Piling On? An Empirical Study Of Parallel Derivative Suits, 2017 University of Richmond
Piling On? An Empirical Study Of Parallel Derivative Suits, Jessica Erickson
Law Faculty Publications
Using a sample of all companies named as defendants in securities class actions between July 1, 2005 and December 31, 2008, we study parallel suits relying on state corporate law arising out of the same allegations as the securities class actions. We test several ways that parallel suits may add value to a securities class action. Most parallel suits target cases involving obvious indicia of wrongdoing. Moreover, we find that although a modest percentage of parallel suits are filed first, over 80 percent are filed after a securities class action (termed “follow-on” parallel suits). We find that parallel suits and ...
The Seventeenth Annual A.A. Sommer, Jr. Lecture On Corporate, Securities And Financial Law At The Fordham Corporate Law Center, 2017 Fordham University School of Law
The Seventeenth Annual A.A. Sommer, Jr. Lecture On Corporate, Securities And Financial Law At The Fordham Corporate Law Center, Matthew Diller, Ben Indek, Ira D. Hammerman
Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law
No abstract provided.
Dodd-Frank And The Spoofing Prohibition In Commodities Markets, 2017 J.D. Candidate, Fordham University School of Law, 2017
Dodd-Frank And The Spoofing Prohibition In Commodities Markets, Meric Sar
Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law
The Dodd-Frank Act amended the Commodity Exchange Act and adopted an explicit prohibition regarding activity commonly known as spoofing in commodities markets. This Note argues that the spoofing prohibition is a necessary step towards improved market discipline and price integrity in the relevant commodities markets. It fills an important gap in the CEA in relation to an elusive form of price manipulation activity by providing an explicit statutory authority on which regulators and market operators may rely in policing suspect trading strategies falling under the spoofing umbrella.
Congress’ explicit denouncement of spoofing as an illegal act has ramifications not only ...
Quasi-Appraisal: Appraising Breach Of Duty Of Disclosure Claims Following "Cash-Out" Mergers In Delaware, 2017 J.D. Candidate, Fordham University School of Law
Quasi-Appraisal: Appraising Breach Of Duty Of Disclosure Claims Following "Cash-Out" Mergers In Delaware, Zachary A. Paiva
Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law
In recent years, Delaware has served as the hot bed for the dramatic increase in merger appraisal litigation and the proliferation of “appraisal arbitrage” whereby opportunistic shareholders buy into companies following merger announcements and challenge announced deal prices as an investment strategy. While this has not always proved profitable, it has increased scrutiny over the Delaware appraisal regime and the ability for shareholders to avail themselves of the opportunity for a judicial valuation of their shares. Furthermore, it has highlighted information asymmetries in which controlling shareholders, particularly those seeking to cash out their minority shareholders, are incentivized to underpay or ...
From Systemic Risk To Financial Scandals: The Shortcomings Of U.S. Hedge Fund Regulation, 2017 Brooklyn Law School
From Systemic Risk To Financial Scandals: The Shortcomings Of U.S. Hedge Fund Regulation, Marco Bodellini
Brooklyn Journal of Corporate, Financial & Commercial Law
In the recent past, hedge funds have demonstrated that they can pose and spread systemic risk across the financial markets, and that their managers can use them to commit fraud and misappropriation of fund assets. Even if the first issue now seems to be considered a serious one by the U.S. legislature, which in 2010, as a legislative response to the global financial crisis of 2007-2008, enacted the Dodd-Frank Act Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank), the current regulation still appears inconsistent and inappropriate to prevent and face it. By contrast, the second issue is not always ...
Securities Regulation—Tenth Circuit Allows Lying Executives To Escape Section 10(B) Liability, Leaving Investors Remediless, 2017 Southern Methodist University
Securities Regulation—Tenth Circuit Allows Lying Executives To Escape Section 10(B) Liability, Leaving Investors Remediless, Robert C. Uhl
Journal of Air Law and Commerce
No abstract provided.
Rethinking Corporate Governance For A Bondholder Financed, Systemically Risky World, 2017 Duke Law School
Rethinking Corporate Governance For A Bondholder Financed, Systemically Risky World, Steven L. Schwarcz
This Article makes two arguments that, combined, demonstrate an important synergy: first, including bondholders in corporate governance could help to reduce systemic risk because bondholders are more risk averse than shareholders; second, corporate governance should include bondholders because bonds now dwarf equity as a source of corporate financing and bond prices are increasingly tied to firm performance.
