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Hospital Peer Review Standards And Due Process: Moving From Tort Doctrine Toward Contract Principles Based On Clinical Practice Guidelines, Katharine A. Van Tassel 2018 Concordia University School of Law, Boise

Hospital Peer Review Standards And Due Process: Moving From Tort Doctrine Toward Contract Principles Based On Clinical Practice Guidelines, Katharine A. Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article proposes a solution to the problems associated with the current use of vague standards in peer review. This Article will examine the proposal that medical staffs switch from ad hoc judicial decision-making to rule-making. This switch will allow medical staffs to abandon the troublesome practice of applying vague 'standard of care' measures ex post facto. In its stead, express contractual terminology could be adopted, such as 'expectations of performance,' which incorporates specifically chosen and uniquely tailored clinical practice guidelines ('CPGs') directly into the medical staff by-laws. Describing the expectations of physician performance in express contractual terms enables physicians ...


Regulating In Uncertainty: Animating The Public Health Product Safety Net To Capture Consumer Products Regulated By The Fda That Use Innovative Technologies, Including Nanotechnologies, Genetic Modification, Cloning, And Lab Grown Meat, Katharine A. Van Tassel 2018 Concordia University School of Law, Boise

Regulating In Uncertainty: Animating The Public Health Product Safety Net To Capture Consumer Products Regulated By The Fda That Use Innovative Technologies, Including Nanotechnologies, Genetic Modification, Cloning, And Lab Grown Meat, Katharine A. Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article will use nanotechnology as an example that highlights how regulation based on novelty rather than hazard achieves the proper balance between protecting public health while encouraging innovation through the animation of the public health product safety net. In Part II, this Article starts by explaining what nanotechnology is and the remarkable growth of its use in everyday consumer products. It then summarizes the steadily increasing number of studies that suggest that there are likely to be serious health risks associated with the use of nanotech consumer products. Next, it explains how the FDA [Food and Drug Administration] is ...


Expert Testimony And Professional Licensing Boards: What Is Good, What Is Necessary, And The Myth Of The Majority-Minority Split, Timothy P. McCormack 2018 University of Maine School of Law

Expert Testimony And Professional Licensing Boards: What Is Good, What Is Necessary, And The Myth Of The Majority-Minority Split, Timothy P. Mccormack

Maine Law Review

Defendants regularly argue that a Review Board's decision must be overturned because it is not supported by expert testimony. Boards counter that they are qualified, by virtue of their role as the guardians of the standards for their profession, to determine the appropriateness of a defendant's conduct without the assistance of expert testimony. When courts address these arguments, they routinely ask if expert testimony is necessary to establish the standard of care in disciplinary hearings before a professional licensing board. Courts answer this question differently. In fact there is a seeming schism among the states about the importance ...


Latent Medical Errors And Maine's Statute Of Limitations For Medical Malpractice: A Discussion Of The Issues, Kathryn M. Kendall 2018 University of Maine School of Law

Latent Medical Errors And Maine's Statute Of Limitations For Medical Malpractice: A Discussion Of The Issues, Kathryn M. Kendall

Maine Law Review

Each year in the United States, between 44,000 and 98,000 hospitalized patients die as a result of medical errors. Nearly a third of such errors are caused by negligence. Although most of these negligent mistakes become apparent to patients or their families shortly after they occur, a few remain undiscoverable for an extended length of time. When medical errors lead to the misdiagnosis of diseases with long latency periods, patients may be delayed in obtaining appropriate treatment. Nonetheless, in Maine, because medical malpractice actions are governed by a strict occurrence-based statute of limitations as opposed to a limitations ...


The Price Tag On Designer Babies: Market Share Liability, Boston College Law Review Staff 2018 Boston College Law School

The Price Tag On Designer Babies: Market Share Liability, Boston College Law Review Staff

Boston College Law Review

The prospect of genetically modifying humans has loomed over the public for decades. Now, science fiction is becoming reality. New technology and expanding research are positioned to make genetic alteration a routine, pre-conception appointment. For several years, China has been experimenting with germline editing on non-viable human embryos. In April 2016, the UK also approved a group of scientists to begin similar research. In the United States, genetic engineering is a multibillion-dollar industry. Although ethical debates over human genetic modification have checked the industry, the potential for clinical trials has become a reality as companies race to dominate the technology ...


Little Sisters’ Sorrow: Conversations About Contraception And Reproductive Justice, Katrina Roze Myers 2018 College of William & Mary Law School

Little Sisters’ Sorrow: Conversations About Contraception And Reproductive Justice, Katrina Roze Myers

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

In light of recent political changes in the United States, the future of women’s health care has never been so uncertain. Using the debate on contraception access in the United States to frame the discussion, I demonstrate how religious groups and reproductive justice (RJ) activists might engage in constructive dialogue to protect women’s rights. I analyze the amicus briefs submitted on behalf of Catholic nuns and the government in Zubik v. Burwell, which illustrate that despite differences, RJ advocates and Catholic nuns have much in common—including a commitment to eradicate sex discrimination, ensure economic freedom, and protect ...


