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Big Data Affirmative Action, Peter N. Salib 2022 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Big Data Affirmative Action, Peter N. Salib

Northwestern University Law Review

As a vast and ever-growing body of social-scientific research shows, discrimination remains pervasive in the United States. In education, work, consumer markets, healthcare, criminal justice, and more, Black people fare worse than whites, women worse than men, and so on. Moreover, the evidence now convincingly demonstrates that this inequality is driven by discrimination. Yet solutions are scarce. The best empirical studies find that popular interventions—like diversity seminars and antibias trainings—have little or no effect. And more muscular solutions—like hiring quotas or school busing—are now regularly struck down as illegal. Indeed, in the last thirty years, the ...


Independent Contractors In Law And In Fact: Evidence From U.S. Tax Returns, Eleanor Wilking 2022 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

Independent Contractors In Law And In Fact: Evidence From U.S. Tax Returns, Eleanor Wilking

Northwestern University Law Review

Federal tax law divides workers into two categories depending on the degree of control exercised over them by the service purchaser (i.e., the firm): employees, who are subject to direct supervision; and independent contractors, who operate autonomously. Such worker classification determines the administration of income tax and what it subsidizes, as well as which nontax regulations pertain, such as workplace safety and antidiscrimination protections. The Internal Revenue Service and other federal agencies have codified common law agency doctrine into multifactor balancing tests used to legally distinguish employees from independent contractors. These tests have proved challenging to apply and costly ...


Tenure Matters: The Anatomy Of Tenure And Academic Survival In American Legal Education, Stephen J. Leacock 2022 Ohio Northern University

Tenure Matters: The Anatomy Of Tenure And Academic Survival In American Legal Education, Stephen J. Leacock

Ohio Northern University Law Review

No abstract provided.


Alternatives To Mainstream Alternative Dispute Resolution: Eliminating Forced Arbitration Agreements As A Condition Of Employment, Anne M. Lofaso, Ashley M. Stephens 2022 West Virginia University College of Law

Alternatives To Mainstream Alternative Dispute Resolution: Eliminating Forced Arbitration Agreements As A Condition Of Employment, Anne M. Lofaso, Ashley M. Stephens

Utah Law Review

Today, many employers require their employees, as a condition of employment, to agree to arbitrate employment-related legal claims rather than pursue them in court. While arbitration can be mutually beneficial, allowing parties to avoid the cost, time, publicity, and unpredictability associated with traditional litigation, mandatory arbitration often lacks the same procedural safeguards afforded by the justice system. Forced arbitration not only deprives employees of their right to sue their employer in a public court, but it also denies them any meaningful voluntary choice to surrender that right. This Article takes a close look at a variety of workplace grievance procedures ...


The Saga Of Scabby: How A Giant Inflatable Rat Helped Define Free Speech In Organized Labor, Adam Kosmicki 2022 Saint Louis University School of Law

The Saga Of Scabby: How A Giant Inflatable Rat Helped Define Free Speech In Organized Labor, Adam Kosmicki

SLU Law Journal Online

A large, grotesque, inflatable rat has become a symbol of organized labor, a target of controversy, and a defining icon for unions' rights under the First Amendment. In this article, Adam Kosmicki explores the implications for free speech and the protection of "neutral" parties following the NLRB's decision regarding Scabby in Int'l Union of Operating Engineers Local 150.


Boba Fett, Bounty Hunters, And The Supreme Court’S Viking River Decision: A New Hope, Imre S. Szalai 2022 Loyola University New Orleans College of Law

Boba Fett, Bounty Hunters, And The Supreme Court’S Viking River Decision: A New Hope, Imre S. Szalai

Washington and Lee Law Review Online

The United States Supreme Court recently issued a fractured decision in Viking River Cruises, Inc. v. Moriana, 142 S. Ct. 1906 (June 15, 2022), a classic David v. Goliath clash between a worker and employer. Can arbitration agreements be used to eliminate group or representative actions brought against employers, where the plaintiff worker is serving as a bounty hunter for the State? Although the majority clearly holds that a worker’s individual claims must be sent to arbitration pursuant to a predispute arbitration agreement, the splintered opinions leave some uncertainty regarding what happens to the representative claims of the other ...


