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Full-Text Articles in Business Organizations Law

How Irrational Actors In The Ceo Suite Affect Corporate Governance, Renee M. Jones Aug 2018

How Irrational Actors In The Ceo Suite Affect Corporate Governance, Renee M. Jones

Boston College Law School Faculty Papers

No abstract provided.


Uncharted Waters? Legal Ethics And The Benefit Corporation, Joseph Pileri May 2018

Uncharted Waters? Legal Ethics And The Benefit Corporation, Joseph Pileri

St. Mary's Journal on Legal Malpractice & Ethics

Corporate law norms are reflected in lawyers’ ethical duties. The enactment of benefit corporation legislation across the country signals a legislative acknowledgment that corporate law can serve as a public, rather than a merely private, ordering mechanism. Benefit corporations expressly adopt a public benefit as a legal purpose of the enterprise. While many have written about this important development with respect to corporate fiduciary law, this essay is the first to explore the professional and ethical responsibility of lawyers representing benefit corporations. In the last century, as scholars and courts drove an understanding of corporate law that elevated the interests ...


Enforcing The Bargain V. Materiality Requirement: The Future Of Disclosure-Only Settlements Post-Trulia, Hao Jiang May 2018

Enforcing The Bargain V. Materiality Requirement: The Future Of Disclosure-Only Settlements Post-Trulia, Hao Jiang

Pace Law Review

In In re Trulia, Inc. Stockholder Litigation, the Delaware Court of Chancery broke away from its tradition of routinely approving disclosure-only settlements and required disclosures to be material in order to cure the conflict of interest between plaintiff’s counsel and the plaintiff class. I argue that fairness of settlement is the only standard in approving class action settlements and fairness will not be achieved by requiring materiality. Shareholders are legally entitled to all material information, as the board’s fiduciary duty dictates. Thus, material disclosures are enforcement of a legal duty that is no consideration for the release of ...


Direct Regulation Of Hedge Funds: An Analysis Of Hedge Fund Regulation After The Implementation Of Title Iv Of The Dodd-Frank Act, Jacob Johnson May 2018

Direct Regulation Of Hedge Funds: An Analysis Of Hedge Fund Regulation After The Implementation Of Title Iv Of The Dodd-Frank Act, Jacob Johnson

DePaul Business and Commercial Law Journal

Jacob Johnson is a Class of 2018 Juris Doctor Candidate at DePaul University

College of Law and Research Staff Member of the DePaul Business and Commercial

Law Journal. He earned a B.A. in Political Science and minor in Business from the

University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2015. He would like to thank his

parents, John and Rebecca Johnson, for their constant support.


Deregulating The Music Industry: A Push To Give Power Back To The Songwriters, Scott Hanus May 2018

Deregulating The Music Industry: A Push To Give Power Back To The Songwriters, Scott Hanus

DePaul Business and Commercial Law Journal

Scott Hanus is a class of 2018 Juris Doctor Candidate at DePaul University

College of Law and a member of the research staff of the DePaul Business and

Commercial Law Journal. He earned a B.A. in History and Political Science from

the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign in 2015. He would like to thank his

parents, Don and Laura Hanus, for their constant support throughout his academic

career, the editors of the journal for their hard work, and Leo Fender for creating the

Fender Telecaster.


Creating Stability In The International Fashion Industry By Using Corporate Structures And Conglomerates, Joyce Boland-Devito Esq. May 2018

Creating Stability In The International Fashion Industry By Using Corporate Structures And Conglomerates, Joyce Boland-Devito Esq.

DePaul Business and Commercial Law Journal

Abstract:

This paper will analyze the challenges currently facing the global fashion industries as consumers change their shopping habits. During these tumultuous times, retailers should re-evaluate their organizational structures. According to the Forbes Global 2000, apparel companies make up 29 of those top businesses. For instance, a corporate structure helps businesses like TJX Companies (headquartered in Framingham, Massachusetts) – which owns TJ Maxx, Marshalls, HomeGoods and Sierra Trading Post – to operate efficiently and maintain over 1000 stores in the U.S., Canada, U.K., Ireland, Germany, Poland, Austria, The Netherlands and Australia. It sells apparel and home fashions (sheets, pillows, picture ...


