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Weathering State And Local Budget Storms: Fiscal Federalism With An Uncooperative Congress, David Gamage, Darien Shanske, Gladriel Shobe, Adam Thimmesch 2022 Indiana University—Bloomington, Maurer School of Law

Weathering State And Local Budget Storms: Fiscal Federalism With An Uncooperative Congress, David Gamage, Darien Shanske, Gladriel Shobe, Adam Thimmesch

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

Throughout most of 2020, state and local governments faced severe budget crises as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Increased demand for state welfare services and rising state expenses related to controlling the spread of COVID-19 stretched state and local budgets to their breaking points. At the same time, layoffs, business closures, and social distancing measures reduced states’ primary sources of tax revenues. The traditional practice of American fiscal federalism is for the federal government to step in to provide aid during a national emergency of this magnitude, because state and local governments lack the federal government’s monetary and ...


Tax Complexity And Technology, David I. Walker 2022 Boston University School of Law

Tax Complexity And Technology, David I. Walker

Indiana Law Journal

The Federal Income Tax Code has become increasingly complex over time with the implication that many taxpayers no longer understand the connection between their life decisions and their taxes. Some commentators have suggested that increasing computational complexity may be attributable in part to the proliferation of tax preparation software that renders such complexity manageable at filing time, but otherwise does nothing to mitigate the “black box” nature of the tax system. While such complexity and opacity undercut explicit incentives embedded in the Code, make planning more difficult, and undermine political accountability for taxes, they may also reduce the inefficient distortion ...


The Missing U.S. Vat: Economic Inequality, American Fiscal Exceptionalism, And The Historical U.S. Resistance To National Consumption Taxes, Ajay K. Mehrotra 2022 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

The Missing U.S. Vat: Economic Inequality, American Fiscal Exceptionalism, And The Historical U.S. Resistance To National Consumption Taxes, Ajay K. Mehrotra

Northwestern University Law Review

Since the 1970s, economic inequality has soared dramatically across the globe and particularly in the United States. In that time, one of the obstacles of using fiscal policy to address inequality has been the growing myth of the “overtaxed American”—the misguided notion that U.S. taxpayers pay more in taxes than residents of other advanced, industrialized countries. This myth has persisted, in part, because of the peculiar and distinctive nature of the fractured American fiscal and social welfare state. Even a cursory review of comparative tax data shows that the United States, by most measures, is a low-tax country ...


Hallmarks Of Abusive Transactions And The Role Of Economic Substance: Comments On Modernizing And Strengthening The General Anti-Avoidance Rule Consultation Paper, Jinyan Li 2022 Osgoode Hall Law School of York University

Hallmarks Of Abusive Transactions And The Role Of Economic Substance: Comments On Modernizing And Strengthening The General Anti-Avoidance Rule Consultation Paper, Jinyan Li

All Papers

I support the initiative to revisit the GAAR for purposes of making it more effective. I find the Modernizing and Strengthening the General Anti-Avoidance Rule Consultation Paper (“GAAR Consultation Paper”) helpful in providing some background and context for diagnosing the issues and setting out some proposed solutions. I appreciate the opportunity to offer some comments on two specific questions raised in the Consultation Paper:

(a) How to clarify the object, spirit and purpose of provisions of the Act?

(b) What is the role of economic substance in strengthening the GAAR?


Front Matter (Letter From The Editor, Masthead, Etc.), 2022 San Jose State University

Front Matter (Letter From The Editor, Masthead, Etc.)

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


The Contemporary Tax Journal’S Interview With Ms. Myra Sutanto Shen, Dale Loepp CPA 2022 San Jose State University

The Contemporary Tax Journal’S Interview With Ms. Myra Sutanto Shen, Dale Loepp Cpa

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


When Does A Trade Or Business Begin?, Jakub Hench 2022 San Jose State University

When Does A Trade Or Business Begin?, Jakub Hench

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


Applying The Reasonableness Test To Executive Compensation, Dale Loepp CPA 2022 San Jose State University

Applying The Reasonableness Test To Executive Compensation, Dale Loepp Cpa

The Contemporary Tax Journal

No abstract provided.


