Insider Trading Law And The Ambiguous Quest For Edge, 2018 University of Michigan Law School
Insider Trading Law And The Ambiguous Quest For Edge, A. C. Pritchard
Michigan Law Review
A review of Sheelah Kolhatkar, Black Edge.
Making A Market For Corporate Disclosure, 2018 William & Mary Law School
Making A Market For Corporate Disclosure, Kevin S. Haeberle, M. Todd Henderson
It has long been said that market forces alone will result in a problematic under-sharing of information by public companies. Since the 1930s, the main regulatory response to this market failure has come in the form of the massive mandatory-disclosure regime that sits at the foundation of modern securities law. But this regime—especially when viewed along with its speech-chilling antifraud overlay—no doubt leaves society without all the corporate information from which it would benefit. The typical fix offered to the problem has been more of the same: add to the 100-plus-page list of what firms must disclose, often ...
Third-Party Institutional Proxy Advisors: Conflicts Of Interest And Roads To Reform, 2018 University of Michigan Law School
Third-Party Institutional Proxy Advisors: Conflicts Of Interest And Roads To Reform, Matthew Fagan
University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform
With the rise of institutional activist investors in recent decades—including a purported 495 activist campaigns against U.S. corporations in 2016 alone—the role that third-party institutional proxy advisors play in corporate governance has greatly increased. The United States Office of Government Accountability estimates that clients of the top five proxy advisory firms account for about $41.5 trillion in equity throughout the world. For several years, discussions have developed regarding conflicts of interest faced by proxy advisors. For example, Institutional Shareholder Services, the top proxy advisory firm in the world, frequently provides advice to institutional investors on how ...
Universal Proxies, 2018 Boston University School of Law
Universal Proxies, Scott Hirst
Contested director elections are a central feature of the corporate landscape, and underlie shareholder activism. Shareholders vote by unilateral proxies, which prevent them from “mixing and matching” among nominees from either side. The solution is universal proxies. The Securities and Exchange Commission has proposed a universal proxy rule, which has been the subject of heated debate and conflicting claims. This paper provides the first empirical analysis of universal proxies, allowing evaluation of these claims.
The paper’s analysis shows that unilateral proxies can lead to distorted proxy contest outcomes, which disenfranchise shareholders. By removing these distortions, universal proxies would improve ...
The Shadow Of Free Enterprise: The Unconstitutionality Of The Securities & Exchange Commission’S Administrative Law Judges, Linda D. Jellum, Moses M. Tincher
Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary
Six years ago, Congress enacted the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act), for the first time giving the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) the power to seek monetary penalties through its in-house adjudication. The SEC already had the power to seek such penalties in federal court. With the Dodd-Frank Act, the SEC’s enforcement division could now choose between an adjudication before an SEC Administrative Law Judge (ALJ) or a civil action before an Article III judge. With this new choice, the SEC realized a significant home-court advantage. For example, in 2014, the SEC’s enforcement ...
Unicorns, Guardians, And The Concentration Of The U.S. Equity Markets, 2018 University at Buffalo Law School
Unicorns, Guardians, And The Concentration Of The U.S. Equity Markets, Amy Deen Westbrook, David A. Westbrook
No abstract provided.
Selective Disclosure And Insider Trading, 2018 University of Florida Levin College of Law
Selective Disclosure And Insider Trading, Michael Guttentag
Florida Law Review
Determining when the selective disclosure of material nonpublic information should trigger insider trading liability is a deeply problematic aspect of insider trading doctrine.
The current rule is that a selective disclosure can only trigger insider trading liability if “the insider [making the selective disclosure] personally will benefit, directly or indirectly, from his disclosure.” Dirks v. SEC introduced this “personal benefit” test in 1983 to balance four competing rationales for determining when a tip should trigger insider trading liability. Two developments since Dirks have made problems with this personal benefit test insurmountable. First, the SEC’s enactment of Regulation Fair Disclosure ...