Differing Perceptions? Market Practice And The Evolution Of Foreign Sovereign Immunity, 2017 Duke Law School
Differing Perceptions? Market Practice And The Evolution Of Foreign Sovereign Immunity, W. Mark C. Weidemaier, Mitu Gulati
The 20th century witnessed a transformative, “tectonic” shift in international law, from “absolute” to “restrictive” theories of sovereign immunity. As conventionally understood, however, this dramatic transformation represented only a shift in the default rule. Under absolute immunity, national courts could not hear lawsuits and enforce judgments against a foreign sovereign without its consent. Under restrictive immunity, foreign sovereigns were presumptively not immune when they engaged in commercial acts. We demonstrate that market practices undermine this conventional understanding. Using an extensive, two-century data set of contracts between foreign governments and private creditors, we show that contracting parties have long treated absolute ...
Regulating A Revolution: From Regulatory Sandboxes To Smart Regulation, 2017 Faculty of Law, Economics and Finance, University of Luxembourg
Regulating A Revolution: From Regulatory Sandboxes To Smart Regulation, Dirk A. Zetzsche, Ross P. Buckley, Janos N. Barberis, Douglas W. Arner
Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law
Prior to the global financial crisis, financial innovation was viewed very positively, resulting in a laissez-faire, deregulatory approach to financial regulation. Since the crisis the regulatory pendulum has swung to the other extreme. Post-crisis regulation, plus rapid technological change, have spurred the development of financial technology (FinTech). FinTech firms and data-driven financial service providers profoundly challenge the current regulatory paradigm. Financial regulators increasingly seek to balance the traditional regulatory objectives of financial stability and consumer protection with promoting growth and innovation. The resulting regulatory innovations include RegTech, regulatory sandboxes, and special charters. This Article analyzes possible new regulatory approaches, ranging ...
Sovereign Debt Restructuring And English Governing Law, 2017 Duke Law School
Sovereign Debt Restructuring And English Governing Law, Steven L. Schwarcz
The problem of sovereign indebtedness is becoming a worldwide crisis because nations, unlike individuals and corporations, lack access to bankruptcy laws to restructure unsustainable debt. Decades of international efforts to solve this problem through contracting and attempted treaty-making have failed to provide an adequate debt-restructuring framework. A significant amount of outstanding sovereign debt is governed, however, by English law. This Article argues that the U.K. Parliament has the extraordinary power to help solve the problem of unsustainable country debt by changing English law to facilitate fair and consensual debt restructuring. This Article also proposes modifications to English law that ...
The Deregulation Of Private Capital And The Decline Of The Public Company, 2017 Duke Law School
The Deregulation Of Private Capital And The Decline Of The Public Company, Elisabeth De Fontenay
From its inception, the federal securities law regime created and enforced a major divide between public and private capital raising. Firms that chose to “go public” took on substantial disclosure burdens, but in exchange were given the exclusive right to raise capital from the general public. Over time, however, the disclosure quid pro quo has been subverted: Public companies are still asked to disclose, yet capital is flooding into private companies with regulators’ blessing.
This Article provides a critique of the new public-private divide centered on its information effects. While regulators may have hoped for both the private and public ...
Brief Of Professors At Law And Business Schools As Amicus Curiae In Support Of Respondents, James D. Cox, J. Robert Brown Jr., Lyman Johnson, Lawrence W. Treece, Joan Macleod Heminway
This Amicus Brief was filed with the U.S. Supreme Court on behalf of nearly 50 law and business faculty in the United States and Canada who have a common interest in ensuring a proper interpretation of the statutory securities regulation framework put in place by the U.S. Congress. Specifically, all amici agree that Item 303 of the Securities and Exchange Commission's Regulation S-K creates a duty to disclose for purposes of Rule 10b-5(b) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
The Court’s affirmation of a duty to disclose would have little effect on existing practice ...
Sovereign Debt And The “Contracts Matter” Hypothesis, 2017 Duke Law School
Sovereign Debt And The “Contracts Matter” Hypothesis, W. Mark C. Weidemaier, Mitu Gulati
The academic literature on sovereign debt largely assumes that law has little role to play. Indeed, the primary question addressed by the literature is why sovereigns repay at all given the irrelevance of legal enforcement. But if law, and specifically contract law, does not matter, how to explain the fact that sovereign loans involve detailed contracts, expensive lawyers, and frequent litigation? This Essay makes the case that contract design matters even in a world where sovereign borrowers are hard (but not impossible) to sue. We identify a number of gaps in the research that warrant further investigation.
The Great Etf Tax Swindle: The Taxation Of In-Kind Redemptions, 2017 Fordham University School of Law
The Great Etf Tax Swindle: The Taxation Of In-Kind Redemptions, Jeffrey Colon
Since the repeal of the General Utilities doctrine over 30 years ago, corporations must recognize gain when distributing appreciated property to their shareholders. Regulated investment companies (RICs), which generally must be organized as domestic corporations, are exempt from this rule when distributing property in kind to a redeeming shareholder. In-kind redemptions, while rare for mutual funds, are a fundamental feature of exchange-traded funds (ETFs). Because fund managers decide which securities to distribute, they distribute assets with unrealized gains and thereby significantly reduce the future tax burdens of their current and future shareholders. Many ETFs have morphed into investment vehicles that ...