Whistling In The Wind: Why Federal Whistleblower Protections Fall Short Of Their Corporate Governance Goals, Meera Khan May 2018

Whistling In The Wind: Why Federal Whistleblower Protections Fall Short Of Their Corporate Governance Goals, Meera Khan

University of Miami Business Law Review

Teetering on the line between hero and villain, whistleblowers have a remarkably unusual role in contemporary American society. Those who blow the whistle on public sector activities, like Edward Snowden and the Watergate Scandal’s “Deep Throat”, are often vilified in history as treasonous and unprincipled rogues. In the private sector, however, whistleblowers are seen as moral compasses for corporate behavior, and are even afforded federal protections for speaking out against internal malfeasance. The piecemeal evolution of whistleblower legislation including the Sarbanes–Oxley Act of 2002 and the Dodd–Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 created ...


The Final Rule: A Call For Congressional Action To Return The Flsa And The Middle Class To Its Former Glory, Ashley Singrossi May 2018

The Final Rule: A Call For Congressional Action To Return The Flsa And The Middle Class To Its Former Glory, Ashley Singrossi

University of Miami Business Law Review

2017 was full of change in America. But not for the middle class. The middle class remained stagnant, if not shrinking—as it has been for decades. Many scholars and economists theorize why the class that is the backbone of America—that once flourished as the beacon of hope for hard–working people around the world—has steadily declined over the past few decades. The answer lies in labor regulation. Federal labor regulations helped build America’s robust middle class. But those regulations are outdated and ineffective. If we want to see the middle class restored to its prosperity, and ...


Setting Sail To Cuba: Analyzing The Recent Introduction Of Cruise Lines And The Impact On American Tourist Freedoms, Alessandria San Roman May 2018

Setting Sail To Cuba: Analyzing The Recent Introduction Of Cruise Lines And The Impact On American Tourist Freedoms, Alessandria San Roman

University of Miami Business Law Review

After President Obama’s announcement in early 2015 of increased relations with the Cuban government despite the existing Cuban embargo under the Helms–Burton Act and the Cuban Democracy Act, Carnival Cruise line made history in July of 2015 when it became the first United States cruise line to receive approval from both the United States Department of Treasury and the United States Department of Commerce to offer cruises to Cuba. Since its introduction, there has been wide increase in Cuba’s tourism industry. However, Cuban regulations still regulate where and how cruise lines can travel. The increased relations are ...


Maine's Non-Shareholder Constituency Statute, John A. Anderson May 2018

Maine's Non-Shareholder Constituency Statute, John A. Anderson

Maine Law Review

In 1985, the Maine Legislature enacted an amendment to section 716 of the Maine Business Corporation Act which added the following paragraph to the statute: “In discharging their duties, the directors and officers may, in considering the best interests of the corporation and of its shareholders, consider the effects of any action upon employees, suppliers and customers of the corporation, communities in which offices or other establishments of the corporation are located and all other pertinent factors.” This amendment, commonly referred to as a non-shareholder constituency provision, is seen by some as affecting no great change in Maine's corporate ...


China's Anti-Corruption Crackdown And The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Daniel C.K. Chow May 2018

China's Anti-Corruption Crackdown And The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Daniel C.K. Chow

Texas A&M Law Review

China’s highly publicized crackdown on corruption may affect the type and number of cases in China that arise under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), but it should not be assumed that the crackdown will necessarily lead to fewer FCPA prosecutions. Although there is some overlap of the goals of China’s corruption crackdown and the goals of the FCPA, China’s crackdown also serves important goals of the ruling Communist Party. The main goal of the current crackdown is to reinforce the Party’s power by targeting enemies and rivals of the current leadership. The crackdown is not ...