Upaya Pemerintah Terhadap Perlindungan Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional Batik Motif Parang Sebagai Warisan Budaya Dunia, Raden Zulfikar Supinarko Putra 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Upaya Pemerintah Terhadap Perlindungan Ekspresi Budaya Tradisional Batik Motif Parang Sebagai Warisan Budaya Dunia, Raden Zulfikar Supinarko Putra

"Dharmasisya” Jurnal Program Magister Hukum FHUI

Abstract

Batik is not just a design on a piece of cloth, more than that, batik is a soul that blends in the procession of Indonesian society. Since the baby has been carried with a batik cloth, weddings wear batik cloth until when they die they will be covered with batik cloth too usually. This fact become a consideration for UNESCO to establish Indonesian Batik as a Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity in the Fourth Session of The Intergovernmental Committee. This research uses a normative legal research method that is descriptive and analytical using a statutory ...


Perbedaan Akad Wakalah Bil Ujrah Dan Akad Qard Terhadap Permasalahan Akad Pembelian Barang Dalam Kehidupan Sehari-Hari, Zendy Sellyfio Ardiana 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Perbedaan Akad Wakalah Bil Ujrah Dan Akad Qard Terhadap Permasalahan Akad Pembelian Barang Dalam Kehidupan Sehari-Hari, Zendy Sellyfio Ardiana

"Dharmasisya” Jurnal Program Magister Hukum FHUI

Abstract

The wakalah bil ujrah and qard contract are contracts that often cause difficulties in implementing the purchase of goods in everyday life, both in safekeeping for purchasing goods and for buying and selling in general. Where if it is wrong in its application, it can cause income in a sale and purchase to be haraam due to an error in understanding the contract used and not describing benefit as the core of maqashid al-sharia which has an important role in determining Islamic law. The purpose of this paper is to find out how the solution to the application of ...


Tinjauan Yuridis Dalam Penyelesaian Pelanggaran Ham Berat Melalui Komisi Kebenaran Dan Rekonsiliasi Di Afrika Selatan Dan Indonesia, Tshana Erfandi 2022 Universitas Indonesia

Tinjauan Yuridis Dalam Penyelesaian Pelanggaran Ham Berat Melalui Komisi Kebenaran Dan Rekonsiliasi Di Afrika Selatan Dan Indonesia, Tshana Erfandi

"Dharmasisya” Jurnal Program Magister Hukum FHUI

Abstract

Several countries are currently developing a solution to the problem by establishing a particular commission. The commission works outside the courts, parliament and executive. In Indonesia, In Indonesia. The People's Consultative Assembly set a stipulation regarding the establishment of the National Center for Truth and Reconciliation: (NCTR) in 2000. This stipulation has the intent and purpose for national unity to identify existing problems, determine the conditions that must be made in order to achieve national reconciliation and establish policy direction as a guide to carry out the consolidation of unity of a nation. Whereas in South Africa, the ...


Unauthorized Tax Elections, Jay A. Soled 2022 Rutgers Business School

Unauthorized Tax Elections, Jay A. Soled

Buffalo Law Review

Unauthorized tax elections are those devices and techniques that taxpayers employ to achieve sought-after objectives but that are not specifically endorsed under the Internal Revenue Code. Often evolving over time, they are a common feature of the nation’s tax system. While unauthorized tax elections can prove subversive, in many instances, if properly and timely addressed, their existence can produce salutary benefits vis-à-vis their eradication or formal institutionalization.

This analysis explores the general contours of unauthorized tax elections and the critical signaling roles that they provide, alerting Congress and the Treasury Department to shortcomings and vulnerabilities in the Internal Revenue ...


Tax Coordination, Blaine G. Saito 2022 Northeastern University

Tax Coordination, Blaine G. Saito

Georgia State University Law Review

The United States implements much of its social policy through its income tax laws. The Code is rife with tax expenditures for education, housing, community economic development, retirement savings, and health care to name a few. But the IRS is not an agency with expertise in any of these areas and developing such expertise would draw resources away from its core tax administration mission. Commentators have thus called for a series of changes from turning these tax expenditures into outlays for these programs to divesting the IRS/Treasury of most of the administration of social policy tax expenditures. Yet, given ...


