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Racial Indirection, Yuvraj Joshi 2019 Yale Law School

Racial Indirection, Yuvraj Joshi

Yuvraj Joshi

Racial indirection describes practices that produce racially disproportionate results without the overt use of race. This Article demonstrates how racial indirection has allowed — and may continue to allow — efforts to desegregate America’s universities. By analyzing the Supreme Court’s affirmative action cases, the Article shows how specific features of affirmative action doctrine have required and incentivized racial indirection, and how these same features have helped sustain the constitutionality of affirmative action to this point. There is a basic constitutional principle that emerges from these cases: so long as the end is constitutionally permissible, the less direct the reliance on ...


Legislator-Led Legislative Prayer And The Search For Religious Neutrality, Aishwarya Masrani 2019 Duke Law

Legislator-Led Legislative Prayer And The Search For Religious Neutrality, Aishwarya Masrani

Duke Journal of Constitutional Law & Public Policy Sidebar

Leading a group in prayer in a public setting blurs the line between public and private. Such blurring implicates a constitutional tension between the Establishment Clause and the Free Exercise Clause. This tension is magnified when the constitutionality of prayer is questioned in the context of democratic participation. Current Supreme Court precedent holds legislative prayer to be constitutional, but the relevant cases, Marsh v. Chambers and Town of Greece, NY v. Galloway, do not address the specific constitutionality of legislator-led prayer. There is currently a circuit split on the subject: in Bormuth v. County of Jackson, the United States ...


The "Guarantee" Clause, Ryan C. Williams 2019 Boston College Law School

The "Guarantee" Clause, Ryan C. Williams

Ryan Williams

Article IV’s command that “the United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government” stands as one of the few remaining lacunae in the judicially enforced Constitution. For well over a century, federal courts have viewed the provision — traditionally known as the Guarantee Clause but now referred to by some as the “Republican Form of Government” Clause — as a paradigmatic example of a nonjusticiable political question. In recent years, however, both the Supreme Court and lower federal courts have signaled a new willingness to reconsider this much-criticized jurisdictional barrier in an appropriate case ...


Report On The Investigation Into Russian Interference In The 2016 Presidential Election. Volumes I & Ii. (Redacted Version Of 4/18/2019), Robert S. Mueller III 2019 Special Counsel's Office

Report On The Investigation Into Russian Interference In The 2016 Presidential Election. Volumes I & Ii. (Redacted Version Of 4/18/2019), Robert S. Mueller Iii

U.S. Department of Justice Publications and Materials

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY TO VOLUME I

RUSSIAN SOCIAL MEDIA CAMPAIGN

The Internet Research Agency (IRA) carried out the earliest Russian interference operations identified by the investigation- a social media campaign designed to provoke and amplify political and social discord in the United States. The IRA was based in St. Petersburg, Russia, and received funding from Russian oligarch Y evgeniy Prigozhin and companies he controlled. Pri ozhin is widel re orted to have ties to Russian President Vladimir Putin [redacted]

In mid-2014, the IRA sent employees to the United States on an intelligence-gathering mission with instructions [redacted]

The IRA later used social ...


Public Or Private? The Split Over First Amendment Protection Of Union Speech By Public Employees, Meredith McCaffrey 2019 Boston College Law School

Public Or Private? The Split Over First Amendment Protection Of Union Speech By Public Employees, Meredith Mccaffrey

Boston College Law Review

On May 16, 2018, the Second Circuit held, in Montero v. City of Yonkers, that a police officer who criticized other officers at a union meeting and then sued for retaliation in the wake of his remarks spoke “as a private citizen” and was therefore protected by the First Amendment. However, the Second Circuit limited its ruling by refusing to adopt a per se rule that any person who speaks as a union member speaks “as a private citizen” and is therefore protected from retaliation by the First Amendment. By specifically refusing to adopt a per se rule on union ...


Hour Late On Your Bail, Spend The Weekend In Jail: Substantive Due Process And Pretrial Detention, Coleman Gay 2019 Boston College Law School

Hour Late On Your Bail, Spend The Weekend In Jail: Substantive Due Process And Pretrial Detention, Coleman Gay

Boston College Law Review

On March 9, 2018, the United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit held, in Dawson v. Board of County Commissioners of Jefferson County, that the right to be free from pretrial detention absent a determination of guilt is not a fundamental right. Rather, the court held, it is a non-fundamental liberty interest. In so doing, the Tenth Circuit split with the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, which had held that the right is fundamental. The Tenth Circuit also diverged from the Ninth Circuit in its application of a test to determine whether the government ...


