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Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca 2015 The University of Akron School of Law

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Ryan G. Vacca

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


Protecting The Innocent With A Premium For Child Safety Regulations, Jacob P. Byl 2014 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Protecting The Innocent With A Premium For Child Safety Regulations, Jacob P. Byl

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Federal agencies regulate many products and activities that impact the safety of children. Agencies should put a premium on saving the lives of children when analyzing the costs and benefits of proposed regulations. This note uses original evidence from the infant car seat market to determine that a child-specific benefit measure should be one and a half to two times that of an adult. A child premium will encourage more regulations that protect the safety of our society's most precious and innocent members.


Whether A Standard Legislated Framework Should Govern Public-Private Partnerships For Finance And Maintenance Of Public Infrastructure In The Modern Economy?, Anika Guevara 2014 SelectedWorks

Whether A Standard Legislated Framework Should Govern Public-Private Partnerships For Finance And Maintenance Of Public Infrastructure In The Modern Economy?, Anika Guevara

Anika Guevara

No abstract provided.


The "Legal" Marijuana Industry's Challenge For Business Entity Law, Luke M. Scheuer 2014 Widener Law

The "Legal" Marijuana Industry's Challenge For Business Entity Law, Luke M. Scheuer

Luke M Scheuer

In recent years many states have legalized the use and sale of marijuana for medical or even recreational purposes. This has led to the booming growth of a “legal” marijuana industry. Businesses openly growing and selling marijuana products to the consuming public are faced with some unusual legal hurdles. Significantly, although the sale of marijuana may be legal at the state level, it is still illegal under federal law. This article explores the conflict between state and federal marijuana laws from a business entity law perspective. For example, managers owe a fiduciary duty of good faith to their businesses and ...


Abuso Del Diritto Nel Recesso Del Preponente Dal Contratto Di Agenzia, Valerio Sangiovanni 2014 SelectedWorks

Abuso Del Diritto Nel Recesso Del Preponente Dal Contratto Di Agenzia, Valerio Sangiovanni

Valerio Sangiovanni

No abstract provided.


Hierarchically Variable Deference To Agency Interpretations, Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl 2014 Notre Dame Law School

Hierarchically Variable Deference To Agency Interpretations, Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl

Notre Dame Law Review

When courts review agency action, they typically accord agency decisions a degree of deference. As many courts and commentators have recognized, the law in this area is complicated because it features numerous standards of review, including several distinct regimes for evaluating agencies’ legal interpretations. There is, however, at least one important respect in which uniformity rather than variety prevails: the applicable standards of review do not vary depending on which court is reviewing the agency. Whichever standard governs a particular case—Chevron, Skidmore, or something else—all courts in the judicial hierarchy are supposed to apply that same standard.

This ...


Why Should We Care About An Agency’S Special Insight?, Stephen M. DeGenaro 2014 Notre Dame Law School

Why Should We Care About An Agency’S Special Insight?, Stephen M. Degenaro

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note offers some additional thoughts on the outer limits of Seminole Rock deference. Part I discusses the three concerns associated with unchecked Seminole Rock deference that comprise the self-delegation problem—violation of constitutional norms, exploitation of a statutory loophole, and perverse incentives. It explores the potential for abuse they create and recommends what the limitations should look like in order to avoid this potential. Part II explains the two rationales for Seminole Rock deference: the pragmatic and originalist rationales. It describes how the two rationales relate to each other, explains how courts use pragmatic and originalist arguments in their ...


The Fiduciary Character Of Agency And The Interpretation Of Instructions, Deborah A. DeMott 2014 Duke Law

The Fiduciary Character Of Agency And The Interpretation Of Instructions, Deborah A. Demott

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter in a forthcoming book justifies the conventional characterization of common-law agency as a fiduciary relationship. An agent serves as the principal’s representative in dealings with third parties and facts about the world, situating the agent as an extension of the principal for legally-salient purposes. A principal’s power to furnish instructions to the agent is the fundamental mechanism through which the principal exercises control over the agent, a requisite for an agency relationship. The agent’s fiduciary duty to the principal provides a benchmark for the agent’s interpretation of those instructions. The chapter draws on philosophical ...


