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One Is The Loneliest Number: The Single Taxpayer In A Joint Return World, Lily Kahng 2010 Seattle University School of Law

One Is The Loneliest Number: The Single Taxpayer In A Joint Return World, Lily Kahng

Faculty Scholarship

The United States is one of the few developed countries to retain the joint income tax return, available for heterosexual married couples only. Since its adoption in 1948, its underlying assumptions have been challenged on many valid grounds, and yet it remains firmly embedded in mainstream political and policy discourse. In recent years, most of the debate surrounding the joint return has focused on reducing marriage penalties, bonuses, and determining who among the universe of couples ought to be extended the benefit of the marriage bonuses. The treatment of single people has received almost no attention. The scant attention paid ...


Philosophical Objection To The Optimal Tax Model, A , Linda Sugin 2010 Fordham University School of Law

Philosophical Objection To The Optimal Tax Model, A , Linda Sugin

Faculty Scholarship

This article questions the normative power of the optimal tax model by examining assumptions made by the developer of that model, James Mirrlees' . It makes a case for moving beyond utilitarian conceptions of social welfare that are at the foundation of the optimal tax model, and that have become the dominant construct in tax policy analysis. In explaining why the Mirrlees assumptions are problematic, the Article argues for a nuanced, philosophical understanding of fairness that incorporates the role of taxation into a broader conception of a just society. A fair tax must satisfy the full range of demands that a ...


Avoiding Misuse Of Donor Advised Funds, Michael J. Hussey 2010 Widener University

Avoiding Misuse Of Donor Advised Funds, Michael J. Hussey

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article presents a proposal for further modifying donor advised funds to retain most of their hallmark flexibility and ease of use while drawing them into line with other charitable giving vehicles that put contributed funds to use for active charitable purposes. This Article argues that using individual retirement accounts as an underlying legal model for donor advised funds will address Congress's concerns regarding the appropriateness of the income tax deductions for contributions to donor advised funds while allowing donor advised funds to retain much of their hallmark flexibility and ease of operation.


Question Of Purpose: Early Retirement Payments To Tenured Professors Constitute Wages Subject To Fica Taxation, Stephen Scott Wick 2010 Cleveland State University

Question Of Purpose: Early Retirement Payments To Tenured Professors Constitute Wages Subject To Fica Taxation, Stephen Scott Wick

Cleveland State Law Review

Currently, there is a circuit split on the issue of whether early retirement payments (ERPs) made to tenured faculty constitute wages subject to Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) taxation. In North Dakota State University v. United States, the Eighth Circuit held that ERPs made to tenured faculty do not constitute FICA wages because such payments are made to purchase the constitutionally protected property interest that tenured faculty hold in their tenure rights. However, the Sixth and Third Circuits, in Appoloni v. United States and University of Pittsburgh v. United States respectively, held that such payments do constitute FICA wages because ...


The Times They Are Not A-Changin': Reforming The Charitable Split-Interest Rules (Again), Wendy G. Gerzog 2010 University of Baltimore School of Law

The Times They Are Not A-Changin': Reforming The Charitable Split-Interest Rules (Again), Wendy G. Gerzog

All Faculty Scholarship

The article reviews the history of the tax treatment of charitable split interest gifts, explains the inequities that Congress both cured and generated in its 1969 reforms, and proposes solutions that are consistent with the goals of the 1969 legislation. The article discusses variations in the 1969 definition of a charitable split interest, which, because of the enacted statutory language, applies in instances where there is no abuse potential. The inequity produced by that definition penalizes the donor and flouts the rationale behind the 1969 legislation. By contrast, the creation of some required statutory forms of charitable split interests in ...


A Comprehensive Theory Of Deal Structure: Understanding How Transactional Structure Creates Value, Michael S. Knoll, Daniel M. G. Raff 2010 University of Pennsylvania Law School

A Comprehensive Theory Of Deal Structure: Understanding How Transactional Structure Creates Value, Michael S. Knoll, Daniel M. G. Raff

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Comments: "Simplification" Is Not Enough: An Analysis Of The Home Office Tax Deduction And The Home Office Simplification Act Of 2009, Lauren Marini 2010 University of Baltimore School of Law

Comments: "Simplification" Is Not Enough: An Analysis Of The Home Office Tax Deduction And The Home Office Simplification Act Of 2009, Lauren Marini

University of Baltimore Law Review

No abstract provided.


