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Maine's Non-Shareholder Constituency Statute, John A. Anderson 2018 University of Maine School of Law

Maine's Non-Shareholder Constituency Statute, John A. Anderson

Maine Law Review

In 1985, the Maine Legislature enacted an amendment to section 716 of the Maine Business Corporation Act which added the following paragraph to the statute: “In discharging their duties, the directors and officers may, in considering the best interests of the corporation and of its shareholders, consider the effects of any action upon employees, suppliers and customers of the corporation, communities in which offices or other establishments of the corporation are located and all other pertinent factors.” This amendment, commonly referred to as a non-shareholder constituency provision, is seen by some as affecting no great change in Maine's corporate ...


A Rising Star: Maria Viveiros, Rwu Class Of 2017 (May 2018), Roger Williams University School of Law 2018 Roger Williams University

A Rising Star: Maria Viveiros, Rwu Class Of 2017 (May 2018), Roger Williams University School Of Law

Life of the Law School (1993- )

No abstract provided.


Take This Job And Shove It: The Pragmatic Philosophy Of Johnny Paycheck And A Prayer For Strict Liability In Appalachia, Eugene "Trey" Moore III 2018 St. Mary's University School of Law

Take This Job And Shove It: The Pragmatic Philosophy Of Johnny Paycheck And A Prayer For Strict Liability In Appalachia, Eugene "Trey" Moore Iii

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


China's Anti-Corruption Crackdown And The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Daniel C.K. Chow 2018 Ohio State University Moritz College of Law

China's Anti-Corruption Crackdown And The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, Daniel C.K. Chow

Texas A&M Law Review

China’s highly publicized crackdown on corruption may affect the type and number of cases in China that arise under the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (“FCPA”), but it should not be assumed that the crackdown will necessarily lead to fewer FCPA prosecutions. Although there is some overlap of the goals of China’s corruption crackdown and the goals of the FCPA, China’s crackdown also serves important goals of the ruling Communist Party. The main goal of the current crackdown is to reinforce the Party’s power by targeting enemies and rivals of the current leadership. The crackdown is not ...


Accountability As A Debiasing Strategy: Testing The Effect Of Racial Diversity In Employment Committees, Jamillah Bowman Williams 2018 Georgetown University Law Center

Accountability As A Debiasing Strategy: Testing The Effect Of Racial Diversity In Employment Committees, Jamillah Bowman Williams

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Congress passed Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 with the primary goal of integrating the workforce and eliminating arbitrary bias against minorities and other groups who had been historically excluded. Yet substantial research reveals that racial bias persists and continues to limit opportunities and outcomes for racial minorities in the workplace. Because these denials of opportunity result from myriad individual hiring and promotion decisions made by vast numbers of managers, finding effective strategies to reduce the impact of bias has proven challenging. Some have proposed that a sense of accountability, or “the implicit or explicit expectation that ...


Negotiating The Legal Systems In Asean, Kee Yang Low, Philip Charles ZERRILLO 2018 Singapore Management University

Negotiating The Legal Systems In Asean, Kee Yang Low, Philip Charles Zerrillo

Asian Management Insights

One may ask: What is a thought piece on legal systems doing in a business magazine?


Asarco Llc V. Atlantic Richfield Company, Ryan L. Hickey 2018 Alexander Blewett III School of Law at the University of Montana

Asarco Llc V. Atlantic Richfield Company, Ryan L. Hickey

Public Land and Resources Law Review

The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liabiltiy Act, commonly known as CERCLA, facilitates cleanup of hazardous waste sites and those contaminated by other harmful substances by empowering the Environmental Protection Agency to identify responsible parties and require them to undertake or fund remediation. Because pollution sometimes occurrs over long periods of time by multiple parties, CERCLA also enables polluters to seek financial contribution from other contaminators of a particular site. The Ninth Circuit clarified the particuar circumstances under which contribution actions may arise in Asarco LLC v. Atlantic Richfield Co., holding non-CERCLA settlements may give rise to CERCLA contribution actions ...