How The United States Stopped Being A Pirate Nation And Learned To Love International Copyright, John A. Rothchild 2019 Wayne State University Law School

How The United States Stopped Being A Pirate Nation And Learned To Love International Copyright, John A. Rothchild

Pace Law Review

From the time of the first federal copyright law in 1790 until enactment of the International Copyright Act in 1891, U.S. copyright law did not apply to works by authors who were not citizens or residents of the United States. U.S. publishers took advantage of this lacuna in the law, and the demand among American readers for books by popular British authors, by reprinting the books of these authors without their authorization and without paying a negotiated royalty to them.

This Article tells the story of how proponents of extending copyright protections to foreign authors—called international copyright ...


The Forgotten Unitary Executive Power: The Textualist, Originalist, And Functionalist Opinions Clause, Zachary J. Murray 2019 Northwestern University, Pritzker School of Law

The Forgotten Unitary Executive Power: The Textualist, Originalist, And Functionalist Opinions Clause, Zachary J. Murray

Pace Law Review

This article will analyze the Opinion Clause’s text, its history and intent, and its potential functions as a power. Part II catalogues much of the prior scholarship on the Opinions Clause, which generally fits into two categories: the anti-unitary approach, which argues that a substantive reading of the Vesting Clause renders the Opinions Clause redundant, and the unitary response, which essentially accepts that redundancy. To some extent, both sides miss the mark. The unitary approach misreads the text, assigning great substantive weight to the descriptive Vesting Clause, while assigning descriptive status to the substantive Opinions Clause. The anti-unitary approach ...


Comrades Or Foes: Did The Russians Break The Law Or New Ground For The First Amendment?, Artem M. Joukov, Samantha M. Caspar 2019 University of Southern California

Comrades Or Foes: Did The Russians Break The Law Or New Ground For The First Amendment?, Artem M. Joukov, Samantha M. Caspar

Pace Law Review

This Article discusses the recent decision by the United States Federal Government to indict more than a dozen Russian nationals for conspiracy to defraud the United States of America. The Government accused the Russians of staging protests, distributing false propaganda, and spreading political messages and ideologies online in an effort to affect the outcome of the 2016 Presidential Election. We argue that while the Defendants violated several other laws, the majority of the acts the Government classifies as a conspiracy to defraud the United States should not be considered criminal. Rather, these acts are protected political speech under the First ...


Freedom Of Religion And Belief In India And Australia: An Introductory Comparative Assessment Of Two Federal Constitutional Democracies, Paul T. Babie, Arvind P. Bhanu 2019 Adelaide Law School, University of Adelaide, Australia

Freedom Of Religion And Belief In India And Australia: An Introductory Comparative Assessment Of Two Federal Constitutional Democracies, Paul T. Babie, Arvind P. Bhanu

Pace Law Review

This article considers the freedom of religion and belief (“free exercise”) in two secular federal constitutional democracies: India and Australia. Both constitutional systems emerged from the former British Empire and both continue in membership of the Commonwealth of Nations, which succeeded it. However, the similarities end there, for while both separate church and state, and protect free exercise, they do so in very different ways. On the one hand, the Indian Constitution contains express provisions which comprehensively deal with free exercise. On the other hand, while one finds what might appear a protection for free exercise in the Australian Constitution ...


Reconsidering Judicial Independence: Forty-Five Years In The Trenches And In The Tower, Stephen B. Burbank 2019 University of Pennsylvania Law School

Reconsidering Judicial Independence: Forty-Five Years In The Trenches And In The Tower, Stephen B. Burbank

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

Trusting in the integrity of our institutions when they are not under stress, we focus attention on them both when they are under stress or when we need them to protect us against other institutions. In the case of the federal judiciary, the two conditions often coincide. In this essay, I use personal experience to provide practical context for some of the important lessons about judicial independence to be learned from the periods of stress for the federal judiciary I have observed as a lawyer and concerned citizen, and to provide theoretical context for lessons I have deemed significant as ...


There's Nothing Rational About It: Heightened Scrutiny For Sexual Orientation Is Long Overdue, Daniel J. Galvin Jr. 2019 College of William & Mary Law School

There's Nothing Rational About It: Heightened Scrutiny For Sexual Orientation Is Long Overdue, Daniel J. Galvin Jr.