An Arm's Length Solution To The Shareholder Loan Tax Puzzle, Wayne M. Gazur 2010 University of Colorado Law School

An Arm's Length Solution To The Shareholder Loan Tax Puzzle, Wayne M. Gazur

Articles

No abstract provided.


Critique Of U.S. House Bill 2454 On Climate Change, Michael J. Waggoner 2010 University of Colorado Law School

Critique Of U.S. House Bill 2454 On Climate Change, Michael J. Waggoner

Articles

The U.S. House of Representatives, in June 2009, approved a bill to create a cap and trade system and a system of regulations and subsidies to address the problems of climate change. The U.S. Senate is now considering remedies for climate change. The approach of House Bill 2454 is ill-advised, and should be rejected by the Senate, because of the problems outlined below. I propose that these problems that would not be presented by a carbon tax, a simpler and more effective remedy for the risk of climate change.


The Price Of Conflict: War, Taxes, And The Politics Of Fiscal Citizenship, Ajay K. Mehrotra 2010 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

The Price Of Conflict: War, Taxes, And The Politics Of Fiscal Citizenship, Ajay K. Mehrotra

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Since 2003 American political leaders and lawmakers have been committed to the simultaneous pursuit of tax cuts and military excursions abroad. Just a few decades ago, when military hawks were also deficit hawks, such a position would have seemed incongruous. This essay reviews, War and Taxes, a provocative and fascinating new book that seeks to explain the apparent dissonance of recent American wartime tax policy. In contrast to conventional wisdom which presumes that wartime patriotism has always and everywhere trumped self-interest, War and Taxes shows that the history of U.S. wartime taxation is not quite such a heroic tale ...


W(H)Ither Economic Substance?, Leandra Lederman 2010 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

W(H)Ither Economic Substance?, Leandra Lederman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Transactions that claim inappropriate tax benefits are a perennial problem. When the IRS claims a transaction is abusive, courts generally examine whether the taxpayer had a business purpose and whether the transaction had economic substance (essentially a prospect of profit before taxes). This two-pronged "economic substance doctrine" developed from a series of Supreme Court cases.

Unfortunately, the economic substance doctrine provides a poor proxy for the real question, which was the focus of the early cases-whether the claimed tax results are consistent with Congress's intent. One important drawback of the shift from a focus on congressional intent to a ...


Taxation, Pregnancy, And Privacy, Bridget J. Crawford 2010 Elisabeth Haub School of Law at Pace University

Taxation, Pregnancy, And Privacy, Bridget J. Crawford

Pace Law Faculty Publications

This Article frames a discussion of surrogacy within the context of existing income tax laws. A surrogate receives money for carrying and bearing a child. This payment is income by any definition, even if the surrogacy contract recites that it is a "reimbursement." Cases and rulings on the income tax consequences of the sale of blood and human breast milk, as well as analogies to situations in which people are paid to wear advertising on their bodies, support the conclusion that a surrogate recognizes taxable income, although the Internal Revenue Service has never stated so. For tax purposes, the reproductive ...


Human Capital And Transfer Taxation, Kerry A. Ryan 2010 Saint Louis University School of Law

Human Capital And Transfer Taxation, Kerry A. Ryan

Oklahoma Law Review

No abstract provided.


Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2009, Martin J. McMahon Jr., Ira B. Shepard, Daniel L. Simmons 2010 University of Florida Levin College of Law

Recent Developments In Federal Income Taxation: The Year 2009, Martin J. Mcmahon Jr., Ira B. Shepard, Daniel L. Simmons

UF Law Faculty Publications

This article discusses, and provides context to understand the significance of, the most important judicial decisions and administrative rulings and regulations promulgated by the Internal Revenue Service and Treasury Department during 2008 – and sometimes a little farther back in time if the authors find the item particularly humorous or outrageous. Most Treasury Regulations, however, are so complex that they cannot be discussed in detail and, anyway, only a devout masochist would read them all the way through; just the basic topic and fundamental principles are highlighted. Amendments to the Internal Revenue Code generally are discussed to the extent that (1 ...


