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Marginal Benefits Of The Core Securities Laws, Kevin S. Haeberle 2021 William & Mary Law School

Marginal Benefits Of The Core Securities Laws, Kevin S. Haeberle

Faculty Publications

To every thing there is a season. In the area of securities regulation in the United States, it is the season for expansion. This article shows why such expansion should not involve use of the core issuer disclosure, fraud, and insider trading laws to reduce information asymmetry in the stock market in the name of investor protection. I argue that any expansion of these laws focused on this secondary market should therefore be justified by distinct concerns (namely, efficiency ones). Moreover, any push to better serve and protect investors should be focused on other areas of securities law (such as …


The Breakdown Of The Public–Private Divide In Securities Law: Causes, Consequences, And Reforms, George S. Georgiev 2021 Emory University School of Law

The Breakdown Of The Public–Private Divide In Securities Law: Causes, Consequences, And Reforms, George S. Georgiev

Faculty Articles

As a regulatory scheme, U.S. securities law has traditionally been designed around a set of lines—the “public–private divide”—which separate public companies, public capital, and public markets, from private companies, private capital, and private markets. Until the early 2000s, the lines were successful in establishing two largely coherent legal realms—a highly regulated public realm and a lightly regulated private realm. A series of bold and often-inconsistent reforms between 2002 and 2020, however, have transformed this longstanding regime into a low-friction system wherein public capital flows to both public and private companies, private capital is ever more abundant, and firms can effectively …


Legal Economics And The Canadian Accredited Investor Standard: Efficiency As A Proxy For Change, Jeremy White 2021 Western University

Legal Economics And The Canadian Accredited Investor Standard: Efficiency As A Proxy For Change, Jeremy White

Master of Laws Research Papers Repository

This paper takes a legal-economic approach in assessing the current accredited investor standard that exists as part of Canada’s securities laws. An accredited investor is often characterized as an individual that, due to his or her wealth, may participate in certain investment opportunities that would otherwise not be available. Canada’s National Instrument 45-106 views accredited investors as those with a unique ability to understand financial markets, and due to this level of understanding, the typical disclosure protections afforded to the public—mainly, the prospectus—are not necessary to these individuals.

A legal-economic approach to the accredited investor standard looks at the system …


Board Diversity Shareholder Suits: Diverging Materiality Tests Under Rules 10b-5 And 14a-9, John C. Friess 2021 University of Michigan Law School

Board Diversity Shareholder Suits: Diverging Materiality Tests Under Rules 10b-5 And 14a-9, John C. Friess

Michigan Business & Entrepreneurial Law Review

Environmental, social, and governance (ESG) investing has grown significantly as an investment strategy over the past decade, leading to intensified demands among investors for more ESG disclosures from publicly listed companies. Perhaps the most high-profile example of this trend is the recent widespread demand among institutional investors, proxy advisory firms, and exchanges for more disclosure and compliance as it relates to board and workplace diversity. Given these efforts and the signals coming from the SEC that it intends to take a more proactive approach to ESG disclosure and compliance, issuers can expect an environment of more specific and detailed diversity …


Carbon Accounting By Public And Private Financial Institutions: Can We Be Sure Climate Finance Is Leading To Emissions Reductions?, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Emily Spittle 2021 Columbia Law School, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Carbon Accounting By Public And Private Financial Institutions: Can We Be Sure Climate Finance Is Leading To Emissions Reductions?, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Emily Spittle

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

To further and fully understand how to plan for the decarbonization of mining value chains, we need better data on carbon and other greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, neither consumers, corporates, or financial institutions know the embodied emissions in the products they produce or sell. While methods like life-cycle analysis and environmental product declarations exist, none use a verifiable, comparable, or widely adopted emissions reporting framework capable of sending supply chain signals.

