Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Agency Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

254 Full-Text Articles 211 Authors 89,439 Downloads 39 Institutions

All Articles in Agency

Faceted Search

254 full-text articles. Page 1 of 6.

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca 2015 University of Akron

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Akron Law Publications

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca 2015 University of Akron

Work Made For Hire – Analyzing The Multifactor Balancing Test, Ryan G. Vacca

Ryan G. Vacca

Authorship, and hence, initial ownership of copyrighted works is oftentimes controlled by the 1976 Copyright Act’s work made for hire doctrine. This doctrine states that works created by employees within the scope of their employment result in the employer owning the copyright. One key determination in this analysis is whether the hired party is an employee or independent contractor. In 1989, the U.S. Supreme Court, in CCNV v. Reid, answered the question of how employees are distinguished from independent contractors by setting forth a list of factors courts should consider. Unfortunately, the Supreme Court did not give further ...


Passing The Torch But Sailing Too Close To The Wind: Congress’S Role In Authorizing Administrative Branches To Promulgate Regulations That Contemplate Criminal Sanctions, Reem Sadik 2014 American University Washington College of Law

Passing The Torch But Sailing Too Close To The Wind: Congress’S Role In Authorizing Administrative Branches To Promulgate Regulations That Contemplate Criminal Sanctions, Reem Sadik

Legislation and Policy Brief

The Supreme Court has stated that Congress must simply “lay down by legislative act an intelligible principle” to which the agency must conform. If this is done, a court will find the delegation of broad authority to the agency to be constitutional. There is, however, an open issue regarding whether the “intelligible principle” standard applies to delegations of authority that allow for the promulgation of both civil and criminal penalties. In Touby v. United States, the Supreme Court was asked whether “something more than an ‘intelligible principle’ is required” when Congress authorizes an agency to issue regulations that contemplate criminal ...


A Different Kind Of Justice: Review 1, Cassandra Sharp Dr 2014 University of Wollongong

A Different Kind Of Justice: Review 1, Cassandra Sharp Dr

RadioDoc Review

Despite the accepted success of many restorative justice programs with youth and Indigenous offenders, debate still proliferates about the utility of adult restorative justice programs within the criminal justice system. Many important questions are raised about the efficacy and impact of such programs including: ‘What can restorative justice offer adult offenders and victims of crime? What are some of the challenges of using restorative justice in this context? And what can we learn from emerging developments in practice?’ (Bolitho et al, 2012). As will be discussed in this review, Russell Finch’s BBC Radio 4 production of A Different Kind ...


Determining The Extent Of The Work For Hire Doctrine And Its Effect On Termination Rights, Allison E. Dolzani 2014 Touro College Jacob D. Fuchsberg Law Center

Determining The Extent Of The Work For Hire Doctrine And Its Effect On Termination Rights, Allison E. Dolzani

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Medicine Shoppe V. Drug Enforcement Adminstration, Jeffrey C. Grass JD, MS, ACLM 2014 SelectedWorks

The Medicine Shoppe V. Drug Enforcement Adminstration, Jeffrey C. Grass Jd, Ms, Aclm

Jeffrey C. Grass JD, MS, ACLM

The DEA has revoked The Medicine Shoppe’s DEA COR on the grounds that it has “violated its corresponding responsibility to ensure that a prescription for a controlled substance is issued for a legitimate medical purpose.” The principle that state governments bear the primary responsibility for evaluating professional medical and pharmacy licenses follows from our concept of federalism, which requires that state lawmakers, not the federal government, are "the primary regulators of professional [medical] conduct."


"Do No Harm": A Comparative Analysis Of Legal Barriers To Corporate Clinical Telemedicine Providers In The United States, Australia, And Canada, Ian R. Landgreen 2014 University of Georgia School of Law

"Do No Harm": A Comparative Analysis Of Legal Barriers To Corporate Clinical Telemedicine Providers In The United States, Australia, And Canada, Ian R. Landgreen

Georgia Journal of International & Comparative Law

No abstract provided.


Cgmp Violations Should Not Be Used As A Basis For Fca Actions Absent Fraud, Kyle Faget 2014 Seattle University School of Law

Cgmp Violations Should Not Be Used As A Basis For Fca Actions Absent Fraud, Kyle Faget

Seattle University Law Review

Since Congress amended the False Claims Act (FCA) in 1986, the statute has evolved into a seemingly boundless weapon for enforcing other statutes and regulations applicable to every industry that accepts any form of government funding. Use of the FCA by the Department of Justice (DOJ) and by private citizens bringing actions on behalf of the U.S. government to enforce other statutes and regulations is particularly evident in the field of health care. The FCA has been utilized in actions where the allegations include off-label promotion of drugs, kickbacks, and violations of current good manufacturing practices (cGMPs) by linking ...


