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Epa And Army’S New Wotus Definition And Another Finalized Rule This Spring, Joe Retzer 2023 Saint Louis University School of Law

Epa And Army’S New Wotus Definition And Another Finalized Rule This Spring, Joe Retzer

SLU Law Journal Online

On December 30, 2022, the EPA finalized its rule interpreting "waters of the United States," which redefined the boundaries of the Clean Water Act's jurisdiction. In this article, Joe Retzer discusses the new rule that attempts to implement public input by providing a definition that is clear and consistent for stakeholders and discusses future rules that may be on the horizon.


Voice Shoppers: From Information Gaps To Choice Gaps In Consumer Markets, Noga Blickstein Shchory, Michal S. Gal 2022 Brooklyn Law School

Voice Shoppers: From Information Gaps To Choice Gaps In Consumer Markets, Noga Blickstein Shchory, Michal S. Gal

Brooklyn Law Review

Recent years have seen exponential growth in the use of voice shoppers – artificial intelligence–based algorithms installed on digital voice assistants, such as Alexa and Google Assistant, that buy products based on verbal requests received from consumers. This game-changing switch to semi-automated shopping is shaking up markets by reshaping consumer–supplier relationships, as well as the business models of suppliers and search services. Voice shoppers benefit consumers by offering speedier and more sophisticated transactions while reducing search and transaction costs. At the same time, consumers’ voluntary delegation of their search powers and product selection creates what we call a “choice gap,” …


The Helicopter State: Misuse Of Parens Patriae Unconstitutionally Precludes Individual And Class Claims, Gabrielle J. Hanna 2022 University of Washington School of Law

The Helicopter State: Misuse Of Parens Patriae Unconstitutionally Precludes Individual And Class Claims, Gabrielle J. Hanna

Washington Law Review

The doctrine of parens patriae allows state attorneys general to represent state citizens in aggregate litigation suits that are, in many ways, similar to class actions and mass-tort actions. Its origins, however, reflect a more modest scope. Parens patriae began as a doctrine allowing the British king to protect those without the ability to protect themselves, including wards and mentally disabled individuals. The rapid expansion of parens patriae standing in the United States may be partly to blame for the relative absence of limiting requirements or even well-developed case law governing parens patriae suits. On the one hand, class actions …


Wrongful Improvers As A Guiding Principle For Application Of The Ftc’S Ip Deletion Requirement, Emma Elder 2022 University of Washington School of Law

Wrongful Improvers As A Guiding Principle For Application Of The Ftc’S Ip Deletion Requirement, Emma Elder

Washington Law Review

The 2021 Federal Trade Commission (FTC) investigation into cloud storage app developer Everalbum resulted in a consent decree that required Everalbum to delete not only unlawfully collected data, but also algorithms created using that data. The FTC had imposed this kind of penalty only once before. Questions remain about how the FTC will apply this so-called intellectual property (IP) deletion requirement in the future. This Comment argues that situations where companies develop intellectual property from misappropriated consumer data are analogous to cases where courts seek to apply the property law rule of the wrongful improver, i.e., where one party knowingly …


When Uncle Sam Spills: A State Regulator’S Guide To Enforcement Actions Against The Federal Government Under The Clean Water Act, Ian M. Staeheli 2022 University of Washington School of Law

When Uncle Sam Spills: A State Regulator’S Guide To Enforcement Actions Against The Federal Government Under The Clean Water Act, Ian M. Staeheli

Washington Law Review

The U.S. government is one of the largest polluters on the planet. With over 700 domestic military bases and countless more federal facilities and vessels operating within state borders, there exists an enormous potential for spills and discharges of pollutants into state waters. The regulatory burden for enforcing environmental laws against the federal government falls on the Environmental Protection Agency and state regulators. But enforcing laws and regulations against the federal government and its progeny is a daunting regulatory task.

Other scholarship addresses some of the vexing peculiarities involved when regulating Uncle Sam. Those works discuss the “confusing mess” that …


West Virginia V. Epa, Amanda Spear 2022 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

West Virginia V. Epa, Amanda Spear

Public Land & Resources Law Review

The EPA created the Clean Power Plan in an effort to reduce the amount of greenhouse gas emissions generated by coal-fired power plants. The EPA determined that the Best System of Emission Reduction for existing coal-fired power plants included generation shifting methods, meaning a shift from coal to cleaner sources. The Supreme Court held, under the major questions doctrine, that Congress had not intended for the EPA to use generation shifting methods for the Best System of Emission Reduction and that the EPA had exceeded its authority in doing so. This note will explore how the decision may impact administrative …


Cumulative Impact Analysis In Nepa Climate Assessments, Fred Mauhs 2022 Pace University

Cumulative Impact Analysis In Nepa Climate Assessments, Fred Mauhs

Pace Environmental Law Review

This article argues that CI analysis is a critical tool for addressing global warming. This is because the largest anthropogenic sources of greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions in the U.S. each contributes a vanishingly small portion of global GHG emissions, which alone cannot rise to NEPA’s threshold of “significance” requiring a “detailed statement…on the environmental impact of the proposed action,”i.e., an environmental impact statement (EIS). Yet there is no pollution today in greater need of assessment and understanding than GHG emissions, given the urgency of the impending catastrophe that global warming could mean for our planet.


