clearly identify the two key tax policy issues that need to be addressed by policymakers both in the US and internationally. Because the discussion at the hearing was very U.S. centric, these two issues may have been lost in the rhetoric.

• Should the US and the rest of the ...


2012 Oecd Model Tax Convention (Article 7), Sung-Soo Han 2013 SelectedWorks

2012 Oecd Model Tax Convention (Article 7), Sung-Soo Han

Sung-Soo Han

This file is the Korean version of Article 7 of 2012 OECD Model Tax Convention.


2012 Oecd Model Tax Convention (Article 6), Sung-Soo Han 2013 SelectedWorks

2012 Oecd Model Tax Convention (Article 6), Sung-Soo Han

Sung-Soo Han

This file is the Korean version of Article 6 of 2012 OECD Model Tax Convention.


The Transfer Pricing Regs Need A Good Edit, Susan C. Morse 2013 Pepperdine University

The Transfer Pricing Regs Need A Good Edit, Susan C. Morse

Pepperdine Law Review

The U.S. government has broad discretion to change the transfer pricing regulations as they apply to corporate multinationals, and these regulations need changing because they give too much leeway to taxpayers and will continue to serve an important function in the division of international tax jurisdiction regardless of the fate of pending reform proposals. Xilinx and Veritas illustrate that taxpayers whose transfer pricing is challenged can successfully defend themselves using arm’s length definitions in the government’s own regulations. U.S. tax administrators should write revised transfer pricing rules that afford taxpayers less contracting freedom. They should incrementally ...


Putting The Reign Back In Sovereign, Allison Christians 2013 Pepperdine University

Putting The Reign Back In Sovereign, Allison Christians

Pepperdine Law Review

In its first term, the Obama administration enacted two pieces of legislation, each designed to protect an increasingly vulnerable income tax base, and each of which had the potential to set a new and unprecedented course for no less than the regulation of the global economy by the nation-state. The first, the Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA), sought to end global tax evasion through tax havens. The second, a little-noticed two-page addendum to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank), sought to end the contribution of American multinationals to corruption in governance by codifying the transparency ...


A Proposal For The Tax Treatment Of Interest In A Territorial System, Martin A. Sullivan 2013 Pepperdine University

A Proposal For The Tax Treatment Of Interest In A Territorial System, Martin A. Sullivan

Pepperdine Law Review

To prevent negative effective tax rates in a territorial system, a multinational corporation’s deductions for interest expense attributable to foreign profits must be disallowed. To determine what portion of worldwide interest is foreign, it is commonly suggested that interest be allocated in proportion to assets. Because it would ease administrative problems and because it would reduce the incentives to shift profits through aggressive transfer pricing, allocation of interest in proportion to gross profits would be a superior approach. Also, contrary to the usual argument, the United States should not be reluctant to unilaterally adopt interest disallowance rules because it ...


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