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Assessing The Competitive Effects Of Surcharging The Use Of Payment Mechanisms, Steven Semeraro 2018 Thomas Jefferson School of Law

Assessing The Competitive Effects Of Surcharging The Use Of Payment Mechanisms, Steven Semeraro

University of Miami Business Law Review

The Department of Justice’s theory of liability in its case attacking the non–discrimination provisions in American Express’s merchant contracts contends that point–of–sale competition on the price of making a purchase with a credit card is an instrument creating economic efficiency. That is, the economy would run more efficiently, and consumers would be better off, if merchants were free to charge variable prices for different types of credit cards. After all, charging different prices for using different types of payment mechanisms appears to be just another form of presumptively positive price competition.

The Second Circuit rejected ...


Applying The Rule Of Reason To Two–Sided Platform Businesses, David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee 2018 University College London

Applying The Rule Of Reason To Two–Sided Platform Businesses, David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee

University of Miami Business Law Review

In recent years, the federal courts’ analysis of the competitive effects of conduct challenged under the Sherman Act’s rule of reason, which generally includes market definition as a critical step, has been properly guided by sensitivity to business reality and sound economic analysis of the conduct at issue. When it comes to two–sided platforms, the courts should adhere to that same flexible but principled approach and avoid rigid alternatives that would apply regardless of the platform, conduct, or fact–pattern.

In Ohio v. American Express Co., (Case No. 16–1454), now before the U.S. Supreme Court, the ...


Mutuals: An Area Of Legal Climate Change, Karl T. Muth, Andrew Leventhal 2018 College of William & Mary Law School

Mutuals: An Area Of Legal Climate Change, Karl T. Muth, Andrew Leventhal

William & Mary Business Law Review

Underappreciated in its importance and often-misunderstood in its implications, the choice between a company limited by shares and a company organized as a mutual is an important decision in sectors ranging from agriculture to banking to insurance. Adding gravity to this particular decision is the difficulty and enormous cost of corporate metamorphosis between company types later in the company’s life. The authors examine the history of the mutual form, its popularity’s rise and fall during the twentieth century, and its advantages and disadvantages in today’s environment.


Clear Statement Rules And The Integrity Of Labor Arbitration, Stephen Ross, Roy Eisenhardt 2018 Penn State Law

Clear Statement Rules And The Integrity Of Labor Arbitration, Stephen Ross, Roy Eisenhardt

Arbitration Law Review

Under the common law, employment contracts are submitted to civil courts to resolve disputes over interpretation, breach, and remedies. As an alternative, parties in collective bargaining agreements, can agree to dispute resolution by an independent arbitrator, whose decision is reviewed deferentially by judges. Where employees or members of an association are governed by its internal rules, in contrast, they often agree contractually to submit internal disputes to an association officer or committee. In this circumstance, the common law governing private associations affords judicial review that is more limited than a civil dispute, but more searching than is the case for ...


Business Law Bulletin, Spring 2018, 2018 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Business Law Bulletin, Spring 2018

Business Law Bulletin

No abstract provided.


Third-Party Institutional Proxy Advisors: Conflicts Of Interest And Roads To Reform, Matthew Fagan 2018 University of Michigan Law School

Third-Party Institutional Proxy Advisors: Conflicts Of Interest And Roads To Reform, Matthew Fagan

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

With the rise of institutional activist investors in recent decades—including a purported 495 activist campaigns against U.S. corporations in 2016 alone—the role that third-party institutional proxy advisors play in corporate governance has greatly increased. The United States Office of Government Accountability estimates that clients of the top five proxy advisory firms account for about $41.5 trillion in equity throughout the world. For several years, discussions have developed regarding conflicts of interest faced by proxy advisors. For example, Institutional Shareholder Services, the top proxy advisory firm in the world, frequently provides advice to institutional investors on how ...


Tax Havens As Producers Of Corporate Law, William J. Moon 2018 New York University School of Law

Tax Havens As Producers Of Corporate Law, William J. Moon

Michigan Law Review

A review of Christopher M. Bruner, Re-Imagining Offshore Finance: Market-Dominant Small Jurisdictions in a Globalizing Financial World.