A Legal Analysis On Enterprises Overseas Fundraising -- A Comparison Between The U.S. Market And The Taiwanese Market, 2017 Indiana University Maurer School of Law
A Legal Analysis On Enterprises Overseas Fundraising -- A Comparison Between The U.S. Market And The Taiwanese Market, Ke Ho
Theses and Dissertations
Since the 1990’s, Taiwan’s government has made efforts to upgrade economic development by attraction more foreign enterprises to enter the domestic capital market. However, in the early 2000s, statistics indicated that the number of such new enterprise listings in Taiwan actually decreased. Some believe a very important factor in the decrease to the number of new listings in Taiwan is the current regulatory framework’s lack of flexibility. It is assumed that the regulatory intensity for foreign enterprises is very high. In order to review this intensity on the foreign issuer, this dissertation presents research on the law ...
Standing Voting Instructions: Empowering The Excluded Retail Investor, 2017 University of Pennsylvania Law School
Standing Voting Instructions: Empowering The Excluded Retail Investor, Jill E. Fisch
Despite the increasing importance of shareholder voting, regulators have paid little attention to the rights of retail investors who own approximately 30% of publicly traded companies but who vote less than 30% of their shares. A substantial factor contributing to this low turnout is the antiquated mechanism by which retail investors vote. The federal proxy voting rules place primary responsibility for facilitating retail voting in the hands of custodial brokers who have limited incentives to develop workable procedures, and current regulatory restrictions impede market-based innovation that incorporate technological innovations.
One of the most promising such innovations is standing voting instructions ...
Regulatory Competition And The Market For Corporate Law, 2017 Duke Law School
Regulatory Competition And The Market For Corporate Law, Ofer Eldar, Lorenzo Magnolfi
This article develops an empirical model of firms’ choice of corporate laws under inertia. Delaware dominates the incorporation market, though recently Nevada, a state whose laws are highly protective of managers, has acquired a sizable market share. Using a novel database of incorporation decisions from 1995- 2013, we show that most firms dislike protectionist laws, such as anti-takeover statutes and liability protections for officers, and that Nevada’s rise is due to the preferences of small firms.Our estimates indicate that despite inertia, Delaware would lose significant market share and revenues if it adopted protectionist laws. Our findings support the ...
Contractual Arbitrage, 2017 Duke Law School
Contractual Arbitrage, Stephen J. Choi, Mitu Gulati, Robert E. Scott
Contracts are inevitably incomplete. And standard-form or boilerplate commercial contracts are especially likely to be incomplete because they are approximations; they are not tailored to the needs of particular deals. Not only do these contracts contain gaps but, in an attempt to reduce incompleteness, they often contain clauses with vague or ambiguous terms. Terms with indeterminate meaning present opportunities for strategic behavior well after a contract has been concluded. This linguistic uncertainty in standard form commercial contracts creates an opportunity for “contractual arbitrage”: parties may argue, ex post, that the uncertainties in expression mean something that the contracting parties, ex ...
Deterring Holdout Creditors In A Restructuring Of Pdvsa Bonds And Promissory Notes (¿Cómo Disuadir A Acreedores 'Holdout' En Una Restructuración De Bonos Y Pagarés De Pdvsa?), Lee C. Buchheit, Mitu Gulati
The prospect of the potential mischief that may be caused by holdout creditors in a Venezuelan sovereign debt restructuring is probably the main reason why the Maduro administration has not attempted such an exercise. The next administration in Venezuela — whenever and however it may arrive — will not want for suggestions about how to minimize or neutralize this holdout creditor threat. This short article is another contribution to that growing literature. Were the Republic of Venezuela to acknowledge that there really is only one public sector credit risk in the country, and that the distinction between Republic bonds and PDVSA bonds ...
The Puzzle Of Pdvsa Bond Prices, 2017 Duke Law School
The Puzzle Of Pdvsa Bond Prices, Paolo Colla, Anna Gelpern, Mitu Gulati
Market reports in the summer of 2016 suggest that Venezuela is on the brink of default on upwards of $65 billion in debt. That debt comprises of bonds issued directly by the sovereign and those issued by the state-owned oil company PDVSA. Based on the bond contracts and other legal factors, it is not clear which of these two categories of bonds would fare better in the event of a restructuring. However, market observers are convinced — and we agree — that legal and contractual differences would likely impact the payouts on the bonds if Venezuela defaults. Using a comparison of recent ...