Pre-Merits Vacatur: An Efficient, Equitable, And Environmentally Sound Remedy, Stuart Gillespie 2022 Earthjustice

Pre-Merits Vacatur: An Efficient, Equitable, And Environmentally Sound Remedy, Stuart Gillespie

Pace Environmental Law Review

Federal agencies are increasingly requesting voluntary remands of challenged rules, thereby circumventing judicial review, and avoiding ever having to defend the merits of those rules. Courts routinely grant these extraordinary requests, often under the guise of saving judicial resources and giving agencies a second chance to reconsider. But voluntary remands come at a steep cost, particularly in the arena of environmental litigation. There, voluntary remands not only deprive litigants of their day in court, but can also subject them (and the broader public) to unlawful and inadequate rules that are causing serious environmental harm.

Courts have long guarded against the …


Franco I Loved: Reconciling The Two Halves Of The Nation’S Only Government-Funded Public Defender Program For Immigrants, Amelia Wilson 2022 University of Washington School of Law

Franco I Loved: Reconciling The Two Halves Of The Nation’S Only Government-Funded Public Defender Program For Immigrants, Amelia Wilson

Washington Law Review Online

Detained noncitizens experiencing serious intellectual and mental health disabilities are among the most vulnerable immigrant populations in the United States. The Executive Office for Immigration Review’s (EOIR) creation of the National Qualified Representative Program (NQRP) following a class action lawsuit was an important step in finally bringing meaningful protections to this population. The EOIR pledged to ensure government-paid counsel for those facing removal who had been adjudicated “incompetent” by an immigration judge, as well as other protections for those who had been identified as having a “serious mental disorder” but who had not yet been found incompetent. The NQRP is …


The Humanities Strike Back: (E)Esg And Justice Strine Challenge Gamer Shareholder Primacy, David H. Webber 2022 Boston University School of Law

The Humanities Strike Back: (E)Esg And Justice Strine Challenge Gamer Shareholder Primacy, David H. Webber

Faculty Scholarship

Leo E. Strine, Jr. is closing in on Blair and Stout for the undisputed title of all-time top-scoring stakeholderist.3 I don't intend to squander this opportunity to roast and toast him by weighing the pros and cons of basketscoring primacy. Instead, my aim is to surface an overlooked argument in the debate over shareholder primacy and stakeholderism, the case for which has been recently reinvigorated by Strine's work. My argument is this: one underappreciated aspect of shareholder primacy's appeal is that it creates a competition with a single endpoint, basically a game, and that the exhilarating tournament that results, …


Advising 101 For The Growing Field Of Social Media Influencers, Stasia Skalbania 2022 University of Washington School of Law

Advising 101 For The Growing Field Of Social Media Influencers, Stasia Skalbania

Washington Law Review

The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) protects consumers from unfair and deceptive business practices. In 2019, the FTC released the “Disclosures 101 for Social Media Influencers Guide” (herein referred to as the “2019 Influencer Guide”). The 2019 Influencer Guide outlines advertisers’ and endorsers’ specific responsibilities relating to the advertising and marketing of products on social media platforms. Despite the extensive information provided within the 2019 Influencer Guide, there is still great confusion regarding endorsement disclosure requirements, and many brands and influencers are not in compliance with FTC recommendations. This Comment provides guidance to brands and social media influencers on how to …


All Of The Products, None Of The Liability: Examining The Supreme Court Of Ohio's Decision In Stiner V. Amazon.Com, Inc., Danny O'Connor 2022 University of Cincinnati College of Law

All Of The Products, None Of The Liability: Examining The Supreme Court Of Ohio's Decision In Stiner V. Amazon.Com, Inc., Danny O'Connor

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


Friends Of The Earth V. Haaland Case Summary, Valan Anthos 2022 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Friends Of The Earth V. Haaland Case Summary, Valan Anthos

Public Land & Resources Law Review

A federal district court vacated the U.S.’s largest offshore oil and gas lease sale ever because of an inadequate NEPA analysis. The court found that the BOEM’s decision to exclude estimations of reductions in foreign oil consumption if no lease took place was arbitrary and capricious.