What Is Insurance? An Analysis Of The Tax Deductibility Of Captive Insurance Premiums, John D. Patten 2022 Northern Illinois University

What Is Insurance? An Analysis Of The Tax Deductibility Of Captive Insurance Premiums, John D. Patten

Honors Capstones

What is insurance for the purposes of a tax deduction? The Internal Revenue Code does not define insurance. Without this definition, taxpayers using alternative insurance products to manage their risks must look to case law to determine whether their arrangements count as tax deductible insurance or non-deductible self-insurance. This paper dives into the four prongs of insurance: insurance risk, risk shifting, risk distributing, and commonly accepted notions of insurance. This paper looks to cases that have dealt with the deduction of captive insurance premiums to provide better insight into the practical application of this test. After discussing the evolution of ...


Written Testimony Of Philip Hackney For The Hearing On Laws And Enforcement Governing The Political Activities Of Tax-Exempt Entities (U.S. Senate Finance Committee Subcommittee On Taxation And Irs Oversight, May 4, 2022), Philip Hackney 2022 University of Pittsburgh School of Law

Written Testimony Of Philip Hackney For The Hearing On Laws And Enforcement Governing The Political Activities Of Tax-Exempt Entities (U.S. Senate Finance Committee Subcommittee On Taxation And Irs Oversight, May 4, 2022), Philip Hackney

Testimony

Are tax laws and IRS enforcement up to the task of overseeing the tax issues associated with the political activities of tax-exempt organizations? Though the tax laws governing the tax-exempt realm are wanting, our overall legal structure is not bad. It is justifiable at least. Where we fall down as a nation in this space is in the enforcement. We do not allocate enough resources to this arena, and we do not institutionally offer the support necessary to enforce these laws. These failures do not favor one party over the other but favor those interests in the country with the ...


Federal Income Taxation, Andrew Todd 2022 Mercer University School of Law

Federal Income Taxation, Andrew Todd

Mercer Law Review

In 2021, the United States Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit handed down several opinions involving U.S. federal income tax issues. Two of the court’s published opinions address federal income taxation of conservation easements. Conservation easements have been under significant scrutiny by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), having earned a spot on the “Dirty Dozen” list of tax scams in 2019. This Article surveys the two published opinions issued in 2021 involving the U.S. federal income taxation of conservation easements.


Private And Public Sector Models For Entrepreneur, Small Business Owner, And Investor Immigration Pathways, Shane Dizon 2022 New York Law School

Private And Public Sector Models For Entrepreneur, Small Business Owner, And Investor Immigration Pathways, Shane Dizon

Articles & Chapters

No abstract provided.


Making Tax Law Work: Improvisation And Forgotten Taxpayers In Partnership Tax, Andrea Monroe 2022 Temple University

Making Tax Law Work: Improvisation And Forgotten Taxpayers In Partnership Tax, Andrea Monroe

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

There is a growing awareness that federal tax law caters to a small number of wealthy and well-advised taxpayers without regard for the rest of the taxpaying public, and partnership tax is a prime example. This Article explains how complexity and indeterminacy have transformed partnership tax, harming millions of forgotten taxpayers who struggle to comply with their annual filing obligations. A root cause of this phenomenon is the professional culture among elite practitioners, policymakers, and scholars at the heart of the partnership tax system.

The most troublesome provisions of partnership tax are also its most fundamental—namely the allocation rules ...


Questions The Irs Will Not Answer, Emily L. Cauble 2022 DePaul University

Questions The Irs Will Not Answer, Emily L. Cauble

Indiana Law Journal

When a taxpayer plans to undertake a transaction and its tax consequences are unclear, the taxpayer can request a letter ruling from the IRS. The IRS issues numerous letter rulings each year. In 2020, for instance, the IRS issued 777 letter rulings. The IRS refrains from issuing letter rulings on certain topics. At the beginning of each year, the IRS publishes an updated list of the topics on which it will not rule. Many of the topics on which it will not rule arise in areas of tax law governed by standards where the tax outcome depends heavily on each ...


The Intergenerational Equity Case For A Wealth Tax, Daniel Schaffa 2022 University of Cincinnati College of Law

The Intergenerational Equity Case For A Wealth Tax, Daniel Schaffa

University of Cincinnati Law Review

Intergenerational equity is commonly set aside in favor of other policy objectives, perhaps because of the extreme challenges inherent in adopting and applying an intergenerational equity normative framework. Even when there is a near consensus that the choices of today will have substantial costs in the future, these costs are often downplayed or disregarded. This Article asks whether there are measures that might offer redress to a generation for the costs imposed on it by its predecessors and finds that a one-time wealth tax is a promising option. Although its analysis applies more generally, this Article focuses on the widely ...


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