California Women: Trying To Use Federal Taxes To Put The 'Community' In Community Property, Stephanie H. McMahon 2010 University of Cincinnati College of Law

California Women: Trying To Use Federal Taxes To Put The 'Community' In Community Property, Stephanie H. Mcmahon

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

Community property is thought to be a more equitable marital property regime than the common law because we assume that providing each spouse with an interest in fifty percent of the family’s income also provides a substantial amount of equality between spouses. Historically, however, as the regime operated in the United States, it was not especially favorable to wives. Although the concept implied a partnership between spouses, in practice wives were denied rights a partner would expect to enjoy. This article examines how women lobbied to enlarge the protection California wives enjoyed under the state’s community property regime ...


London Calling: Does The U.K.'S Experience With Individual Taxation Clash With The U.S.'S Expectations, Stephanie McMahon 2010 University of Cincinnati College of Law

London Calling: Does The U.K.'S Experience With Individual Taxation Clash With The U.S.'S Expectations, Stephanie Mcmahon

Faculty Articles and Other Publications

The United States is one of the last countries to tax married couples jointly; most other countries have adopted individual taxation. In 1990, the United Kingdom completed transitioning its tax system from one that treated husbands and wives as a marital unit to one that mandates an individual-based system, and so it has two decades of experience with the new regime. This article provides American policymakers valuable information regarding the consequences of adopting individual taxation by examining the United Kingdom's experience. First, it establishes a matrix of factors that identifies and assesses differences between the two nations that affect ...


Where Credit Is Due: Advantages Of The Credit-Invoice Method For A Partial Replacement Vat, Itai Grinberg 2010 Georgetown University Law Center

Where Credit Is Due: Advantages Of The Credit-Invoice Method For A Partial Replacement Vat, Itai Grinberg

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

If a value-added tax (VAT) were chosen to supplement or replace some portion of the revenue from the income tax, a choice would likely be made between the credit-invoice method and the subtraction-method for calculating VAT liability. Credit-invoice method VATs and subtraction-method VATs are, at a conceptual level, very similar taxes. The key substantive difference between most subtraction-method VAT proposals and extant credit-invoice method VATs is that subtraction-method VAT proposals generally do not impose an invoice requirement. The invoice requirement substantially reduces tax avoidance opportunities in the VAT, and also ensures the ability to provide appropriate treatment for exports while ...


The Misuse Of Textualism: A Further Reply To Prof. Kahn, Stephen B. Cohen 2010 Georgetown University Law Center

The Misuse Of Textualism: A Further Reply To Prof. Kahn, Stephen B. Cohen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Because readers have already endured four articles, two by me and two by Prof. Douglas A. Kahn, debating the meaning of section 67(e)(1), I am reluctant to respond to Prof. Kahn’s rejoinder, which appeared in the January 18 issue of Tax Notes. Nevertheless, our disagreement implicates the judicial craft of two U.S. Supreme Court members, Chief Justice John Roberts and Justice Sonia Sotomayor. I therefore feel it important to answer Prof. Kahn’s latest contentions, recognizing my duty to be as brief as possible.


Complex Tax Legislation In The Turbotax Era, Lawrence A. Zelenak 2010 Duke Law School

Complex Tax Legislation In The Turbotax Era, Lawrence A. Zelenak

Faculty Scholarship

When tax returns were prepared with pencil and paper—in an era now gone forever—Congress did not impose income tax provisions of great computational complexity on large numbers of taxpayers, in the belief that it was unreasonable to require average taxpayers (or their paid preparers) to struggle with computationally complex provisions. As return preparation software gradually replaced the pencil in recent decades, the complexity constraint weakened and eventually disappeared. Congress has responded by imposing unprecedented computational complexity on large numbers of taxpayers—primarily through the expanded scope of the alternative minimum tax and the proliferation of phase outs of ...


Debt-Financed Consumption And A Hybrid Income-Consumption Tax, Lawrence A. Zelenak 2010 Duke Law School

Debt-Financed Consumption And A Hybrid Income-Consumption Tax, Lawrence A. Zelenak

Faculty Scholarship

The debate between proponents of income taxation and proponents of consumption taxation has focused almost exclusively on the differing treatment of savings under the two tax bases. This is odd, given that income and consumption tax bases also differ in their treatment of debt-financed consumption. This Essay addresses the largely-ignored question of the taxation of debt-financed consumption. It contends that a strong case can be made in favor of a hybrid income-consumption tax base under which taxation is triggered by the earlier of consumption or income, so that both debt-financed consumption and saved income are included in the tax base ...


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