New Powers- New Vulnerabilities? A Critical Analysis Of Market Inquiries Performed By Competition Authorities, Tamar Indig, Michal Gal 2014 SelectedWorks

New Powers- New Vulnerabilities? A Critical Analysis Of Market Inquiries Performed By Competition Authorities, Tamar Indig, Michal Gal

Michal Gal

In the past two decades the number of jurisdictions which have empowered their Competition Authorities to engage in market inquiries (MIs) has grown substantially. Although jurisdictions differ in the scope and procedure adopted for such studies, they all share an important common trait: attempting to allocate the roots of limited competition in the studied market. Market studies differ from traditional competition law tools in their triggers, range, object, and the level of pro-activity of the Competition Authority. They are not triggered by a suspicion of anti-competitive conduct of specific firm(s), but rather allow the Authority to use a broad ...


Veganism As A Nontraditional Religion: First Amendment Protection For Employees And Prisoners?, Alexandra B. Rhodes 2014 SelectedWorks

Veganism As A Nontraditional Religion: First Amendment Protection For Employees And Prisoners?, Alexandra B. Rhodes

Alexandra B. Rhodes

Scholars disagree over the definition of religion for purposes of First Amendment protection. Accordingly, this Comment analyzes First Amendment protection of nontraditional religions, as it applies to the controversial claim that Veganism is a faith. The piece is timely, relevant, and addresses an interesting and hot topic which is sure to spark debate regarding the definition of religion.

The piece proceeds in three Parts. Part I describes the historical background, and the difficulty, of defining religion for the purposes of the First Amendment. It also analyzes case law relevant to nontraditional religions in various settings, like the classroom or in ...


Restatements And Non-State Codifications Of Private Law, Deborah A. DeMott 2014 Duke Law

Restatements And Non-State Codifications Of Private Law, Deborah A. Demott

Faculty Scholarship

This paper offers a vantage point through which to assess the phenomenon of projects codifying private law that are undertaken by private persons or institutions, distinct from legislatures and state-sponsored codification and law-revision projects. The private institution on which this paper focuses is the American Law Institute (ALI). ALI works in statutory form—most notably the Uniform Commercial Code and the Model Penal Code—as well as through projects that generate “Principles” to guide legal development within their specific fields and “Restatements” that authoritatively cover the law in a field.

The history of the Restatements sketched in this essay fits ...


Empowering The Consumer: A Discussion On Minnesota's Dual Agency Statute And A Proposed Solution That Puts The Consumer First, Micheal Fleming 2014 William Mitchell College of Law

Empowering The Consumer: A Discussion On Minnesota's Dual Agency Statute And A Proposed Solution That Puts The Consumer First, Micheal Fleming

Student Scholarship

Many Americans across this county strive to achieve the dream of home ownership. The obstacles that stand in the way of achieving that dream can be staggering and unique to the persons pursuing home ownership. To a certain extent, it is expected that there be some proverbial hoops of fire to jump through before finally turning that key to a new home. What the consumer does not expect is to find a statutory scheme that creates unnecessary obstacles, such as a broker with a divided loyalty and information barriers, at the expense of the public. This statutory scheme is enshrined ...


The Intracorporate Conspiracy Trap (Formerly "Perverse Incentives And Corporate Conspiracy: Why We Are Asking The Wrong Basic Question In Assessing Liability For Corporations And Their Agents"), Josephine Sandler Nelson 2014 SelectedWorks

The Intracorporate Conspiracy Trap (Formerly "Perverse Incentives And Corporate Conspiracy: Why We Are Asking The Wrong Basic Question In Assessing Liability For Corporations And Their Agents"), Josephine Sandler Nelson

J.S. Nelson

In the recent case of Commonwealth of Pennsylvania v. Lynn, Pennsylvania prosecuted a Roman Catholic priest who had not abused children himself but who, to protect the archdiocese that employed him, covered up information about priests who had abused children and reassigned the priests to new parishes. This case was the first of its kind to bring criminal charges against an official of the Church solely for how he supervised the careers of priests to protect his employer.

Because the intracorporate conspiracy doctrine prohibits it, the state—as is now typical of both state and federal jurisdictions around the country ...


Introduction: Speaking Up For Justice, Suffering Injustice: Whistleblower Protection And The Need For Reform, Dana L. Gold 2013 Seattle University School of Law

Introduction: Speaking Up For Justice, Suffering Injustice: Whistleblower Protection And The Need For Reform, Dana L. Gold

Seattle Journal for Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Freedom Of Contracts, Hanoch Dagan, Michael Heller 2013 BLR

Freedom Of Contracts, Hanoch Dagan, Michael Heller

Tel Aviv University Law Faculty Papers

“Freedom of contracts” has two components: (1) the familiar freedom to bargain for terms within a contract and (2) the long-neglected freedom to choose from among contract types. Theories built on the first freedom have reached an impasse; attention to the second points toward a long-elusive goal, a liberal and general theory of contract law. This theory is liberal because it develops an appealing conception of contractual autonomy grounded in the actual diversity of contract types. It is general because it explains how contract values – utility, community, and autonomy – properly relate to each other across contract types. Finally, it is ...