A Rising Star: Maria Viveiros, Rwu Class Of 2017 (May 2018), Roger Williams University School Of Law May 2018

A Rising Star: Maria Viveiros, Rwu Class Of 2017 (May 2018), Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Take This Job And Shove It: The Pragmatic Philosophy Of Johnny Paycheck And A Prayer For Strict Liability In Appalachia, Eugene "Trey" Moore Iii May 2018

Take This Job And Shove It: The Pragmatic Philosophy Of Johnny Paycheck And A Prayer For Strict Liability In Appalachia, Eugene "Trey" Moore Iii

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


Asarco Llc V. Atlantic Richfield Company, Ryan L. Hickey Apr 2018

Asarco Llc V. Atlantic Richfield Company, Ryan L. Hickey

Public Land and Resources Law Review

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabiltiy Act, commonly known as CERCLA, facilitates cleanup of hazardous waste sites and those contaminated by other harmful substances by empowering the Environmental Protection Agency to identify responsible parties and require them to undertake or fund remediation. Because pollution sometimes occurrs over long periods of time by multiple parties, CERCLA also enables polluters to seek financial contribution from other contaminators of a particular site. The Ninth Circuit clarified the particuar circumstances under which contribution actions may arise in Asarco LLC v. Atlantic Richfield Co., holding non-CERCLA settlements may give rise to CERCLA contribution actions ...


Mind The Gap(S): Solutions For Defining Tipper-Tippee Liability And The Personal Benefit Test Post-Salman V. United States, Matthew Williams Apr 2018

Mind The Gap(S): Solutions For Defining Tipper-Tippee Liability And The Personal Benefit Test Post-Salman V. United States, Matthew Williams

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

The Supreme Court’s decision in Salman v. United States reaffirmed (and indeed, clarified) the central holding of Dirks v. SEC that no additional pecuniary or reputational gain is needed when an insider gives information to a “trading relative or friend.” While this was considered a win for prosecutors, the Court chose to abstain from considering more complex questions regarding tipper-tippee liability. Namely, the Court provided no guidance on what constitutes a “friend” or “trading relative” nor how a tippee “should know” whether information was improperly disclosed. Without any clear standards, prosecutors and courts have wide discretion to determine whether ...


What Would We Do Without Them: Whistleblowers In The Era Of Sarbanes-Oxley And Dodd-Frank, Sean Griffith, Jane A. Norberg, Ian Engoron, Alice Brightsky, Tracey Mcneil, Jennifer M. Pacella, Judith Weinstock, Jason Zuckerman Apr 2018

What Would We Do Without Them: Whistleblowers In The Era Of Sarbanes-Oxley And Dodd-Frank, Sean Griffith, Jane A. Norberg, Ian Engoron, Alice Brightsky, Tracey Mcneil, Jennifer M. Pacella, Judith Weinstock, Jason Zuckerman

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

No abstract provided.


From Value Protection To Value Creation: Rethinking Corporate Governance Standards For Firm Innovation, Roger M. Barker, Iris H-Y Chiu Apr 2018

From Value Protection To Value Creation: Rethinking Corporate Governance Standards For Firm Innovation, Roger M. Barker, Iris H-Y Chiu

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

A company’s pro-innovation needs are often met by the exploitation of its resources, widely defined. The resource-based theory of the firm provides immense empirical insights into how a firm’s corporate governance factors can contribute to promoting innovation. However, these implications may conflict with the prevailing standards of corporate governance imposed on many securities markets for listed companies, which have developed based on theoretical models supporting a shareholder-centered and agency-based theory of the firm. Although prevailing corporate governance standards can to an extent support firm innovation, tensions are created in some circumstances where companies pit their corporate governance compliance ...


Market Power And American Express, John B. Kirkwood Apr 2018

Market Power And American Express, John B. Kirkwood

University of Miami Business Law Review

The Second Circuit ruled that American Express did not have market power because it operated in a two-sided market and any leverage it exercised over merchants derived from its successful competition for cardholders. As a result, the relevant market had to include both sides of a credit card transaction, the company’s market share was modest, and it could not exploit both merchants and cardholders. In Market Power and Antitrust Enforcement (forthcoming in B.U. L. REV.), I propose a new approach that infers market power from the likely effects of the challenged conduct. This approach shows that American Express ...