Federal Income Taxation Of Business Enterprises: Cases, Statutes, Rulings, 4th. Edition 2012, Sergio Pareja, Richard A. Westin, Ricahrd C.E. Beck 2018 The University of New Mexico School of Law

Federal Income Taxation Of Business Enterprises: Cases, Statutes, Rulings, 4th. Edition 2012, Sergio Pareja, Richard A. Westin, Ricahrd C.E. Beck

Sergio Pareja

This fourth edition covers the basics of the federal income taxation of partnerships and corporations including the taxation of LLCs, LLPs and S corporations. In addition, it alludes to a short list of other business enterprises. It is designed to be taught as two major components: partnerships and corporations. Both components use the traditional "cradle-to-grave" approach. Because of their practical importance, the book makes reference to Social Security taxes and estate taxes. There is no discussion of State income taxes.

Although the book is comparatively short, the materials are thorough and are heavily supplemented with problems.

The cases have been ...


Entire Fairness: A Call To Preserve Delaware Doctrine, Lisa Bei Li 2018 Pepperdine University

Entire Fairness: A Call To Preserve Delaware Doctrine, Lisa Bei Li

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

Appraisal arbitrage is on the rise. Institutional investors—namely, hedge funds—buy into target companies after their merger announcements and bet on the price. By purposely taking a minority position, these funds proceed to courts to obtain what they otherwise could not in the market: a “fair value.” Where there is no allegation of wrongdoing or injury, these plaintiffs nonetheless successfully divert deal value away from business combinations. Based on a misunderstood statute, appraisal arbitrage has exploded into a multi-billion dollar industry for large fund investors. In June 2016, amid growing concerns, the Delaware General Assembly amended section 262, Delaware ...


Board To Death: How Busy Directors Could Cause The Next Financial Crisis, Jeremy C. Kress 2018 University of Michigan

Board To Death: How Busy Directors Could Cause The Next Financial Crisis, Jeremy C. Kress

Boston College Law Review

In the aftermath of the Great Recession, shareholders and regulators expect financial institution boards of directors to play an active role in risk management. To date, however, shareholders, policymakers, and academics have ignored a critical shortcoming: the directors of the United States’ largest financial institutions are too busy to fulfill their governance responsibilities. Many financial institution directors hold full-time executive positions, and most serve on the board of at least one other company. Although these outside commitments provide important learning and networking opportunities, they also contribute to cognitive overload and limit the time that directors spend assessing strategy and risk ...


The Early Eight And The Future Of Consumer Legal Activism To Fight Modern-Day Slavery In Corporate Supply Chains, Andrew G. Barna 2018 College of William & Mary Law School

The Early Eight And The Future Of Consumer Legal Activism To Fight Modern-Day Slavery In Corporate Supply Chains, Andrew G. Barna

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Rise Of The Machines: The Legal Implications For Investor Protection With The Rise Of Robo-Advisors, Bret E. Strzelczyk 2018 DePaul University College of Law

Rise Of The Machines: The Legal Implications For Investor Protection With The Rise Of Robo-Advisors, Bret E. Strzelczyk

DePaul Business and Commercial Law Journal

This note examines the complex state of financial innovation and preexisting investor protection regimes, mainly the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, which do not properly address the question of whether a robo-advisor platform serving as registered investment advisers satisfies the fiduciary standard elements laid out in the Act. This article examines the current regulation from the Department of Labor, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, and the Securities and Exchange Commission and addresses the inadequacies in each regulatory entity’s policy prescription. This article contends that robo-advisors can not act as a fiduciary for several reasons – primarily because these platforms do ...


Consumers In Shock: How Federal Government Overregulation Led Mylan To Acquire A Monopoly Over Epinephrine Autoinjectors, Nicole O'Toole 2018 DePaul University College of Law

Consumers In Shock: How Federal Government Overregulation Led Mylan To Acquire A Monopoly Over Epinephrine Autoinjectors, Nicole O'Toole

DePaul Business and Commercial Law Journal

The philosophy that federal government intervention increases costs and decreases options and values available to consumers can be analyzed across a plethora of markets. This Note will focus on the epinephrine autoinjector market, specifically looking at Mylan's epinephrine autoinjector known as the EpiPen. Today, the EpiPen is considered the “Kleenex” of epinephrine autoinjectors as it is estimated to control over ninety percent of the market share. From a Darwinist perspective it would appear that because the EpiPen controls most of the market, it must be the most superior product available to consumers. However, as this note will cover, this ...


