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Articles 1 - 30 of 1996

Full-Text Articles in Medical Jurisprudence

State Adverse Health Incident Reporting Systems In The United States, In Global Patient Safety: Law, Policy And Practice, Barbara A. Noah Jan 2019

State Adverse Health Incident Reporting Systems In The United States, In Global Patient Safety: Law, Policy And Practice, Barbara A. Noah

Faculty Scholarship

In the United States, the multiple overlapping adverse event reporting systems for patient safety reflect the country’s fragmented, inefficient, and inequitable health care finance and delivery system. This Chapter provides a brief description of the United States' health care environment and its impact on the frequency of adverse events. It includes an overview and the progress in state-by-state adverse event reporting systems and a discussion of the role of the Joint Commission's "Speak Up" initiative. The Author concludes that, in spite of the system's gaps and failings, the efforts of many physicians, health care institutions, regulatory bodies ...


Neurohype And The Law: A Cautionary Tale, Stephen J. Morse Sep 2018

Neurohype And The Law: A Cautionary Tale, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This chapter suggests that for conceptual, empirical, and practical reasons, neuroscience in general and non-invasive brain imaging in particular are not likely to revolutionize the law and our conception of ourselves, but may make modest contributions to legal policy and case adjudication if the legal relevance of the science is properly understood.


Understanding The Sexual Assault Kit Backlog In Pennsylvania, Kallie Crawford, Lyndsie Ferrara Aug 2018

Understanding The Sexual Assault Kit Backlog In Pennsylvania, Kallie Crawford, Lyndsie Ferrara

Graduate Student Research Symposium

According to the FBI, to date, there are more than 400,000 untested sexual assault kits nationwide. While this is a huge issue that cannot be solved overnight, continual improvements and changes are needed to reduce and hopefully eliminate the backlog.

This research examines work going on nationwide and aims to better understand the backlog issues specifically in Pennsylvania. Furthermore, the research examines a program utilized by the law enforcement community that garnered necessary resources. First, a comprehensive review of improved practices in proactive jurisdictions of Ohio, Houston, Texas, and Detroit, Michigan was conducted to identify general policies and procedures ...


Avoiding Prolonged Dementia, Norman L. Cantor Aug 2018

Avoiding Prolonged Dementia, Norman L. Cantor

Norman Cantor

The scourge of Alzheimer's is daunting.  For me, the specter of being mired in progressively degenerative dementia is an intolerably degrading prospect. One avoidance tactic -- suicide while still competent – risks a premature demise while still enjoying a tolerable lifestyle.  The question arises whether an alternative tactic -- an advance directive declining all life-sustaining intervention once a certain point of debilitation is reached -- might be preferable as a device to avoid a prolonged, unwanted limbo.  My article in the forthcoming Hastings Center Report (HCR) presents the legal and moral foundation for my advance directive declining even simplistic interventions at a relatively ...


Health Care Referrals Out Of The Shadows: Recognizing The Looming Threat Of The Texas Patient Solicitation Act And Other Illegal Remuneration Statutes, Trenton Brown Aug 2018

Health Care Referrals Out Of The Shadows: Recognizing The Looming Threat Of The Texas Patient Solicitation Act And Other Illegal Remuneration Statutes, Trenton Brown

St. Mary's Law Journal

Abstract forthcoming


Amicus Brief, Lebron V. Gottlieb Memorial Hospital, Neil Vidmar, Tom Baker, Ralph L. Brill, Martha Chamallas, Stephen Daniels, Thomas A. Eaton, Theodore Eisenberg, Neal R. Feigenson, Lucinda M. Finley, Marc Galanter, Valerie P. Hans, Michael Heise, Edward J. Kionka, Thomas H. Koenig, Herbert M. Kritzer, David I. Levine, Nancy S. Marder, Joanne Martin, Frank M. Mcclellan, Deborah Jones Merritt, Philip G. Peters, Jr., James T. Richardson, Charles Silver, Richard W. Wright Jun 2018

Amicus Brief, Lebron V. Gottlieb Memorial Hospital, Neil Vidmar, Tom Baker, Ralph L. Brill, Martha Chamallas, Stephen Daniels, Thomas A. Eaton, Theodore Eisenberg, Neal R. Feigenson, Lucinda M. Finley, Marc Galanter, Valerie P. Hans, Michael Heise, Edward J. Kionka, Thomas H. Koenig, Herbert M. Kritzer, David I. Levine, Nancy S. Marder, Joanne Martin, Frank M. Mcclellan, Deborah Jones Merritt, Philip G. Peters, Jr., James T. Richardson, Charles Silver, Richard W. Wright

Nancy S. Marder

Illinois Public Act 82-280, § 2-1706.5, as amended by P.A. 94-677, § 330 (eff. Aug. 25, 2005), and as codified as 735 ILCS 5/2-1706.5(a), imposes a $500,000 “cap” on the noneconomic damages that may be awarded in a medical malpractice suit against a physician or other health care professional, and a $1 million “cap” on the noneconomic damages that may be awarded against a hospital, its affiliates, or their employees.