Sex, Drugs, Trump And Birth Control, Desire’e Martinelli 2018 College of William & Mary Law School

Sex, Drugs, Trump And Birth Control, Desire’E Martinelli

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

This Article explores both medical and legal reasons as to why OTC access to contraception is needed and justified. It also applies current changes in the government and discusses how the repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) could substantially affect birth control. Alternative and traditional options are presented and analyzed to determine their viability.


Mental Disorder And Criminal Justice, Stephen J. Morse 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Mental Disorder And Criminal Justice, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship

This paper is a chapter that will appear in REFORMING CRIMINAL JUSTICE: A REPORT OF THE ACADEMY FOR JUSTICE BRIDGING THE GAP BETWEEN SCHOLARSHIP AND REFORM (Erik Luna ed., Academy for Justice 2018). The criminal law treats some people with severe mental disorders doctrinally and practically differently at virtually every stage of the criminal justice process, beginning with potential incompetence to stand trial and ending with the question of competence to be executed, and such people have special needs when they are in the system. This chapter begins by exploring the fundamental mental health information necessary to make informed judgements ...


Should Commercial Surrogacy Be Legalised?, Seow Hon TAN 2018 Singapore Management University

Should Commercial Surrogacy Be Legalised?, Seow Hon Tan

Research Collection School Of Law

Does Singapore condone commercial surrogacy? Thisquestion is in the limelight with a court judgment on a Singaporean doctor'sbid to adopt a boy he fathered through a commercial surrogacy arrangement inthe United States.


Legal History Of Medical Aid In Dying: Physician Assisted Death In U.S. Courts And Legislatures, Thaddeus Pope 2018 Mitchell Hamline School of Law

Legal History Of Medical Aid In Dying: Physician Assisted Death In U.S. Courts And Legislatures, Thaddeus Pope

Faculty Scholarship

Terminally ill patients in the United States have four medical options for controlling the time and manner of their death. Three of these are legally available to certain clinically qualified patients. First, all patients may withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment. Second, all patients may voluntarily stop eating and drinking. Third, patients with intractable suffering may receive palliative sedation to unconsciousness. In contrast, the fourth option is available in only seven U.S. jurisdictions. Only there may patients legally obtain a prescription for a lethal medication that they can later self-ingest.

Medical aid in dying (MAID) is not yet legally available ...


Removing Obstacles To A Peaceful Death, Kathy L. Cerminara, Barbara A. Noah 2018 Nova Southeastern University

Removing Obstacles To A Peaceful Death, Kathy L. Cerminara, Barbara A. Noah

Faculty Scholarship

We all will die, but the American health care system often impedes a peaceful death. Instead of a quiet death at home surrounded by loved ones, many of us suffer through overutilization of sometimes-toxic therapeutic interventions long past the time when those interventions do more good than harm. This article proposes revisions to health professional training and payment policy to eliminate as much as possible physical and existential suffering while progressing through the terminal phase of illness. The solution lies in seamless progression from treatment with integrated palliative care to hospice before death, but provider attitudes and payor practices must ...


Teaching Bioethics: The Role Of Empathy & Humility In The Teaching And Practice Of Law, Barbara A. Noah 2018 Westen New England University School of Law

Teaching Bioethics: The Role Of Empathy & Humility In The Teaching And Practice Of Law, Barbara A. Noah

Faculty Scholarship

This essay considers the role of empathy and humility in the professional practices of physicians and lawyers and in those who prepare students for these professions. Beginning with an overview of the goals and methods of legal education, it compares similar goals in medical education and the value of practicing law (and medicine) with empathy and humility. The essay then describes exercises used in the law school classroom designed both to teach law students about end-of-life law and also to allow them to practice counseling clients. Through these exercises, law students can experience firsthand the challenges of advising a client ...


Baby M Turns 30: The Law And Policy Of Surrogate Motherhood, Eric A. Feldman 2018 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Baby M Turns 30: The Law And Policy Of Surrogate Motherhood, Eric A. Feldman

Faculty Scholarship

This article marks the 30th anniversary of the Supreme Court of New Jersey’s Baby M decision by offering a critical analysis of surrogacy policy in the United States. Despite fundamental changes in both science and society since the case was decided, state courts and legislatures remain bitterly divided on the legality of surrogacy. In arguing for a more uniform, permissive legal posture toward surrogacy, the article addresses five central debates in the surrogacy literature.

First, should the legal system accommodate those seeking conception through surrogacy, or should it prohibit such arrangements? Second, if surrogacy is permitted, what steps can ...


Medico-Legal Collaboration Regarding The Sex Offender: Othering And Resistance, Mary Lay Schuster, Brian N. Larson, Amy D. Propen 2018 Texas A&M University School of Law

Medico-Legal Collaboration Regarding The Sex Offender: Othering And Resistance, Mary Lay Schuster, Brian N. Larson, Amy D. Propen

Faculty Scholarship

We examined medico-legal collaboration regarding dangerous sex offenders where state legislators have adopted statutes that determine the criteria for commitment to and discharge from civil commitment programs. The application of these statutes relies on medical diagnoses of pathologies such as paraphilia, anti-social personality disorder, and pedophilia along with prognoses for cure or recidivism. In our study, we examined court opinions from commitment hearings and observed a trial in federal court on the constitutionality of these commitments. We found that one result of this medico-legal collaboration is the marginalization or othering of sex offenders by essentializing, dividing, shaming, and impeaching them ...