Mind The Gap(S): Solutions For Defining Tipper-Tippee Liability And The Personal Benefit Test Post-Salman V. United States, Matthew Williams 2018 J.D. Candidate, Fordham University School of Law, 2018; LLM Candidate, Universidad Pontificia Comillas

Mind The Gap(S): Solutions For Defining Tipper-Tippee Liability And The Personal Benefit Test Post-Salman V. United States, Matthew Williams

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

The Supreme Court’s decision in Salman v. United States reaffirmed (and indeed, clarified) the central holding of Dirks v. SEC that no additional pecuniary or reputational gain is needed when an insider gives information to a “trading relative or friend.” While this was considered a win for prosecutors, the Court chose to abstain from considering more complex questions regarding tipper-tippee liability. Namely, the Court provided no guidance on what constitutes a “friend” or “trading relative” nor how a tippee “should know” whether information was improperly disclosed. Without any clear standards, prosecutors and courts have wide discretion to determine whether ...


What Would We Do Without Them: Whistleblowers In The Era Of Sarbanes-Oxley And Dodd-Frank, Sean Griffith, Jane A. Norberg, Ian Engoron, Alice BrightSky, Tracey McNeil, Jennifer M. Pacella, Judith Weinstock, Jason Zuckerman 2018 T.J. Maloney Chair in Business Law and the Director of the Fordham Corporate Law Center, Fordham University School of Law

What Would We Do Without Them: Whistleblowers In The Era Of Sarbanes-Oxley And Dodd-Frank, Sean Griffith, Jane A. Norberg, Ian Engoron, Alice Brightsky, Tracey Mcneil, Jennifer M. Pacella, Judith Weinstock, Jason Zuckerman

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

No abstract provided.


From Value Protection To Value Creation: Rethinking Corporate Governance Standards For Firm Innovation, Roger M. Barker, Iris H-Y Chiu 2018 DPhil (Oxford); Managing Director, Barker & Associates Ltd., Honorary Associate, Centre for Ethics and Law, University College London

From Value Protection To Value Creation: Rethinking Corporate Governance Standards For Firm Innovation, Roger M. Barker, Iris H-Y Chiu

Fordham Journal of Corporate & Financial Law

A company’s pro-innovation needs are often met by the exploitation of its resources, widely defined. The resource-based theory of the firm provides immense empirical insights into how a firm’s corporate governance factors can contribute to promoting innovation. However, these implications may conflict with the prevailing standards of corporate governance imposed on many securities markets for listed companies, which have developed based on theoretical models supporting a shareholder-centered and agency-based theory of the firm. Although prevailing corporate governance standards can to an extent support firm innovation, tensions are created in some circumstances where companies pit their corporate governance compliance ...


Market Power And American Express, John B. Kirkwood 2018 Seattle University School of Law

Market Power And American Express, John B. Kirkwood

University of Miami Business Law Review

The Second Circuit ruled that American Express did not have market power because it operated in a two-sided market and any leverage it exercised over merchants derived from its successful competition for cardholders. As a result, the relevant market had to include both sides of a credit card transaction, the company’s market share was modest, and it could not exploit both merchants and cardholders. In Market Power and Antitrust Enforcement (forthcoming in B.U. L. REV.), I propose a new approach that infers market power from the likely effects of the challenged conduct. This approach shows that American Express ...


Assessing The Competitive Effects Of Surcharging The Use Of Payment Mechanisms, Steven Semeraro 2018 Thomas Jefferson School of Law

Assessing The Competitive Effects Of Surcharging The Use Of Payment Mechanisms, Steven Semeraro

University of Miami Business Law Review

The Department of Justice’s theory of liability in its case attacking the non–discrimination provisions in American Express’s merchant contracts contends that point–of–sale competition on the price of making a purchase with a credit card is an instrument creating economic efficiency. That is, the economy would run more efficiently, and consumers would be better off, if merchants were free to charge variable prices for different types of credit cards. After all, charging different prices for using different types of payment mechanisms appears to be just another form of presumptively positive price competition.

The Second Circuit rejected ...


Applying The Rule Of Reason To Two–Sided Platform Businesses, David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee 2018 University College London

Applying The Rule Of Reason To Two–Sided Platform Businesses, David S. Evans, Richard Schmalensee

University of Miami Business Law Review

In recent years, the federal courts’ analysis of the competitive effects of conduct challenged under the Sherman Act’s rule of reason, which generally includes market definition as a critical step, has been properly guided by sensitivity to business reality and sound economic analysis of the conduct at issue. When it comes to two–sided platforms, the courts should adhere to that same flexible but principled approach and avoid rigid alternatives that would apply regardless of the platform, conduct, or fact–pattern.

In Ohio v. American Express Co., (Case No. 16–1454), now before the U.S. Supreme Court, the ...