This brief will address two of the questions presented for review by the parties:

1. Does the cap violate the Illinois Constitution’s prohibition on “special ...


Crispr/Cas-9 Technologies: A Call For A New Form Of Tort, Kendall Lovell Jun 2018

Crispr/Cas-9 Technologies: A Call For A New Form Of Tort, Kendall Lovell

San Diego International Law Journal

Once relegated to the domains of science fiction, modern day scientists and researchers are poised on the precipice of making genome editing clinically available. Once introduced into a clinical setting the effects of an off-target mutation or germline edit will remain largely unknown until health issues arise later in life or in the following generation. The novelty of the injuries that will arise require a system that is able to balance the interests of physicians with single and multi-generational plaintiffs, while providing a realistic framework for courts to follow. This comment offers a brand-new context that accounts for these needs ...


Beyond Gift And Bargain: Some Suggestions For Increasing Kidney Exchanges, Nathan B. Oman Jun 2018

Beyond Gift And Bargain: Some Suggestions For Increasing Kidney Exchanges, Nathan B. Oman

Faculty Publications

Each year, thousands of people in the United States die from end stage renal disease (ESRD), despite the fact that we have the medical knowledge necessary to save them. The reason is simple: these people need a kidney transplant and we have too few kidneys. Given our current technology, the only way to meet the massive annual shortfall between the number of kidneys that are donated and the number of kidneys that are necessary to save the lives of those with ESRD is to increase the number of living donations. The debate on how to do so has often pitted ...


The Burgeoning “Biorights Movement”: Its Legal Basis, What’S At Stake, And How To Respond, Mark A. Hayden May 2018

The Burgeoning “Biorights Movement”: Its Legal Basis, What’S At Stake, And How To Respond, Mark A. Hayden

Boston College Law Review

The advent of genetic and genomic technologies has the power to transform the understanding, prevention, and treatment of disease on a scale unprecedented in modern medicine. The promise of the era of precision medicine risks being tempered by the emergence of what is increasingly being referred to as the “biorights movement.” Of particular concern is the growing trend of individuals refusing to contribute their biological material to research studies absent some form of monetary compensation. Recently announced, but yet to be implemented, regulations seek to mitigate some of the potentially harmful and progress-impeding positions advanced by the biorights movement. The ...


Termination Of Hospital Medical Staff Privileges For Economic Reasons: An Appeal For Consistency, June D. Zellers, Michael R. Poulin May 2018

Termination Of Hospital Medical Staff Privileges For Economic Reasons: An Appeal For Consistency, June D. Zellers, Michael R. Poulin

Maine Law Review

The relationship between physicians and hospitals is undergoing significant change. Historically, a physician maintained a private practice in the community and looked to the local hospital for ancillary support when his or her patients were too ill to remain at home. This community-based physician gained access to the hospital by obtaining medical staff privileges. These privileges allowed the physician to admit patients to the hospital, treat patients while they were there, and use the hospital's staff and equipment. The physician generally enjoyed the use of the privileges throughout his or her active career, losing them only if found incompetent ...


Reforming Regenerative Medicine Regulation, Sarah Duranske May 2018

Reforming Regenerative Medicine Regulation, Sarah Duranske

Georgia State University Law Review

Regenerative medicine is defined as the branch of medicine that develops methods to regrow, repair, or replace damaged or diseased cells or tissues. It includes a variety of approaches, such as transplanting cells to promote healing, editing genes in cells to attack cancer, and even building organs from biological materials. Regulating regenerative medicine therapies is no easy task. Finding a balance between competing interests–enabling timely access for needy patients while simultaneously ensuring a positive benefit/risk profile and promoting the development of beneficial innovations–is hard enough at any given point in time. But add in constantly advancing scientific ...