To truly reform material supply chains, new solutions for markets, capital, and policy are required. COMET (the Coalition on Materials Emissions Transparency) – an alliance launched at Davos …


The Future Of Securities Law In The Supreme Court, Adam C. Pritchard, Robert B. Thompson 2021 University of Michigan Law School

The Future Of Securities Law In The Supreme Court, Adam C. Pritchard, Robert B. Thompson

Articles

Since the enactment of the first federal securities statute in 1933, securities law has illustrated key shifts in the Supreme Court’s jurisprudence. During the New Deal, the Court’s securities law decisions shifted almost overnight from open hostility toward the newly-expanded administrative state to broad deference to agency expertise. In the 1940s, securities cases helped build the legal foundation for a broadly enabling administrative law. The 1960s saw the Warren Court creating new implied rights of action in securities law illustrative of the Court’s approach to statutes generally. The stage seemed set for the rise of “federal corporate law.” The Court …


Five Years After The Adoption Of The Paris Agreement, Are Climate Change Considerations Reflected In Mining Contracts?, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Mara Greenberg 2021 Columbia Law School, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Five Years After The Adoption Of The Paris Agreement, Are Climate Change Considerations Reflected In Mining Contracts?, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Perrine Toledano, Martin Dietrich Brauch, Mara Greenberg

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

Domestic laws are the ideal legal instrument to regulate the mining sector’s contribution to climate change mitigation and adaptation. Even so, as a stop-gap-measure, governments may consider updating model mining development agreements (MMDAs) or negotiating climate­-related contractual provisions. This CCSI paper explores whether governments are using, and how they can use, investor–state mining contracts to advance climate goals. We synthesize our findings and recommendations for six categories of provisions: integrating renewable energy into mining products, reducing deforestation, requiring a climate risk assessment and community vulnerability assessment, regulating water use, requiring tailings dam design justifications, and integrating climate risks into closure …


Session 3: Access To Financial Services - The Promise (And Challenges) Of Fintech, Joseph M. Vincent, Chris Adams, Lucinda Fazio, Roberta Hollinshead, Sumit Mallick, Sands McKinley, Jonice Gray Tucker, Tonita Webb 2021 Seattle University School of Law, Joseph M. Vincent Ltd., P.C., Washington Department of Financial Institutions

Session 3: Access To Financial Services - The Promise (And Challenges) Of Fintech, Joseph M. Vincent, Chris Adams, Lucinda Fazio, Roberta Hollinshead, Sumit Mallick, Sands Mckinley, Jonice Gray Tucker, Tonita Webb

SITIE Symposiums

For many Americans, the American Dream is a dream deferred. Recently, there has been an explosion in demand for diversity, equity, and inclusion in financial services. This has coincided with an explosion of a different kind related to delivering financial services through innovations in technology, otherwise known as FinTech. We have seen a plethora of FinTech applications on our smartphones, ranging from online lending to remote deposit making. While these applications provide potential opportunities to level the playing field for those whose dream has been deferred, there remain challenges.


Session 2: Access To Health And Health Services Panel - The Covid-19 Experience, Annette Clark, Wendy Chalres, Dan Laster, Anna Santos Rutschman, Madhavi Sunder, Margret Chon 2021 Seattle University School of Law

Session 2: Access To Health And Health Services Panel - The Covid-19 Experience, Annette Clark, Wendy Chalres, Dan Laster, Anna Santos Rutschman, Madhavi Sunder, Margret Chon

SITIE Symposiums

COVID-19 has had a massive impact on the U.S. and the world regarding health care and health care access. Improving access has been the topic of scholarship for many years. It took the COVID- 19 pandemic to bring these issues to the forefront of public discussion. Inequities in public health access, not only domestically but globally, have become apparent in the light of COVID-19. This expert panel addresses the inequities of vaccines worldwide and the concept of vaccine sharing programs. It also explores the role that intellectual property plays in these equity issues and some of the risks inherent in …


Session 1: Access To Legal Services - The Role Of Innovation And Technology, Steven Bender, Stacy Butler, Anna Carpenter, Michael Cherry, Sands McKinley, Kimball Dean Parker, Miguel Willis 2021 Seattle University School of Law