Potential Utility Of An Independent Decision-Making Board For Seriously Ill Patients Lacking Decisional Capacity, Barbara A. Noah 2018 Westen New England University School of Law

Potential Utility Of An Independent Decision-Making Board For Seriously Ill Patients Lacking Decisional Capacity, Barbara A. Noah

Faculty Scholarship

Physicians acknowledge that they are providing unnecessary medical care at the end of life for a variety of reasons, including fear of malpractice litigation, Medicare’s fee-for service reimbursement mechanism, patient and family requests for care, a culture of denial of mortality, and a physician culture which views a patient’s death as a professional failure. Recent data suggest that more than one-fifth of medical care provided at the end of life is unnecessary. Although the problem of over-provision of medical care is now well recognized in the legal and medical literatures, private-ordering solutions, such as better communication training for ...


Depression: The Often Overlooked Sequela Of Head Trauma, Samuel D. Hodge Jr., Jack E. Hubbard 2017 Temple University

Depression: The Often Overlooked Sequela Of Head Trauma, Samuel D. Hodge Jr., Jack E. Hubbard

Cleveland State Law Review

Depression is a common sequela of head trauma. Approximately half of all individuals with a cranial injury will experience depression within the first year, regardless of the severity of the injury. The ailment is characterized clinically as a mood disorder, often associated with intense feelings of sadness. However, depression is more complex than mood disorders, as many mental and bodily complaints—such as insomnia, fatigue, anxiety, appetite changes, aches and pains, and lack of interest in previously enjoyable activities—are associated with depression. These intense feelings, particularly when combined with despair and hopelessness, can lead to suicide, a dreaded potential ...


Hiv And The Ada: What Is A Direct Threat?, Dawn-Marie Harmon 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Hiv And The Ada: What Is A Direct Threat?, Dawn-Marie Harmon

Maine Law Review

Anne, a surgical technician at a local hospital, recently learned that she was HIV-positive. She works in the emergency room and, as a part of her job, she hands surgical instruments to doctors performing emergency surgery. It is a fast paced and unpredictable environment. Her hands often come in contact with sharp instruments. Although Anne has never put her hands into a patient's body cavity, there is a remote possibility that she may need to do so in the future. There is always a possibility, however small, that she will cut herself and come into blood-to-blood contact with a ...


Managing Judges Mathematically: An Empirical Study Of The Medical Malpractice Litigations In Shanghai, Wei ZHANG 2017 Singapore Management University

Managing Judges Mathematically: An Empirical Study Of The Medical Malpractice Litigations In Shanghai, Wei Zhang

Research Collection School Of Law

The post-Mao China has been increasingly managed mathematically, not the least in its judicial system. In this paper, I looked into some of the mathematical indicators used to judge the performance of judges in this nation, and ascertained their effects on the judicial decisions on medical malpractices in Shanghai. The findings of this paper support the previous study that qualitatively identified the judicial responses to such a quantified evaluation system. Underlying the effect of performance indicators is the Chinese judiciary’s bending toward populist pressure. Essentially, therefore, this paper serves to place in perspective the judicial populism well documented in ...


Conant V. Walters: A Misapplication Of Free Speech Rights In The Doctor-Patient Relationship, Katharine M. McCarthy 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Conant V. Walters: A Misapplication Of Free Speech Rights In The Doctor-Patient Relationship, Katharine M. Mccarthy

Maine Law Review

In Conant v. Walters, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit addressed the application of the First Amendment's right of free speech to a federal policy that prohibited the recommendation of medical marijuana by physicians. This class action suit, brought by physicians and severely ill patients, successfully enjoined the federal government from enforcing its policy revoking the federal prescriptive licenses of physicians who recommend or approve of marijuana use by patients suffering from certain severe illnesses. The federal government's policy, issued in 1996 through a statement of Barry McCaffrey, director of the Office of National ...


Negligence Per Se Theories In Pharmaceutical & Medical Device Litigation, Andrew E. Costa 2017 University of Maine School of Law

Negligence Per Se Theories In Pharmaceutical & Medical Device Litigation, Andrew E. Costa

Maine Law Review

The notion of addressing the vagaries of negligence per se theories in the context of pharmaceutical and medical device litigation seems to promise little more than a monograph anesthetized by a body of obscure pharmaceutical and medical device provisions viewed through the lenses of various states' negligence law. Maybe little more than that can be assured. However, the issue of how courts should address negligence per se theories in this context implicates a variety of “larger” (or, possibly, more interesting) legal issues in general and pharmaceutical and medical device litigation in particular. Perhaps foremost among these issues is the interaction ...


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