Administrative Apparition: Resurrecting The Modern Administrative State’S Legitimacy Crisis With Agency Law Analysis, Tabitha Kempf 2022 Catholic University of America (Student)

Administrative Apparition: Resurrecting The Modern Administrative State’S Legitimacy Crisis With Agency Law Analysis, Tabitha Kempf

Catholic University Law Review

There is an enduring discord among academic and political pundits over the state of modern American government, with much focus on the ever-expanding host of federal agencies and their increasing regulatory, investigative, enforcement, and adjudicatory authority. The growing conglomerate of federal agencies, often unfavorably regarded as the “administrative state,” has invited decades of debate over the validity and proper scope of this current mode of government. Advocates for and against the administrative state are numerous, with most making traditional constitutional arguments to justify or delegitimize the current establishment. Others make philosophical, moral, or practical arguments in support or opposition. Though …


Slowing Down Accelerated Approval: Examining The Role Of Industry Influence, Patient Advocacy Organizations, And Political Pressure On Fda Drug Approval, Stephanie Diu 2022 Fordham University School of Law

Slowing Down Accelerated Approval: Examining The Role Of Industry Influence, Patient Advocacy Organizations, And Political Pressure On Fda Drug Approval, Stephanie Diu

Fordham Law Review

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been revered as the gold standard in pharmaceutical safety and efficacy review since the 1960s. More recently, partly in response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the pressing need for new treatments, the FDA established an accelerated approval process to hasten the review of new drug applications so that drugs could be approved and brought to market as soon as possible. Although accelerated approval has led to the availability of new treatments for patients with few other options, this Note argues that, today, the FDA grants accelerated approval too hastily and may be …


Resuscitating Consent, Megan S. Wright 2022 Pennsylvania State University

Resuscitating Consent, Megan S. Wright

Boston College Law Review

The scholarly focus on autonomy in healthcare decision making largely has been on information about, rather than consent to, medical treatment. There is an assumption that if a patient has complete information and understanding about a proposed medical intervention, then they will choose the treatment their physician thinks is best. True respect for patient autonomy means that treatment refusal, whether informed or not, should always be an option. But there is evidence that healthcare providers sometimes ignore treatment refusals and resort to force to treat patients over their contemporaneous objection, which may be facilitated by the incapacity exception to informed …


Disaster Vulnerability, Lisa Grow, Brigham Daniels, Doug Spencer, Chantel Sloan, Natalie Blades, M. Teresa Gómez, Sarah R. Christensen 2022 BYU Law School

Disaster Vulnerability, Lisa Grow, Brigham Daniels, Doug Spencer, Chantel Sloan, Natalie Blades, M. Teresa Gómez, Sarah R. Christensen

Boston College Law Review

Vulnerability drives disaster law, yet the literature lacks both an overarching analysis of the different aspects of vulnerability and a nuanced examination of the factors that shape disaster outcomes. Though central to disaster law and policy, vulnerability often lurks in the shadows of a disaster, evident only once the worst is past and the bodies have been counted. The COVID-19 pandemic is a notable exception to this historical pattern: from the beginning of the pandemic, it has been clear that the virus poses different risks to different people, depending on vulnerability variables. This most recent pandemic experience thus provides a …


Donative Hot-Powers Cases Under The Uniform Power Of Attorney Act, F. Philip Manns Jr. 2022 University of Arkansas at Little Rock William H. Bowen School of Law

Donative Hot-Powers Cases Under The Uniform Power Of Attorney Act, F. Philip Manns Jr.

University of Arkansas at Little Rock Law Review

Among its significant reforms, the Uniform Power of Attorney Act (UPOAA) denies agents nine types of power unless “the power of attorney expressly grants” them. Those so-called “hot powers” relate to delegations of fiduciary authority and to donative transfers of the principal’s property for less than full consideration. The donative hot powers include creating, amending, or terminating a trust; making gifts; creating or changing beneficiary designations; creating or changing rights of survivorship; and waiving or disclaiming property interests. The rationale for requiring the grant of specific authority is the risk those acts pose to the principal’s property and estate plan. …


Statutory Interpretation And Chevron Deference In The Appellate Courts: An Empirical Analysis, Amy Semet 2022 University of California, Irvine School of Law

Statutory Interpretation And Chevron Deference In The Appellate Courts: An Empirical Analysis, Amy Semet

UC Irvine Law Review

What statutory methods does an appellate court use in reviewing decisions of an administrative agency? Further, in doing this review, are appellate judges more likely to use certain statutory methods when they expressly cite the Chevron two-step framework than if they do not? This Article explores the answers to these questions using an original database of over 200 statutory interpretation cases culled from more than 2,500 cases decided in appellate courts reviewing National Labor Relations Board (NLRB or the Board) adjudications from 1994 through 2020. In particular, the study examined the use of text, language canons, substantive canons, legislative history, …


Unservice: Reconceptualizing The Utility Duty To Serve In Light Of Climate Change, Heather Payne 2022 Seton Hall University School of Law

Unservice: Reconceptualizing The Utility Duty To Serve In Light Of Climate Change, Heather Payne

University of Richmond Law Review

Many facets of utility monopoly regulation are approaching a minimum of eight decades as part of our legal landscape. A bedrock principle of state utility regulation is the duty to serve, which demands that utilities provide nondiscriminatory service to all those within their geographic territory for the specific service for which they have been granted a monopoly. Within its exclusive territory, a utility is required “to serve all present and reasonably to be anticipated future users.” Each state has adopted some form of this for its regulated monopolies, although formulations differ. This Article argues that in light of climate change …


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