Accelerated Creative Problem Solving And Product Improvement Applied To Experimental Devices In A Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation Class--Improving The Role Of Insight Development Tools As A Generator Of New Ideas In Novel Situations, Douglas Ridolfi May 2018

Accelerated Creative Problem Solving And Product Improvement Applied To Experimental Devices In A Bloodstain Pattern Interpretation Class--Improving The Role Of Insight Development Tools As A Generator Of New Ideas In Novel Situations, Douglas Ridolfi

Creative Studies Graduate Student Master's Projects

This project uses an action research centered study protocol to examine the effects of a problem-based learning exercise related to bloodstain pattern interpretation in a crime scene processing and general criminalistics class taught as part of an upper division forensic chemistry major in a four year college. The goal is to apply design principles and creative problem solving methods directly adapted to a project involving interpreting a set of crime scene photographs depicting blood spatter and with the aid of guided exercises in ideation and design, lead students into the development of alternate theories of how the bloodstains were created ...


A Surging Drug Epidemic: Time For Congress To Enact A Mandate On Insurance Companies And Rehabilitation Facilities For Opioid And Opiate Addiction, Alanna Guy May 2018

A Surging Drug Epidemic: Time For Congress To Enact A Mandate On Insurance Companies And Rehabilitation Facilities For Opioid And Opiate Addiction, Alanna Guy

Journal of Law and Health

This Note begins with a discussion of both the national opioid problem as well as the specific epidemic in Ohio as an example of how it has grown within all of the states. Part II discusses the differences between prescription opioids and opiates, how they can be obtained, what effects they have on the human body, and why the government has an interest in this growing problem. Next, this Note explains how and why there was an increase in access and addiction to prescription opioid pain medication. Following this explanation, the steps the government has taken to try to rectify ...


Informing Consent: Medical Malpractice And The Criminalization Of Pregnancy, Laura Beth Cohen May 2018

Informing Consent: Medical Malpractice And The Criminalization Of Pregnancy, Laura Beth Cohen

Michigan Law Review

Since the early 1990s, jurisdictions around the country have been using civil child abuse laws to penalize women for using illicit drugs during their pregnancies. Using civil child abuse laws in this way infringes on pregnant women’s civil rights and deters them from seeking prenatal care. Child Protective Services agencies are key players in this system. Women often become entangled with the Child Protective Services system through their health care providers. Providers will drug test pregnant women without first alerting them to the potential negative consequences stemming from a positive drug test. Doing so is a breach of these ...


A Job For Congress: Medical Marijuana Patients’ Fight For Second Amendment Rights, Kenneth Seligson Apr 2018

A Job For Congress: Medical Marijuana Patients’ Fight For Second Amendment Rights, Kenneth Seligson

Golden Gate University Law Review

This Note begins with Part I section (A), describing the administrative rule and factual background, leading up to the suit in Wilson v. Lynch. Part I section (B) explains the arguments made at the U.S. District Court in Nevada and how the case progressed from the district court to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals. Then, Part I section (C) analyzes the Ninth Circuit’s application of the two-step test for Second Amendment challenges established in Chovan.

After evaluating the application of the two-step test in Wilson v. Lynch, Part II section (A) reviews the history of cannabis and ...


Maine Physician Practice Guidelines: Implications For Medical Malpractice Litigation, Jennifer S. Begel Apr 2018

Maine Physician Practice Guidelines: Implications For Medical Malpractice Litigation, Jennifer S. Begel

Maine Law Review

This Article assesses the use of physician practice guidelines as a vehicle for medical malpractice tort reform and focuses upon the State of Maine's legislation incorporating physician practice parameters into the defense of medical malpractice litigation. The Maine Medical Liability Demonstration Project (the “Demonstration Project”) legislatively adopts practice guidelines in four different medical specialties and allows physicians in those specialties to assert compliance with the applicable guideline as an affirmative defense. The affirmative defense of compliance with such guidelines has been touted as a means of protecting physicians from, and decreasing the costs associated with, medical malpractice litigation. While ...


Marijuana Agriculture Law: Regulation At The Root Of An Industry, Ryan Stoa Mar 2018

Marijuana Agriculture Law: Regulation At The Root Of An Industry, Ryan Stoa

Ryan B. Stoa

Marijuana legalization is sweeping the nation. Recreational marijuana use is legal in eight states. Medical marijuana use is legal in thirteen states. Only three states maintain an absolute criminal prohibition on marijuana use. Many of these legalization initiatives propose to regulate marijuana in a manner similar to alcohol, and many titles are variations of the "Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol Act." For political and public health reasons the analogy makes sense, but it also reveals a regulatory blind spot. States may be using alcohol as a model for regulating the distribution, retail, and consumption of marijuana, but marijuana is much more ...


The Role Of International Human Rights Law In Mediating Between The Rights Of Parents And Their Children Born With Intersex Traits In The United States, Cristian González Cabrera Mar 2018

The Role Of International Human Rights Law In Mediating Between The Rights Of Parents And Their Children Born With Intersex Traits In The United States, Cristian González Cabrera

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

No abstract provided.