Assessing The Competitive Effects Of Surcharging The Use Of Payment Mechanisms, Steven Semeraro Apr 2018

Assessing The Competitive Effects Of Surcharging The Use Of Payment Mechanisms, Steven Semeraro

University of Miami Business Law Review

The Department of Justice’s theory of liability in its case attacking the non–discrimination provisions in American Express’s merchant contracts contends that point–of–sale competition on the price of making a purchase with a credit card is an instrument creating economic efficiency. That is, the economy would run more efficiently, and consumers would be better off, if merchants were free to charge variable prices for different types of credit cards. After all, charging different prices for using different types of payment mechanisms appears to be just another form of presumptively positive price competition.

The Second Circuit rejected ...


Applying The Rule Of Reason To Two–Sided Platform Businesses, David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee Apr 2018

Applying The Rule Of Reason To Two–Sided Platform Businesses, David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee

University of Miami Business Law Review

In recent years, the federal courts’ analysis of the competitive effects of conduct challenged under the Sherman Act’s rule of reason, which generally includes market definition as a critical step, has been properly guided by sensitivity to business reality and sound economic analysis of the conduct at issue. When it comes to two–sided platforms, the courts should adhere to that same flexible but principled approach and avoid rigid alternatives that would apply regardless of the platform, conduct, or fact–pattern.

In Ohio v. American Express Co., (Case No. 16–1454), now before the U.S. Supreme Court, the ...


Mutuals: An Area Of Legal Climate Change, Karl T. Muth, Andrew Leventhal Apr 2018

Mutuals: An Area Of Legal Climate Change, Karl T. Muth, Andrew Leventhal

William & Mary Business Law Review

Underappreciated in its importance and often-misunderstood in its implications, the choice between a company limited by shares and a company organized as a mutual is an important decision in sectors ranging from agriculture to banking to insurance. Adding gravity to this particular decision is the difficulty and enormous cost of corporate metamorphosis between company types later in the company’s life. The authors examine the history of the mutual form, its popularity’s rise and fall during the twentieth century, and its advantages and disadvantages in today’s environment.


Clear Statement Rules And The Integrity Of Labor Arbitration, Stephen Ross, Roy Eisenhardt Apr 2018

Clear Statement Rules And The Integrity Of Labor Arbitration, Stephen Ross, Roy Eisenhardt

Arbitration Law Review

Under the common law, employment contracts are submitted to civil courts to resolve disputes over interpretation, breach, and remedies. As an alternative, parties in collective bargaining agreements, can agree to dispute resolution by an independent arbitrator, whose decision is reviewed deferentially by judges. Where employees or members of an association are governed by its internal rules, in contrast, they often agree contractually to submit internal disputes to an association officer or committee. In this circumstance, the common law governing private associations affords judicial review that is more limited than a civil dispute, but more searching than is the case for ...


Business Law Bulletin, Spring 2018 Apr 2018

Business Law Bulletin, Spring 2018

Business Law Bulletin

No abstract provided.


Third-Party Institutional Proxy Advisors: Conflicts Of Interest And Roads To Reform, Matthew Fagan Apr 2018

Third-Party Institutional Proxy Advisors: Conflicts Of Interest And Roads To Reform, Matthew Fagan

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

With the rise of institutional activist investors in recent decades—including a purported 495 activist campaigns against U.S. corporations in 2016 alone—the role that third-party institutional proxy advisors play in corporate governance has greatly increased. The United States Office of Government Accountability estimates that clients of the top five proxy advisory firms account for about $41.5 trillion in equity throughout the world. For several years, discussions have developed regarding conflicts of interest faced by proxy advisors. For example, Institutional Shareholder Services, the top proxy advisory firm in the world, frequently provides advice to institutional investors on how ...