Discrimination Because Of Sex[Ual Orientation And Gender Identity]: The Necessity Of The Equality Act In The Wake Of Bostock V. Clayton County, Rachel Eric Johnson 2022 Brigham Young University Law School

Discrimination Because Of Sex[Ual Orientation And Gender Identity]: The Necessity Of The Equality Act In The Wake Of Bostock V. Clayton County, Rachel Eric Johnson

BYU Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Connick/Garcetti Split: Is Public Employee Association A Matter Of Public Concern?, Austin J. Wishart 2022 University of Cincinnati College of Law

The Connick/Garcetti Split: Is Public Employee Association A Matter Of Public Concern?, Austin J. Wishart

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


Privacy Please — Direct Observation Drug Testing & Invasion Of Privacy, Elizabeth Black 2022 University of Cincinnati College of Law

Privacy Please — Direct Observation Drug Testing & Invasion Of Privacy, Elizabeth Black

University of Cincinnati Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Supreme Court Gets The Ball Rolling: Ncaa V. Alston And Title Ix, Arianna Banks 2022 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law

The Supreme Court Gets The Ball Rolling: Ncaa V. Alston And Title Ix, Arianna Banks

Northwestern University Law Review

Student-athlete compensation has been a consistent topic of controversy over the past few years, as critics question the legitimacy of the NCAA’s notion of amateurism and proponents favor the status quo. The Supreme Court decision in NCAA v. Alston has only served to intensify the debate, opening the door to alternative compensation structures. Despite a unanimous ruling in favor of the athletes, the limited holding of the case has only produced further questions. In his scathing concurrence, Justice Kavanaugh raises one such question: how does a student-athlete compensation structure comply with Title IX? This Comment seeks to address that ...


Legislating Emotion, Reading Grief: Bereavement Leave For Miscarriage And Stillbirth In New Zealand Law, Gillian Calder 2022 University of Victoria

Legislating Emotion, Reading Grief: Bereavement Leave For Miscarriage And Stillbirth In New Zealand Law, Gillian Calder

Dalhousie Law Journal

This paper looks at New Zealand’s Holidays (Bereavement Leave for Miscarriage) Amendment Bill (No 2), an Act that changes Employments Standards legislation to allow bereavement leave for people and their partners at miscarriage and stillbirth. The paper is prompted by the huge media attention that this small change in law received globally. What might Canadian legislators learn by taking a careful look at this New Zealand law that permits an employee time off work to grieve a pregnancy loss? The questions that the legislation provokes are read through the lens of law and emotions literature, situated in the ways ...


Without Accommodation, Jennifer Bennett Shinall 2022 Vanderbilt University Law School

Without Accommodation, Jennifer Bennett Shinall

Indiana Law Journal

Under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), workers with disabilities have the legal right to reasonable workplace accommodations provided by employers. Because this legal right is unique to disabled workers, these workers could, in theory, enjoy greater access to the types of accommodations that are desirable to all workers—including the ability to work from home, to work flexible hours, and to take leave. This Article compares access to these accommodations, which have become increasingly desirable during the COVID-19 pandemic, between disabled workers and nondisabled workers. Using 2017–2018 data from the American Time Use Survey’s Leave and Job ...


Myles Away From Perfect: The Potential Impact On Nil Deals Following Lsu Quarterback’S Retirement, Brian Ahle 2022 Saint Louis University School of Law

Myles Away From Perfect: The Potential Impact On Nil Deals Following Lsu Quarterback’S Retirement, Brian Ahle

SLU Law Journal Online

Just prior to the 2022 College Football Season, Louisiana State University Quarterback Myles Brennan decided to abruptly retire from football. Despite the unexpected finish to his career, Brennan is still going to likely retain all of the money he received in endorsements that were paid through the newly approved “NIL” deals available to collegiate athletes, as a result of a stipulation that these deals cannot be “performance-based”. In this article, Brian Ahle evaluates the potential ways in which endorsers may be able to protect their investments, while still complying with the NIL Policies that provide protections towards the athletes.


More Than Fifty Years After The Enactment Of Federal Laws Forbidding Discrimination In Pay, The Wage Disparity Based On Sex Continues: Focusing On The Circuit Courts’ Differing Interpretations Of “Factors Other Than Sex”, Audrey K. Hurt 2022 Mississippi College School of Law

More Than Fifty Years After The Enactment Of Federal Laws Forbidding Discrimination In Pay, The Wage Disparity Based On Sex Continues: Focusing On The Circuit Courts’ Differing Interpretations Of “Factors Other Than Sex”, Audrey K. Hurt

Mississippi College Law Review

The broad scope of this fourth affirmative defense available to employers under the EPA and Title VII allows for inconsistency in its interpretation and is responsible, at least in part, for the continued existence of wage discrimination. Without a prescribed means of application— specifically, a stricter means of application—employers are more readily absolved from liability under the FOTS defense. The best solution to this problem is for Congress to adopt a more stringent approach to the FOTS defense under the Equal Pay Act of 1963—an approach which would apply to Title VII, as well. However, with little headway ...