Session 1: Access To Legal Services - The Role Of Innovation And Technology, Steven Bender, Stacy Butler, Anna Carpenter, Michael Cherry, Sands Mckinley, Kimball Dean Parker, Miguel Willis

SITIE Symposiums

This expert panel is addressing access to justice problems. People without access to lawyers and legal services suffer in many ways not limited to divorce, domestic violence, and educational roadblocks. This panel will ask what lawyers can do to help, in what ways can technology help or replace lawyers in the delivery of legal and non-legal services. It will also explore different legal services being offered by individuals who do not have a JD, online firms, and developing technology in a law firm owed subsidiary. There are six panelists who are broken into two categories: (1) the innovation and delivery …


Opening Session, Annette Clark, Steven Bender 2021 Seattle University School of Law

Opening Session, Annette Clark, Steven Bender

SITIE Symposiums

This year's conference focuses on the social good, highlighting three access barriers fundamental in law and society - access to legal services (and more generally, justice), access to health and health care during the COVID-19 pandemic, and access to financial services for the unbanked or underbanked.


Proxy Advisors As Issue Spotters, Douglas Sarro 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Proxy Advisors As Issue Spotters, Douglas Sarro

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

When institutional investors hire proxy advisors to prepare reports on matters up for vote at public company shareholder meetings, are they interested primarily in acquiring a bottom-line recommendation on how to vote, on which they can then blindly rely? Or in acquiring information that will help them make their own voting decisions? Supporters of controversial reforms introduced by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) in 2019 and 2020 gravitate toward the former position, arguing that reform is needed to discourage undue reliance on proxy advisor recommendations. Opponents gravitate toward the latter position, arguing that additional regulation generally is unnecessary given …


Reducing Conflicts Of Interest: A "Glass-Steagall" Split Of Advisory And Consulting Services Of Proxy Advisory Firms, Austin Manna 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Reducing Conflicts Of Interest: A "Glass-Steagall" Split Of Advisory And Consulting Services Of Proxy Advisory Firms, Austin Manna

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

This Note explores a solution to the potential problem with proxy advisory firms that involves an inherent conflict of interest arising from the structure of two services—advisory and consulting services—offered at certain proxy advisory firms in the United States. The solution proposed in this paper applies a Glass-Steagall framework to breakup these two services of the proxy advisory firms. In theory, this would eliminate the inherent conflicts of interest.


Qualified Opportunity Funds: Private Equity Exemptions From Public Responsibility, Audrey E. Abate 2021 Brooklyn Law School

Qualified Opportunity Funds: Private Equity Exemptions From Public Responsibility, Audrey E. Abate

Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law

The historic Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (TCJA), passed and signed into law in 2017, included a pilot program of a new kind of tax advantage: the Qualified Opportunity Zone. The obscure provision has since spawned novel investment vehicles, called Qualified Opportunity Funds, through which qualified individuals and entities participate in what are often significant tax advantages, including deferral of capital gains for up to ten years. Because Qualified Opportunity Funds have come into existence so recently, regulation has been slow to catch up to the ways in which this tax program is rapidly attracting capital from private equity, investment …


International Securities And Capital Markets, Jennifer Y. Poon, Dr. Manfred Ketzer, Walter Stuber, Robert Lando, Audrey Kravets, Sandeep Parekh, Perry Wildes, Ayelet Krispin, Piyansena Perera, Mario Piana, Jose Carrillo, Daniel Winterfeldt, Trish O'Donnell, Jennifer Pence 2021 Southern Methodist University

International Securities And Capital Markets, Jennifer Y. Poon, Dr. Manfred Ketzer, Walter Stuber, Robert Lando, Audrey Kravets, Sandeep Parekh, Perry Wildes, Ayelet Krispin, Piyansena Perera, Mario Piana, Jose Carrillo, Daniel Winterfeldt, Trish O'Donnell, Jennifer Pence

The Year in Review

No abstract provided.