Mutuals: An Area Of Legal Climate Change, Karl T. Muth, Andrew Leventhal 2018 College of William & Mary Law School

Mutuals: An Area Of Legal Climate Change, Karl T. Muth, Andrew Leventhal

William & Mary Business Law Review

Underappreciated in its importance and often-misunderstood in its implications, the choice between a company limited by shares and a company organized as a mutual is an important decision in sectors ranging from agriculture to banking to insurance. Adding gravity to this particular decision is the difficulty and enormous cost of corporate metamorphosis between company types later in the company’s life. The authors examine the history of the mutual form, its popularity’s rise and fall during the twentieth century, and its advantages and disadvantages in today’s environment.


Clear Statement Rules And The Integrity Of Labor Arbitration, Stephen Ross, Roy Eisenhardt 2018 Penn State Law

Clear Statement Rules And The Integrity Of Labor Arbitration, Stephen Ross, Roy Eisenhardt

Arbitration Law Review

Under the common law, employment contracts are submitted to civil courts to resolve disputes over interpretation, breach, and remedies. As an alternative, parties in collective bargaining agreements, can agree to dispute resolution by an independent arbitrator, whose decision is reviewed deferentially by judges. Where employees or members of an association are governed by its internal rules, in contrast, they often agree contractually to submit internal disputes to an association officer or committee. In this circumstance, the common law governing private associations affords judicial review that is more limited than a civil dispute, but more searching than is the case for ...


Business Law Bulletin, Spring 2018, 2018 University of Maryland Francis King Carey School of Law

Business Law Bulletin, Spring 2018

Business Law Bulletin

No abstract provided.


Third-Party Institutional Proxy Advisors: Conflicts Of Interest And Roads To Reform, Matthew Fagan 2018 University of Michigan Law School

Third-Party Institutional Proxy Advisors: Conflicts Of Interest And Roads To Reform, Matthew Fagan

University of Michigan Journal of Law Reform

With the rise of institutional activist investors in recent decades—including a purported 495 activist campaigns against U.S. corporations in 2016 alone—the role that third-party institutional proxy advisors play in corporate governance has greatly increased. The United States Office of Government Accountability estimates that clients of the top five proxy advisory firms account for about $41.5 trillion in equity throughout the world. For several years, discussions have developed regarding conflicts of interest faced by proxy advisors. For example, Institutional Shareholder Services, the top proxy advisory firm in the world, frequently provides advice to institutional investors on how ...


Tax Havens As Producers Of Corporate Law, William J. Moon 2018 New York University School of Law

Tax Havens As Producers Of Corporate Law, William J. Moon

Michigan Law Review

A review of Christopher M. Bruner, Re-Imagining Offshore Finance: Market-Dominant Small Jurisdictions in a Globalizing Financial World.


Federal Income Taxation Of Business Enterprises: Cases, Statutes, Rulings, 4th. Edition 2012, Sergio Pareja, Richard A. Westin, Ricahrd C.E. Beck 2018 The University of New Mexico School of Law

Federal Income Taxation Of Business Enterprises: Cases, Statutes, Rulings, 4th. Edition 2012, Sergio Pareja, Richard A. Westin, Ricahrd C.E. Beck

Sergio Pareja

This fourth edition covers the basics of the federal income taxation of partnerships and corporations including the taxation of LLCs, LLPs and S corporations. In addition, it alludes to a short list of other business enterprises. It is designed to be taught as two major components: partnerships and corporations. Both components use the traditional "cradle-to-grave" approach. Because of their practical importance, the book makes reference to Social Security taxes and estate taxes. There is no discussion of State income taxes.

Although the book is comparatively short, the materials are thorough and are heavily supplemented with problems.

The cases have been ...


Entire Fairness: A Call To Preserve Delaware Doctrine, Lisa Bei Li 2018 Pepperdine University

Entire Fairness: A Call To Preserve Delaware Doctrine, Lisa Bei Li

The Journal of Business, Entrepreneurship & the Law

Appraisal arbitrage is on the rise. Institutional investors—namely, hedge funds—buy into target companies after their merger announcements and bet on the price. By purposely taking a minority position, these funds proceed to courts to obtain what they otherwise could not in the market: a “fair value.” Where there is no allegation of wrongdoing or injury, these plaintiffs nonetheless successfully divert deal value away from business combinations. Based on a misunderstood statute, appraisal arbitrage has exploded into a multi-billion dollar industry for large fund investors. In June 2016, amid growing concerns, the Delaware General Assembly amended section 262, Delaware ...


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