William & Mary Journal of Race, Gender, and Social Justice

In this Article, I argue that sexual orientation meets the burden established by Supreme Court jurisprudence for suspect classification and, therefore, should receive heightened scrutiny under Fourteenth Amendment equal protection analysis. After decades of using the fundamental rights analysis to aid lesbian, gay, and bisexual individuals in their pursuit of equality, addressing the fundamental right to marry and the fundamental right to privacy, the Supreme Court must address the elephant in the courtroom: that sexual orientation meets all of the factors set by the Court in equal protection cases for suspect classification.

Gays, lesbians, and bisexual individuals (LGBs) meet the ...


Privatizing Criminal Procedure, John D. King 2019 Washington and Lee University School of Law

Privatizing Criminal Procedure, John D. King

John D. King

As the staggering costs of the criminal justice system continue to rise, states have begun to look for nontraditional ways to pay for criminal prosecutions and to shift these costs onto criminal defendants. Many states now impose a surcharge on defendants who exercise their constitutional rights to counsel, confrontation, and trial by jury. As these “user fees” proliferate, they have the potential to fundamentally change the nature of criminal prosecutions and the way we think of constitutional rights. The shift from government funding of criminal litigation to user funding constitutes a privatization of criminal procedure. This intrusion of market ideology ...


Freedom Of Association And Ngo Law: The Constitutionality Of The 2009 Zambian Ngo Law, Muna Ndulo 2019 Cornell Law School

Freedom Of Association And Ngo Law: The Constitutionality Of The 2009 Zambian Ngo Law, Muna Ndulo

Muna B Ndulo

Freedom of Association is entrenched in the Zambian Constitution and in several International Law instruments to which Zambia is a party. By hindering the independent and effective operations of NGOs, the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO) Act of 2009 unjustifiably curtails this freedom. This paper examines the NGO Act and documents the various instances in which it imposes an unconstitutional, unjustifiable and disproportionate hindrance on the ability of NGOs to operate effectively. It argues that the Act threatens to roll back the enormous gains that NGOs have made and continue to make in fermenting accountable, democratic and effective governance in Zambia.


Law Association Of Zambia V. The Attorney General (Appeal No. 8/2014) [2016] Zmsc 243, Muna B. Ndulo, Samuel Ndungu 2019 Cornell University Law School

Law Association Of Zambia V. The Attorney General (Appeal No. 8/2014) [2016] Zmsc 243, Muna B. Ndulo, Samuel Ndungu

Muna B Ndulo

No abstract provided.


Attorney General V Mutuna And Others (Appeal No. 088/2012) [2013] Zmsc 38, Muna B. Ndulo 2019 Cornell University Law School

Attorney General V Mutuna And Others (Appeal No. 088/2012) [2013] Zmsc 38, Muna B. Ndulo

Muna B Ndulo

No abstract provided.


Hichilema And Another V Lungu And Another (2016/Cc/0031) [2016] Zmcc 4 (5 September 2016), Majority Judgment, Muna Ndulo 2019 Cornell Law School

Hichilema And Another V Lungu And Another (2016/Cc/0031) [2016] Zmcc 4 (5 September 2016), Majority Judgment, Muna Ndulo

Muna B Ndulo

No abstract provided.


Constitution Making: The Role Of External Actors, Muna B. Ndulo 2019 Cornell University Law School

Constitution Making: The Role Of External Actors, Muna B. Ndulo

Muna B Ndulo

In the past three decades new constitutions have been developed in many parts of the world, often in the aftermath of conflicts, but also in response to demands for more democratic political systems or for the resolution of institutional crises. In these processes, the international community often plays an important role. This article considers the role that external actors play in the elaboration and development of new constitutions in post-conflict societies. It identifies both the negative and the positive roles external intervention can play and suggests approaches that could be adopted by external actors to maximize their impact while avoiding ...


Original Meaning And The Death Penalty, John Stinneford 2019 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Original Meaning And The Death Penalty, John Stinneford

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


Prosecuting A Capital Case, Jeff Thomson 2019 University of St. Thomas, Minnesota

Prosecuting A Capital Case, Jeff Thomson

University of St. Thomas Journal of Law and Public Policy

No abstract provided.


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