Ironic Simplicity: Why Shaken Baby Syndrome Misdiagnoses Should Result In Automatic Reimbursement For The Wrongly Accused, Jay Simmons 2014 Seattle University School of Law

Ironic Simplicity: Why Shaken Baby Syndrome Misdiagnoses Should Result In Automatic Reimbursement For The Wrongly Accused, Jay Simmons

Seattle University Law Review

Shaken baby syndrome (SBS)’s shortcomings include the debatable science behind SBS theory and diagnosis—the questioning of which has grown more vociferous—and the arguably biased, discriminatory treatment of the accused. Professor Deborah Tuerkheimer notes that the evolving SBS skepticism and contentious debate has resulted in "chaos" in many SBS adjudications and within the medical and biomechanical fields, with the same SBS proponents and opponents continually crusading for and clashing over their beliefs. The issues surrounding the medical and biomechanical components of SBS diagnoses have been repeatedly examined and discussed, and are not the focus of this Note. This ...


The “Legal” Marijuana Industry's Challenge For Business Entity Law, Luke M. Scheuer 2014 Widener Law

The “Legal” Marijuana Industry's Challenge For Business Entity Law, Luke M. Scheuer

Luke M Scheuer

In recent years many states have legalized the use and sale of marijuana for medical or even recreational purposes. This has led to the booming growth of a “legal” marijuana industry. Businesses openly growing and selling marijuana products to the consuming public are faced with some unusual legal hurdles. Significantly, although the sale of marijuana may be legal at the state level, it is still illegal under federal law. This article explores the conflict between state and federal marijuana laws from a business entity law perspective. For example, managers owe a fiduciary duty of good faith to their businesses and ...


Uniform Alternative Dispute Resolution: The Answer To Preventing Unscrupulous Agent Activity, Scott Kestenbaum 2014 Pepperdine University

Uniform Alternative Dispute Resolution: The Answer To Preventing Unscrupulous Agent Activity, Scott Kestenbaum

Pepperdine Dispute Resolution Law Journal

This Note addresses whether there should be an arbitration and mediation section added to both the Uniform Athlete Agent Act (UAAA), and Sports Agent Responsibility and Trust Act (SPARTA) to establish a uniform dispute resolution process for dealing with unscrupulous acts of athlete agents. This issue is distinctive because while all four professional sports leagues’ players associations have specific arbitration procedures in their athlete agent regulations, the two statutes governing athlete agent conduct do not adopt a uniform policy relating to arbitration procedures. This Note addresses the prior history of state and federal legislation pertaining to an athlete agent, including ...


What Remains Of Vicarious Jurisdiction For Establishing General Jurisdiction Over Corporate Defendants After Daimlerag V. Bauman, Keri M. Martin 2014 SelectedWorks

What Remains Of Vicarious Jurisdiction For Establishing General Jurisdiction Over Corporate Defendants After Daimlerag V. Bauman, Keri M. Martin

Keri M. Martin

When, if ever, should a corporation be subject to a court’s jurisdiction based solely on the activities of another entity? Commonly, injured plaintiffs pursue foreign corporations to recover for injuries inflicted upon them by some activity of that corporation or its subsidiary. Where plaintiffs are unable to establish personal jurisdiction over the foreign corporation directly, plaintiffs may attempt to establish jurisdiction over the corporation indirectly by imputing to it the in-forum activities of a closely related subsidiary. This form of jurisdictional blame shifting has been termed “vicarious jurisdiction,” and it stems from the understanding that more than one entity ...


'Easy In, Easy Out': A Future For U.S. Workplace Representation, Samuel Estreicher 2014 NELLCO

'Easy In, Easy Out': A Future For U.S. Workplace Representation, Samuel Estreicher

New York University Law and Economics Working Papers

This paper proposes an amendment to our basic labor laws that I call “easy in, easy out.” Essentially, representation elections — secret-ballot votes to decide whether employees want union representation and whether they want to be represented by the particular petitioning labor organization(s) — in relatively broad units, would, over time, become automatic. Every two years (unless the union achieved a collective bargaining agreement, in which case every three years) the employees in the unit, after an initial minimal required showing of interest, would have an opportunity to vote in a secret ballot whether they wish to continue the union’s ...