Tax Havens As Producers Of Corporate Law, William J. Moon Apr 2018

Tax Havens As Producers Of Corporate Law, William J. Moon

Michigan Law Review

A review of Christopher M. Bruner, Re-Imagining Offshore Finance: Market-Dominant Small Jurisdictions in a Globalizing Financial World.


Federal Income Taxation Of Business Enterprises: Cases, Statutes, Rulings, 4th. Edition 2012, Sergio Pareja, Richard A. Westin, Ricahrd C.E. Beck Mar 2018

Federal Income Taxation Of Business Enterprises: Cases, Statutes, Rulings, 4th. Edition 2012, Sergio Pareja, Richard A. Westin, Ricahrd C.E. Beck

Sergio Pareja

This fourth edition covers the basics of the federal income taxation of partnerships and corporations including the taxation of LLCs, LLPs and S corporations. In addition, it alludes to a short list of other business enterprises. It is designed to be taught as two major components: partnerships and corporations. Both components use the traditional "cradle-to-grave" approach. Because of their practical importance, the book makes reference to Social Security taxes and estate taxes. There is no discussion of State income taxes.

Although the book is comparatively short, the materials are thorough and are heavily supplemented with problems.

The cases have been ...


Entire Fairness: A Call To Preserve Delaware Doctrine, Lisa Bei Li Mar 2018

Entire Fairness: A Call To Preserve Delaware Doctrine, Lisa Bei Li

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

Appraisal arbitrage is on the rise. Institutional investors—namely, hedge funds—buy into target companies after their merger announcements and bet on the price. By purposely taking a minority position, these funds proceed to courts to obtain what they otherwise could not in the market: a “fair value.” Where there is no allegation of wrongdoing or injury, these plaintiffs nonetheless successfully divert deal value away from business combinations. Based on a misunderstood statute, appraisal arbitrage has exploded into a multi-billion dollar industry for large fund investors. In June 2016, amid growing concerns, the Delaware General Assembly amended section 262, Delaware ...


Board To Death: How Busy Directors Could Cause The Next Financial Crisis, Jeremy C. Kress Mar 2018

Board To Death: How Busy Directors Could Cause The Next Financial Crisis, Jeremy C. Kress

Boston College Law Review

In the aftermath of the Great Recession, shareholders and regulators expect financial institution boards of directors to play an active role in risk management. To date, however, shareholders, policymakers, and academics have ignored a critical shortcoming: the directors of the United States’ largest financial institutions are too busy to fulfill their governance responsibilities. Many financial institution directors hold full-time executive positions, and most serve on the board of at least one other company. Although these outside commitments provide important learning and networking opportunities, they also contribute to cognitive overload and limit the time that directors spend assessing strategy and risk ...


The Early Eight And The Future Of Consumer Legal Activism To Fight Modern-Day Slavery In Corporate Supply Chains, Andrew G. Barna Mar 2018

The Early Eight And The Future Of Consumer Legal Activism To Fight Modern-Day Slavery In Corporate Supply Chains, Andrew G. Barna

William & Mary Law Review

No abstract provided.


Rise Of The Machines: The Legal Implications For Investor Protection With The Rise Of Robo-Advisors, Bret E. Strzelczyk Mar 2018

Rise Of The Machines: The Legal Implications For Investor Protection With The Rise Of Robo-Advisors, Bret E. Strzelczyk

DePaul Business and Commercial Law Journal

This note examines the complex state of financial innovation and preexisting investor protection regimes, mainly the Investment Advisers Act of 1940, which do not properly address the question of whether a robo-advisor platform serving as registered investment advisers satisfies the fiduciary standard elements laid out in the Act. This article examines the current regulation from the Department of Labor, the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority, and the Securities and Exchange Commission and addresses the inadequacies in each regulatory entity’s policy prescription. This article contends that robo-advisors can not act as a fiduciary for several reasons – primarily because these platforms do ...