Moving Money: International Financial Flows, Taxes, Money Laundering & Transparency, Richard Gordon, Andrew P. Morriss 2013 SelectedWorks

Moving Money: International Financial Flows, Taxes, Money Laundering & Transparency, Richard Gordon, Andrew P. Morriss

Andrew P Morriss

Recent publicity over enormous estimates of “missing” wealth and the use of sophisticated tax strategies by companies like Apple, Google, and Starbucks have produced a demand that the wealthy pay a “fair” amount of tax regardless of their compliance with the letter of tax laws. In particular, the Tax Justice Network’s claim that $21-$32 trillion of “hidden” wealth remains untaxed has garnered considerable attention. In this paper we argue that these claims rest on poor data and analysis and mistakes about how financial transactions work. We further argue that the disputes are about fundamentally conflicting visions of how ...


Managing Our Money: The Law Of Financial Fiduciaries As A Private Law Institution, Hanoch Dagan, Sharon Hannes 2013 BLR

Managing Our Money: The Law Of Financial Fiduciaries As A Private Law Institution, Hanoch Dagan, Sharon Hannes

Tel Aviv University Law Faculty Papers

This Article develops a theory of the law governing financial fiduciaries (most notably trust law). We conceptualize financial fiduciaries law as a private law institution that enhances individual autonomy by enabling people to safely delegate to others the authority over a significant aspect of their welfarist interests. This ability is autonomy-enhancing because we can enlist others to perform an increasingly complex task that impacts our savings, pensions, and bequeathable fortunes. Safely delegating this task to others relieves us of this burden, freeing us to focus on our intrinsically valuable projects.

We argue that this telos requires attuning financial fiduciaries law ...


A Corporation Has No Soul - The Business Entity Law Response To Challenges To The Contraceptive Mandate Under The Ppaca, Thomas E. Rutledge 2013 SelectedWorks

A Corporation Has No Soul - The Business Entity Law Response To Challenges To The Contraceptive Mandate Under The Ppaca, Thomas E. Rutledge

Thomas E. Rutledge

The most contentious matter in the implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the “PPACA”) is not a question of health care, but rather one of the law of business organizations. The dispute has been over the requirement that group health insurance plans provide, on a no-cost sharing basis, coverage for a variety of procedures and prescription medicines involving contraception and what are described as “abortificants.”

The class of suits subject to this discussion were filed by what are not religious organizations but rather for-profit business ventures, asserting that they should be exempt from the requirements of the ...


Measuring Agency Attributes With Attitudes Across Time: A Method And Examples Using Large-Scale Federal Surveys, Anthony M. Bertelli, Dyana P. Mason, Jennifer M. Connolly, David A. Gastwirth 2013 BLR

Measuring Agency Attributes With Attitudes Across Time: A Method And Examples Using Large-Scale Federal Surveys, Anthony M. Bertelli, Dyana P. Mason, Jennifer M. Connolly, David A. Gastwirth

University of Southern California Law and Economics Working Paper Series

Public management researchers are interested in many characteristics of organizations that cannot be directly captured, making aggregated attitudes from surveys an attractive proxy. Yet difficulties in measuring meaningful attributes over time and across organizations have frequently limited statistical designs to a single organization or time. We offer a method for creating such statistical measures across agencies and time using item response theory. Focusing our attention on U.S. federal administrative agencies, we marshal a variety of questions from surveys commissioned by the Office of Personnel Management and Merit Systems Protection Board and employ statistical models to measure three important attributes ...


Regulating For The Public Health: Perchlorate Regulation Under The Safe Drinking Water Act Exceeds Statutory Authority, Mary Jones 2013 SelectedWorks

Regulating For The Public Health: Perchlorate Regulation Under The Safe Drinking Water Act Exceeds Statutory Authority, Mary Jones

Mary Jones

This paper recommends rethinking the statutory framework of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide a more robust rubric, to include a scientific and objective focus, for proper regulation. The SDWA is evaluated through the lens of upcoming perchlorate regulation due in February 2013.

The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulates acceptable contaminant levels and decontamination processes for all public water systems, pursuant to statutory authority granted by the SDWA. Where the policy at work is admirable, the execution falls short.

Perchlorate occurs naturally, but also as a by-product to rocket fuel, firework, and other explosive constructions. Scientific ...


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