Taxing & Zapping Marijuana: Blockchain Compliance In The Trump Administration, Richard Thompson Ainsworth Mar 2018

Taxing & Zapping Marijuana: Blockchain Compliance In The Trump Administration, Richard Thompson Ainsworth

Faculty Scholarship

On January 4, 2018, the Trump Administration through Attorney General Sessions rescinded an Obama-era policy that discouraged federal prosecutors from bringing charges in all but the most serious marijuana cases under the federal Controlled Substances Act, as well as under the Bank Secrecy Act. Federal law is at odds with state law in the majority of states on the legalization and subsequent state taxation of marijuana. Twenty-eight states and the District of Columbia have at least partially legalized marijuana. Eight of these states have legalized both medicinal and recreational use. With limited exceptions, legalized sales of marijuana are taxed.

Aside ...


Modernizing The Emergency Medical Treatment And Labor Act To Harmonize With The Affordable Care Act To Improve Equality, Quality And Cost Of Emergency Care, Katharine A. Van Tassel Mar 2018

Modernizing The Emergency Medical Treatment And Labor Act To Harmonize With The Affordable Care Act To Improve Equality, Quality And Cost Of Emergency Care, Katharine A. Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article will propose a very simple, two-step way to modernize EMTALA [Emergency Medical Treatment and Active Labor Act (1986)] to deal with this cascade of problems. This solution converts EMTALA into a powerful tool to enhance equal access to healthcare while at the same time changing EMTALA so that it works in tandem with, instead of against, the efforts of the Affordable Care Act, Medicare and Medicaid to improve healthcare quality, cost and equal access.

This solution also works across systems to resolve the conflict between the tort, licensure and hospital peer review systems that all discourage evidence-based treatment ...


Blacklisted: The Constitutionality Of The Federal System For Publishing Reports Of "Bad" Doctors In The National Practitioner Data Bank, Katharine Van Tassel Mar 2018

Blacklisted: The Constitutionality Of The Federal System For Publishing Reports Of "Bad" Doctors In The National Practitioner Data Bank, Katharine Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

In order to highlight the problems with the NPDB [National Practitioner Data Bank], this Article compares physician blacklisting with other forms of blacklisting. For example, both physician and sexual predator blacklisting programs have the same goals: allowing the public to engage in self-protection by preventing “predators” from traveling to new locations to prey on a new group of unsuspecting victims. And both sexual predators and physicians suffer similar stigmatization as the result of the “badge of infamy” that comes with being blacklisted. But this is where the similarities end. Accused sex offenders get all of the trappings of due process ...


Hospital Peer Review Standards And Due Process: Moving From Tort Doctrine Toward Contract Principles Based On Clinical Practice Guidelines, Katharine A. Van Tassel Mar 2018

Hospital Peer Review Standards And Due Process: Moving From Tort Doctrine Toward Contract Principles Based On Clinical Practice Guidelines, Katharine A. Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article proposes a solution to the problems associated with the current use of vague standards in peer review. This Article will examine the proposal that medical staffs switch from ad hoc judicial decision-making to rule-making. This switch will allow medical staffs to abandon the troublesome practice of applying vague 'standard of care' measures ex post facto. In its stead, express contractual terminology could be adopted, such as 'expectations of performance,' which incorporates specifically chosen and uniquely tailored clinical practice guidelines ('CPGs') directly into the medical staff by-laws. Describing the expectations of physician performance in express contractual terms enables physicians ...


Regulating In Uncertainty: Animating The Public Health Product Safety Net To Capture Consumer Products Regulated By The Fda That Use Innovative Technologies, Including Nanotechnologies, Genetic Modification, Cloning, And Lab Grown Meat, Katharine A. Van Tassel Mar 2018

Regulating In Uncertainty: Animating The Public Health Product Safety Net To Capture Consumer Products Regulated By The Fda That Use Innovative Technologies, Including Nanotechnologies, Genetic Modification, Cloning, And Lab Grown Meat, Katharine A. Van Tassel

Katharine Van Tassel

This Article will use nanotechnology as an example that highlights how regulation based on novelty rather than hazard achieves the proper balance between protecting public health while encouraging innovation through the animation of the public health product safety net. In Part II, this Article starts by explaining what nanotechnology is and the remarkable growth of its use in everyday consumer products. It then summarizes the steadily increasing number of studies that suggest that there are likely to be serious health risks associated with the use of nanotech consumer products. Next, it explains how the FDA [Food and Drug Administration] is ...