High‐Frequency Trading And The New Stock Market: Sense And Nonsense, 2018 Columbia University Law School
High‐Frequency Trading And The New Stock Market: Sense And Nonsense, Merritt B. Fox, Lawrence R. Glosten, Gabriel V. Rauterberg
The stock market has been transformed during the last 25 years. Human suppliers of liquidity like the NASDAQ dealers and NYSE specialists have been replaced by algorithmic market making; stocks that once traded on a single venue now trade across twelve exchanges and a multitude of alternative trading systems. New venues like dark pools, and new participants like high‐frequency traders, have emerged to take on prominent roles. This new market has had more than its share of controversy and regulatory scrutiny, particularly in the wake of Michael Lewis’s bestseller Flash Boys. In this article, the authors analyze five ...
Mom Approval In A World Of Active Shareholders, 2018 NYU School of Law
Mom Approval In A World Of Active Shareholders, Edward Rock
New York University Law and Economics Working Papers
Majority of Minority (MOM) approval is a common mechanism used in many jurisdictions to control conflicts of interest in related party transactions. Recently, in M & F Worldwide, the Delaware Supreme Court held that MOM approval in a controlling shareholder freezeout shifted the standard of review from Entire Fairness to Business Judgement Rule. In this article, I investigate how MOM approval functions in the presence of active shareholders (both hedge funds and actively managed mutual funds).
After reviewing the potential benefits and problems with MOM approval, I review the use of MOM provisions in controlling shareholder freezeouts in the U.S. between 2010 and 2017. I combine this with three case studies involving MOM approval: the Dell MBO; the Oracle/NetSuite merger; and the unsuccessful effort by the Dolan family to take Cablevision private in 2007. I then briefly consider a quite different sort of MOM approval: the EU Takeover Directive’s requirement that conditions mandatory freezeouts on achieving a very high level of ownership (90-95%), typically through a tender offer.
The principal lessons of this investigation are ambiguous. First, I do not find significant evidence that the use of MOM conditions in ...
Insider Tainting: Strategic Tipping Of Material Nonpublic Information, 2018 Northwestern Pritzker School of Law
Insider Tainting: Strategic Tipping Of Material Nonpublic Information, Andrew Verstein
Northwestern University Law Review
Insider trading law is meant to be a shield, protecting the market and investors from unscrupulous traders, but it can also be a sword. Insofar as we penalize trading on the basis of material, nonpublic information, it becomes possible to share information strategically in order to disable or constrain innocent investors. A hostile takeover can be averted, or a bidding war curtailed, because recipients of such information must then refrain from trading. This Article offers the first general account of “insider tainting,” an increasingly pervasive phenomenon of weaponizing insider trading law.
The Risk Of Regulatory Arbitrage: A Response To Securities Regulation In Virtual Space, 2018 University of Idaho College of Law
The Risk Of Regulatory Arbitrage: A Response To Securities Regulation In Virtual Space, Wendy Gerwick Couture
Washington and Lee Law Review Online
In Securities Regulation in Virtual Space, Eric. C. Chaffee explores the potential applicability of the securities laws to virtual transactions based on virtual activity and argues that, although many of these transactions likely qualify as “investment contracts” under S.E.C. v. W.J. Howey Co., they should be excluded under the context clause because, among other reasons, application of the securities laws would stifle creativity within this innovative space. This Response proposes a reframing of the Howey test as a response to the risk of regulatory arbitrage, argues that the context clause should only exclude transactions that do not ...
Regulating Robo Advice Across The Financial Services Industry, 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Regulating Robo Advice Across The Financial Services Industry, Tom Baker, Benedict G. C. Dellaert
Automated financial product advisors – “robo advisors” – are emerging across the financial services industry, helping consumers choose investments, banking products, and insurance policies. Robo advisors have the potential to lower the cost and increase the quality and transparency of financial advice for consumers. But they also pose significant new challenges for regulators who are accustomed to assessing human intermediaries. A well-designed robo advisor will be honest and competent, and it will recommend only suitable products. Because humans design and implement robo advisors, however, honesty, competence, and suitability cannot simply be assumed. Moreover, robo advisors pose new scale risks that are different ...