The Role Of Law And Myth In Creating A Workplace That 'Looks Like America', Susan Bisom-Rapp 2022 California Western School of Law

The Role Of Law And Myth In Creating A Workplace That 'Looks Like America', Susan Bisom-Rapp

Faculty Scholarship

Equal employment opportunity (EEO) law has played a poor role in incentivizing effective diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) and harassment prevention programming. In litigation and investigation, too many judges and regulators credit employers for maintaining policies and programs rather than requiring employers to embrace efforts that work. Likewise, many employers and consultants fail to consider the organizational effects created by DEI and harassment programming. Willful ignorance prevents the admission that some policies and programming harm those most in need of protection.

This approach has resulted in two problems. One is a doctrinal dilemma because important presumptions embedded in antidiscrimination law ...


The Ruling To Return The Indiscriminately Terminated Worker To His Work In Light Of The Moroccan Social Legislation, Nidal Mustafa Ghaith 2022 PhD Researcher in Legal Sciences Mohammed V University, Faculty of Law Agdal/ Rabat, Kingdom of Morocco

The Ruling To Return The Indiscriminately Terminated Worker To His Work In Light Of The Moroccan Social Legislation, Nidal Mustafa Ghaith

مجلة جامعة الإمارات للبحوث القانونية UAEU LAW JOURNAL

This study examines the settlement of individual labour disputes arising between the employer and the employee through the ruling to return the arbitrarily dismissed employee to his work, as one of the judicial means that enables the two parties to resolve their dispute in a way that allows the stability of the work relationship between them. this is through talking about the jurisprudential position as well as the judicial approach towards the option of returning the dismissed employee to his work, and also addressing the various problems resulting from the application of this mechanism. Perhaps one of the most prominent ...


The Employment Status Of The Twenty-First Century Ncaa Collegiate Athlete: An Evaluation Of The Fair Labor Standards Act And The National Labor Relations Act, Danielle L. Kennebrew 2022 Wayne State University Law School

The Employment Status Of The Twenty-First Century Ncaa Collegiate Athlete: An Evaluation Of The Fair Labor Standards Act And The National Labor Relations Act, Danielle L. Kennebrew

DePaul Journal of Sports Law

Many individuals believe that the twenty-first century NCAA collegiate athlete should not be classified as an employee of their respective universities due to the longstanding tradition of amateurism governing collegiate athletics. However, such a proposition does not analysis the statutory test articulated by the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) and the National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) when determining a worker’s employment statues. Upon review of the economic realities test utilized by the FLSA and the common-law agency test utilized by the NLRB, there are strong arguments for collegiate athletes holding employee status resulting from the compensation they receive in ...


Is A Highly Compensated Employee With Executive Duties Entitled To Or Exempt From Overtime Pay Under The Fair Labor Standards Act Where That Employee Is Paid At A Daily Rate?, Anne Marie Lofaso 2022 West Virginia University College of Law

Is A Highly Compensated Employee With Executive Duties Entitled To Or Exempt From Overtime Pay Under The Fair Labor Standards Act Where That Employee Is Paid At A Daily Rate?, Anne Marie Lofaso

Law Faculty Scholarship

Case at a Glance: Michael Hewitt is a highly compensated employee with executive duties who worked for Helix Energy Solutions Group. Helix paid Hewitt at a daily rate. Employees, even highly compensated employees with executive duties, may be entitled to overtime pay under the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) where they are not paid on a salary basis. This case presents a question of regulatory interpretation of the Department of Labor’s salary-basis test.


On Firms, Sanjukta Paul 2022 University of Michigan Law School

On Firms, Sanjukta Paul

Law & Economics Working Papers

This paper is about firms as an instance of economic coordination, and about how we think about them in relation to other forms of coordination as well as in relation to competition and markets. The dominant frame for thinking about firms--which has strongly influenced contemporary competition law as well as serving as a vital adjunct to the fundamental concepts of neoclassical price theory that guide many areas of law and policy--implicitly or explicitly explains and justifies the centralization of both decision-making rights and flows of income from economic activity on productive efficiency grounds. We have very good reasons to doubt ...


Brian Flores's Employment Discrimination Lawsuit Against The Nfl: A Game Changer Or Business As Usual?, Michael Conklin, Jennifer Barger-Johnson, Marty Ludlum 2022 Villanova University Charles Widger School of Law

Brian Flores's Employment Discrimination Lawsuit Against The Nfl: A Game Changer Or Business As Usual?, Michael Conklin, Jennifer Barger-Johnson, Marty Ludlum

Jeffrey S. Moorad Sports Law Journal

No abstract provided.


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