Over- And Under-Funding: Crowdfunding Concerns Of The Parties Involved, Tanya M. Marcum J.D., Eden S. Blair PhD 2018 Bradley University

Over- And Under-Funding: Crowdfunding Concerns Of The Parties Involved, Tanya M. Marcum J.D., Eden S. Blair Phd

DePaul Business and Commercial Law Journal

Financial collaboration for new business ventures or the expansion of existing businesses utilizing the internet and social media is expanding. One area of growth is in the area of crowdfunding. Crowdfunding or crowdsourcing is known as collaborative funding using the internet to attract many investors to a new business venture.


How Irrational Actors In The Ceo Suite Affect Corporate Governance, Renee M. Jones 2018 Boston College Law School

How Irrational Actors In The Ceo Suite Affect Corporate Governance, Renee M. Jones

Renee Jones

No abstract provided.


Regulating Complacency: Human Limitations And Legal Efficacy, Steven L. Schwarcz 2018 Duke University School of Law

Regulating Complacency: Human Limitations And Legal Efficacy, Steven L. Schwarcz

Notre Dame Law Review

This Article examines how insights into limited human rationality can improve financial regulation. The Article identifies four categories of limitations—herd behavior, cognitive biases, overreliance on heuristics, and a proclivity to panic—that undermine the perfect-market regulatory assumptions that parties have full information and will act in their rational self-interest. The Article then analyzes how insights into these limitations can be used to correct resulting market failures. Requiring more robust disclosure and due diligence, for example, can help to reduce reliance on misleading information cascades that motivate herd behavior. Debiasing through law, such as requiring more specific, poignant, and concrete ...


Polishing Up Wisconsin's Fiduciary Duties In Llc Law To Attract New Suitors, Collin D. Brunk 2018 Marquette University Law School

Polishing Up Wisconsin's Fiduciary Duties In Llc Law To Attract New Suitors, Collin D. Brunk

Marquette Law Review

None


State, Dep’T Of Bus. V. Dollar Loan Ctr., 134 Nev. Adv. Op. 15 (Mar. 1, 2018) (En Banc), Shady Sirsy 2018 University of Nevada, Las Vegas -- William S. Boyd School of Law

State, Dep’T Of Bus. V. Dollar Loan Ctr., 134 Nev. Adv. Op. 15 (Mar. 1, 2018) (En Banc), Shady Sirsy

Nevada Supreme Court Summaries

The Nevada Supreme Court determined that NRS 604A.480(2)(f) bars a licensee from bringing any type of enforcement action on a refinancing loan made under NRS 604A.480(2) and is not merely a condition precedent to making a refinancing loan under the subsection.


Manufactured Deadlocks? The Problematic “Bad Faith Defense” To Forced-Sales Of Delaware Corporations Under Section 226 Of The Delaware General Corporation Law, Brian C. Durkin 2018 Boston College Law School

Manufactured Deadlocks? The Problematic “Bad Faith Defense” To Forced-Sales Of Delaware Corporations Under Section 226 Of The Delaware General Corporation Law, Brian C. Durkin

Boston College Law Review

Title 8, Section 226 of the Delaware General Corporation Law authorizes courts to force the sale of Delaware corporations when the stockholders or directors are in a state of complete deadlock. Some courts have tentatively acknowledged that a party may successfully oppose the sale by arguing that the stockholder bringing a Section 226 action has done so in bad faith by manufacturing a deadlock in the hopes of obtaining a court-ordered sale (i.e., the “bad faith defense”). This Note explores the idea of the manufactured deadlock in Section 226 actions, through the lens of Shawe v. Elting, a recent ...


Limited Liability And The Known Unknown, Michael Simkovic 2018 USC Gould School of Law

Limited Liability And The Known Unknown, Michael Simkovic

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

Limited liability is a double-edged sword. On the one hand, limited liability may help overcome investors’ risk aversion and facilitate capital formation and economic growth. On the other hand, limited liability is widely believed to contribute to excessive risk taking and externalization of losses to the public. The externalization problem can be mitigated imperfectly through existing mechanisms such as regulation, mandatory insurance, and minimum capital requirements. These mechanisms could be more effective if information asymmetries between industry and policymakers could be reduced. Private businesses will typically have better information about industry-specific risks than policymakers.

A charge for limited liability entities ...


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