The Logic And Limits Of Event Studies In Securities Fraud Litigation, 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School
The Logic And Limits Of Event Studies In Securities Fraud Litigation, Jill E. Fisch, Jonah B. Gelbach, Jonathan Klick
Event studies have become increasingly important in securities fraud litigation after the Supreme Court’s decision in Halliburton II. Litigants have used event study methodology, which empirically analyzes the relationship between the disclosure of corporate information and the issuer’s stock price, to provide evidence in the evaluation of key elements of federal securities fraud, including materiality, reliance, causation, and damages. As the use of event studies grows and they increasingly serve a gatekeeping function in determining whether litigation will proceed beyond a preliminary stage, it will be critical for courts to use them correctly.
This Article explores an array ...
The Hausmann-Gorky Effect, 2018 Duke Law School
The Hausmann-Gorky Effect, Mitu Gulati, Ugo Panizza
For over a century, legal scholars have debated the question of what to do about the debts incurred by despotic governments; asking whether successor non-despotic governments should have to pay them. That debate has gone nowhere. This paper examines whether an Op Ed written by Harvard economist, Ricardo Hausmann, in May 2017, may have shown an alternative path to the goal of increasing the cost of borrowing for despotic governments. Hausmann, in his Op Ed, had sought to produce a pricing penalty on the entire Venezuelan debt stock by trying to shame JPMorgan into removing Venezuelan bonds from its emerging ...
The Regulation Of Trading Markets: A Survey And Evaluation, 2018 University of Virginia School of Law
The Regulation Of Trading Markets: A Survey And Evaluation, Paul G. Mahoney, Gabriel V. Rauterberg
This chapter was prepared for a conference exploring the desirability and structure of a new special study of the securities markets. Our objective is not to resolve all of the questions that commentators have raised about the new equity markets, but to lay the groundwork for a new special study by surveying the state of market regulation, identifying issues, and offering preliminary evaluations.
Investors' Paradox, 2018 University of Washington School of Law
Investors' Paradox, Anita K. Krug
For the first time in an era, new investment products for smaller ("retail ") investors are emerging. These products are mutual funds that engage in the types of trading and investment activities that have long been the province of sophisticated investors. Accordingly, the new funds (called "alternative funds") promise to reduce the gulf between retail investors and their sophisticated counterparts, in terms of portfolio diversification and investment results.
This Article describes the complex mix of factors that spawned alternative funds and critically evaluates the funds' potential, the first scholarly work to do so. It additionally unearths the paradox that impedes the ...
Whistling Loud And Clear: Applying Chevron To Subsection 21f Of Dodd–Frank, 2018 Washington and Lee University School of Law
Whistling Loud And Clear: Applying Chevron To Subsection 21f Of Dodd–Frank, Shaun M. Bennett
Washington and Lee Law Review
No abstract provided.
Decentralized Public Ledger Systems And Securities Law: New Applications Of Blockchain Technology And The Revitalization Of Sections 11 And 12(A)(2) Of The Securities Act Of 1933, 2018 Washington University School of Law
Decentralized Public Ledger Systems And Securities Law: New Applications Of Blockchain Technology And The Revitalization Of Sections 11 And 12(A)(2) Of The Securities Act Of 1933, Kelsey Bolin
Washington University Law Review
When Bitcoin launched in 2009, it was the first virtual cryptocurrency to gain popularity and attain widespread use. Much attention has been paid to Bitcoin’s well-publicized advances and setbacks as the world’s foremost virtual currency. Less attention has been paid, however, to the decentralized public ledger technology that enables Bitcoin to function. That technology is just as innovative as Bitcoin itself. Decentralized public ledgers are a revolution in digital data storage and have the “potential to fundamentally shift the way in which society operates.”
This Note will examine one such societal shift—a change in how shareholders access ...
Canons Of Construction For Dysfunctional Statutes: A Comment On Bennett, 2018 University of Virginia School of Law
Canons Of Construction For Dysfunctional Statutes: A Comment On Bennett, Paul G. Mahoney
Washington and Lee Law Review
No abstract provided.
Comment On Whistling Loud And Clear: Applying Chevron To Subsection 21f Of Dodd–Frank, 2018 Washington and Lee University School of Law
Comment On Whistling Loud And Clear: Applying Chevron To Subsection 21f Of Dodd–Frank, Sarah C. Haan
Washington and Lee Law Review
No abstract provided.