Expert Testimony And Professional Licensing Boards: What Is Good, What Is Necessary, And The Myth Of The Majority-Minority Split, Timothy P. Mccormack Feb 2018

Expert Testimony And Professional Licensing Boards: What Is Good, What Is Necessary, And The Myth Of The Majority-Minority Split, Timothy P. Mccormack

Maine Law Review

Defendants regularly argue that a Review Board's decision must be overturned because it is not supported by expert testimony. Boards counter that they are qualified, by virtue of their role as the guardians of the standards for their profession, to determine the appropriateness of a defendant's conduct without the assistance of expert testimony. When courts address these arguments, they routinely ask if expert testimony is necessary to establish the standard of care in disciplinary hearings before a professional licensing board. Courts answer this question differently. In fact there is a seeming schism among the states about the importance ...


Latent Medical Errors And Maine's Statute Of Limitations For Medical Malpractice: A Discussion Of The Issues, Kathryn M. Kendall Feb 2018

Latent Medical Errors And Maine's Statute Of Limitations For Medical Malpractice: A Discussion Of The Issues, Kathryn M. Kendall

Maine Law Review

Each year in the United States, between 44,000 and 98,000 hospitalized patients die as a result of medical errors. Nearly a third of such errors are caused by negligence. Although most of these negligent mistakes become apparent to patients or their families shortly after they occur, a few remain undiscoverable for an extended length of time. When medical errors lead to the misdiagnosis of diseases with long latency periods, patients may be delayed in obtaining appropriate treatment. Nonetheless, in Maine, because medical malpractice actions are governed by a strict occurrence-based statute of limitations as opposed to a limitations ...


The Price Tag On Designer Babies: Market Share Liability, Boston College Law Review Staff Jan 2018

The Price Tag On Designer Babies: Market Share Liability, Boston College Law Review Staff

Boston College Law Review

The prospect of genetically modifying humans has loomed over the public for decades. Now, science fiction is becoming reality. New technology and expanding research are positioned to make genetic alteration a routine, pre-conception appointment. For several years, China has been experimenting with germline editing on non-viable human embryos. In April 2016, the UK also approved a group of scientists to begin similar research. In the United States, genetic engineering is a multibillion-dollar industry. Although ethical debates over human genetic modification have checked the industry, the potential for clinical trials has become a reality as companies race to dominate the technology ...


Little Sisters’ Sorrow: Conversations About Contraception And Reproductive Justice, Katrina Roze Myers Jan 2018

Little Sisters’ Sorrow: Conversations About Contraception And Reproductive Justice, Katrina Roze Myers

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

In light of recent political changes in the United States, the future of women’s health care has never been so uncertain. Using the debate on contraception access in the United States to frame the discussion, I demonstrate how religious groups and reproductive justice (RJ) activists might engage in constructive dialogue to protect women’s rights. I analyze the amicus briefs submitted on behalf of Catholic nuns and the government in Zubik v. Burwell, which illustrate that despite differences, RJ advocates and Catholic nuns have much in common—including a commitment to eradicate sex discrimination, ensure economic freedom, and protect ...


Sex, Drugs, Trump And Birth Control, Desire’E Martinelli Jan 2018

Sex, Drugs, Trump And Birth Control, Desire’E Martinelli

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

This Article explores both medical and legal reasons as to why OTC access to contraception is needed and justified. It also applies current changes in the government and discusses how the repeal of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) could substantially affect birth control. Alternative and traditional options are presented and analyzed to determine their viability.


Should Commercial Surrogacy Be Legalised?, Seow Hon Tan Jan 2018

Should Commercial Surrogacy Be Legalised?, Seow Hon Tan

Research Collection School Of Law

Does Singapore condone commercial surrogacy? Thisquestion is in the limelight with a court judgment on a Singaporean doctor'sbid to adopt a boy he fathered through a commercial surrogacy arrangement inthe United States.


Legal History Of Medical Aid In Dying: Physician Assisted Death In U.S. Courts And Legislatures, Thaddeus Pope Jan 2018

Legal History Of Medical Aid In Dying: Physician Assisted Death In U.S. Courts And Legislatures, Thaddeus Pope

Faculty Scholarship

Terminally ill patients in the United States have four medical options for controlling the time and manner of their death. Three of these are legally available to certain clinically qualified patients. First, all patients may withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment. Second, all patients may voluntarily stop eating and drinking. Third, patients with intractable suffering may receive palliative sedation to unconsciousness. In contrast, the fourth option is available in only seven U.S. jurisdictions. Only there may patients legally obtain a prescription for a lethal medication that they can later self-ingest.

Medical aid in dying (MAID) is not yet legally available ...