A Suggested Revision Of The 2020 Vertical Merger Guidelines (Version: 31 December 2021), Steven C. Salop 2021 Georgetown University Law Center

A Suggested Revision Of The 2020 Vertical Merger Guidelines (Version: 31 December 2021), Steven C. Salop

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The DOJ/ FTC Vertical Merger Guidelines (VMGs) were adopted by the FTC in June 2020 by a party-line 3-2 party line over the dissent of the Acting Chair. They were withdrawn by the FTC in September 2021. Withdrawal was appropriate because the VMGs are both incomplete and overly permissible. Revision is necessary. This Suggested Revision can aid that process.


Insider Trading As A Precursor To Modern Business Ethics, Robyn Coleman 2021 University of Arkansas, Fayetteville

Insider Trading As A Precursor To Modern Business Ethics, Robyn Coleman

Finance Undergraduate Honors Theses

There has been a recent change in business that there is more focus on the “stakeholder approach” than shareholder primacy. This can be attributed to the early actions and illegality of insider trading that expected a step beyond a solely economic approach. This attitude was then replicated to become what we see as the modern business approach. Business now includes ethical investing, environmental focus, corporate citizenship, and emphasis on multiple stakeholders that was not always there. Companies have embraced this position while others have been criticized for not doing so. As this approach develops and changes, it will be enlightening …


Guide On Incentives For Responsible Investment In Agriculture And Food Systems, Anna Bulman, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Ladan Mehranvar, Ella Merrill, Yannick Fiedler 2021 New York University School of Law, Center for Human Rights and Global Justice

Guide On Incentives For Responsible Investment In Agriculture And Food Systems, Anna Bulman, Kaitlin Y. Cordes, Ladan Mehranvar, Ella Merrill, Yannick Fiedler

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

To support implementation of the Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems (CFS RAI), CCSI has developed resources for governments and other stakeholders in partnership with the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (FAO).

This work includes an online course on creating an enabling environment for responsible investment in agriculture and food systems. The course is freely available, accessible online and available for download. Part I highlights the features and key players of an enabling environment that promotes responsible investment in agriculture and food security. Part II addresses multi-stakeholder engagement in the design of legal and …


Decentralized Finance: Regulating Cryptocurrency Exchanges, Kristin N. Johnson 2021 William & Mary Law School

Decentralized Finance: Regulating Cryptocurrency Exchanges, Kristin N. Johnson

William & Mary Law Review

Global financial markets are in the midst of a transformative movement. The creation of Bitcoin and Facebook’s proposed distribution of Diem mark a watershed moment in the evolution of the financial markets ecosystem. Purportedly, peer-to-peer distributed digital ledger technology eliminates legacy financial market intermediaries such as investment banks, depository banks, exchanges, clearinghouses, and broker-dealers.

Yet careful examination reveals that cryptocurrency issuers and the firms that offer secondary market cryptocurrency trading services have not quite lived up to their promise. Notwithstanding cryptoenthusiasts’ calls for disintermediation, evidence reveals that platforms that facilitate cryptocurrency trading frequently employ the long-adopted intermediation practices of their …


Covid-19 And Land-Based Investment: Changing Landscapes, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Nathaniah Jacobs, Clarisse Marsac 2021 Columbia Law School, Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment

Covid-19 And Land-Based Investment: Changing Landscapes, Tehtena Mebratu-Tsegaye, Nathaniah Jacobs, Clarisse Marsac

Columbia Center on Sustainable Investment Staff Publications

CCSI, IIED, and Namati are partnering on a new initiative to support governments, civil society, local communities, and private sector actors in improving the governance and practices of land-based investments.

Recognizing that more and better private sector investment is widely seen as critical to advancing economic development and achieving the SDGs in low- and middle-income countries, this initiative responds to concerns that land-based investments have resulted in land dispossession, environmental degradation, and conflict.

The Advancing Land-based Investment Governance (ALIGN) project involves:

  • Sustained, in-depth work in up to three countries, including Sierra Leone, to support policy development and implementation, legal …


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