'Easy In, Easy Out': A Future For U.S. Workplace Representation, Samuel Estreicher 2014 NELLCO

'Easy In, Easy Out': A Future For U.S. Workplace Representation, Samuel Estreicher

New York University Public Law and Legal Theory Working Papers

This paper proposes an amendment to our basic labor laws that I call “easy in, easy out.” Essentially, representation elections — secret-ballot votes to decide whether employees want union representation and whether they want to be represented by the particular petitioning labor organization(s) — in relatively broad units, would, over time, become automatic. Every two years (unless the union achieved a collective bargaining agreement, in which case every three years) the employees in the unit, after an initial minimal required showing of interest, would have an opportunity to vote in a secret ballot whether they wish to continue the union’s ...


Protecting The Innocent With A Premium For Child Safety Regulations, Jacob P. Byl 2014 University of Massachusetts School of Law

Protecting The Innocent With A Premium For Child Safety Regulations, Jacob P. Byl

University of Massachusetts Law Review

Federal agencies regulate many products and activities that impact the safety of children. Agencies should put a premium on saving the lives of children when analyzing the costs and benefits of proposed regulations. This note uses original evidence from the infant car seat market to determine that a child-specific benefit measure should be one and a half to two times that of an adult. A child premium will encourage more regulations that protect the safety of our society's most precious and innocent members.


Abuso Del Diritto Nel Recesso Del Preponente Dal Contratto Di Agenzia, Valerio Sangiovanni 2014 SelectedWorks

Abuso Del Diritto Nel Recesso Del Preponente Dal Contratto Di Agenzia, Valerio Sangiovanni

Valerio Sangiovanni

No abstract provided.


Why Should We Care About An Agency’S Special Insight?, Stephen M. DeGenaro 2014 Notre Dame Law School

Why Should We Care About An Agency’S Special Insight?, Stephen M. Degenaro

Notre Dame Law Review

This Note offers some additional thoughts on the outer limits of Seminole Rock deference. Part I discusses the three concerns associated with unchecked Seminole Rock deference that comprise the self-delegation problem—violation of constitutional norms, exploitation of a statutory loophole, and perverse incentives. It explores the potential for abuse they create and recommends what the limitations should look like in order to avoid this potential. Part II explains the two rationales for Seminole Rock deference: the pragmatic and originalist rationales. It describes how the two rationales relate to each other, explains how courts use pragmatic and originalist arguments in their ...


Hierarchically Variable Deference To Agency Interpretations, Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl 2014 Notre Dame Law School

Hierarchically Variable Deference To Agency Interpretations, Aaron-Andrew P. Bruhl

Notre Dame Law Review

When courts review agency action, they typically accord agency decisions a degree of deference. As many courts and commentators have recognized, the law in this area is complicated because it features numerous standards of review, including several distinct regimes for evaluating agencies’ legal interpretations. There is, however, at least one important respect in which uniformity rather than variety prevails: the applicable standards of review do not vary depending on which court is reviewing the agency. Whichever standard governs a particular case—Chevron, Skidmore, or something else—all courts in the judicial hierarchy are supposed to apply that same standard.

This ...


New Powers- New Vulnerabilities? A Critical Analysis Of Market Inquiries Performed By Competition Authorities, Tamar Indig, Michal Gal 2014 SelectedWorks

New Powers- New Vulnerabilities? A Critical Analysis Of Market Inquiries Performed By Competition Authorities, Tamar Indig, Michal Gal

Michal Gal

In the past two decades the number of jurisdictions which have empowered their Competition Authorities to engage in market inquiries (MIs) has grown substantially. Although jurisdictions differ in the scope and procedure adopted for such studies, they all share an important common trait: attempting to allocate the roots of limited competition in the studied market. Market studies differ from traditional competition law tools in their triggers, range, object, and the level of pro-activity of the Competition Authority. They are not triggered by a suspicion of anti-competitive conduct of specific firm(s), but rather allow the Authority to use a broad ...


Empowering The Consumer: A Discussion On Minnesota's Dual Agency Statute And A Proposed Solution That Puts The Consumer First, Micheal Fleming 2014 William Mitchell College of Law

Empowering The Consumer: A Discussion On Minnesota's Dual Agency Statute And A Proposed Solution That Puts The Consumer First, Micheal Fleming

Student Scholarship

Many Americans across this county strive to achieve the dream of home ownership. The obstacles that stand in the way of achieving that dream can be staggering and unique to the persons pursuing home ownership. To a certain extent, it is expected that there be some proverbial hoops of fire to jump through before finally turning that key to a new home. What the consumer does not expect is to find a statutory scheme that creates unnecessary obstacles, such as a broker with a divided loyalty and information barriers, at the expense of the public. This statutory scheme is enshrined ...


Digital Commons powered by bepress