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The Times They Are Not A-Changin': Reforming The Charitable Split-Interest Rules (Again), Wendy G. Gerzog 2010 University of Baltimore School of Law

The Times They Are Not A-Changin': Reforming The Charitable Split-Interest Rules (Again), Wendy G. Gerzog

All Faculty Scholarship

The article reviews the history of the tax treatment of charitable split interest gifts, explains the inequities that Congress both cured and generated in its 1969 reforms, and proposes solutions that are consistent with the goals of the 1969 legislation. The article discusses variations in the 1969 definition of a charitable split interest, which, because of the enacted statutory language, applies in instances where there is no abuse potential. The inequity produced by that definition penalizes the donor and flouts the rationale behind the 1969 legislation. By contrast, the creation of some required statutory forms of charitable split interests in ...


Philosophical Objection To The Optimal Tax Model, A , Linda Sugin 2010 Fordham University School of Law

Philosophical Objection To The Optimal Tax Model, A , Linda Sugin

Faculty Scholarship

This article questions the normative power of the optimal tax model by examining assumptions made by the developer of that model, James Mirrlees' . It makes a case for moving beyond utilitarian conceptions of social welfare that are at the foundation of the optimal tax model, and that have become the dominant construct in tax policy analysis. In explaining why the Mirrlees assumptions are problematic, the Article argues for a nuanced, philosophical understanding of fairness that incorporates the role of taxation into a broader conception of a just society. A fair tax must satisfy the full range of demands that a ...


Complex Tax Legislation In The Turbotax Era, Lawrence A. Zelenak 2010 Duke Law School

Complex Tax Legislation In The Turbotax Era, Lawrence A. Zelenak

Faculty Scholarship

When tax returns were prepared with pencil and paper—in an era now gone forever—Congress did not impose income tax provisions of great computational complexity on large numbers of taxpayers, in the belief that it was unreasonable to require average taxpayers (or their paid preparers) to struggle with computationally complex provisions. As return preparation software gradually replaced the pencil in recent decades, the complexity constraint weakened and eventually disappeared. Congress has responded by imposing unprecedented computational complexity on large numbers of taxpayers—primarily through the expanded scope of the alternative minimum tax and the proliferation of phase outs of ...


Avoiding Misuse Of Donor Advised Funds, Michael J. Hussey 2010 Widener University

Avoiding Misuse Of Donor Advised Funds, Michael J. Hussey

Cleveland State Law Review

This Article presents a proposal for further modifying donor advised funds to retain most of their hallmark flexibility and ease of use while drawing them into line with other charitable giving vehicles that put contributed funds to use for active charitable purposes. This Article argues that using individual retirement accounts as an underlying legal model for donor advised funds will address Congress's concerns regarding the appropriateness of the income tax deductions for contributions to donor advised funds while allowing donor advised funds to retain much of their hallmark flexibility and ease of operation.


Question Of Purpose: Early Retirement Payments To Tenured Professors Constitute Wages Subject To Fica Taxation, Stephen Scott Wick 2010 Cleveland State University

Question Of Purpose: Early Retirement Payments To Tenured Professors Constitute Wages Subject To Fica Taxation, Stephen Scott Wick

Cleveland State Law Review

Currently, there is a circuit split on the issue of whether early retirement payments (ERPs) made to tenured faculty constitute wages subject to Federal Insurance Contribution Act (FICA) taxation. In North Dakota State University v. United States, the Eighth Circuit held that ERPs made to tenured faculty do not constitute FICA wages because such payments are made to purchase the constitutionally protected property interest that tenured faculty hold in their tenure rights. However, the Sixth and Third Circuits, in Appoloni v. United States and University of Pittsburgh v. United States respectively, held that such payments do constitute FICA wages because ...


The Misuse Of Textualism: A Further Reply To Prof. Kahn, Stephen B. Cohen 2010 Georgetown University Law Center

The Misuse Of Textualism: A Further Reply To Prof. Kahn, Stephen B. Cohen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Because readers have already endured four articles, two by me and two by Prof. Douglas A. Kahn, debating the meaning of section 67(e)(1), I am reluctant to respond to Prof. Kahn’s rejoinder, which appeared in the January 18 issue of Tax Notes. Nevertheless, our disagreement implicates the judicial craft of two U.S. Supreme Court members, Chief Justice John Roberts and Justice Sonia Sotomayor. I therefore feel it important to answer Prof. Kahn’s latest contentions, recognizing my duty to be as brief as possible.


Where Credit Is Due: Advantages Of The Credit-Invoice Method For A Partial Replacement Vat, Itai Grinberg 2010 Georgetown University Law Center

Where Credit Is Due: Advantages Of The Credit-Invoice Method For A Partial Replacement Vat, Itai Grinberg

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

If a value-added tax (VAT) were chosen to supplement or replace some portion of the revenue from the income tax, a choice would likely be made between the credit-invoice method and the subtraction-method for calculating VAT liability. Credit-invoice method VATs and subtraction-method VATs are, at a conceptual level, very similar taxes. The key substantive difference between most subtraction-method VAT proposals and extant credit-invoice method VATs is that subtraction-method VAT proposals generally do not impose an invoice requirement. The invoice requirement substantially reduces tax avoidance opportunities in the VAT, and also ensures the ability to provide appropriate treatment for exports while ...


W(H)Ither Economic Substance?, Leandra Lederman 2010 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

W(H)Ither Economic Substance?, Leandra Lederman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Transactions that claim inappropriate tax benefits are a perennial problem. When the IRS claims a transaction is abusive, courts generally examine whether the taxpayer had a business purpose and whether the transaction had economic substance (essentially a prospect of profit before taxes). This two-pronged "economic substance doctrine" developed from a series of Supreme Court cases.

Unfortunately, the economic substance doctrine provides a poor proxy for the real question, which was the focus of the early cases-whether the claimed tax results are consistent with Congress's intent. One important drawback of the shift from a focus on congressional intent to a ...


The Price Of Conflict: War, Taxes, And The Politics Of Fiscal Citizenship, Ajay K. Mehrotra 2010 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

The Price Of Conflict: War, Taxes, And The Politics Of Fiscal Citizenship, Ajay K. Mehrotra

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Since 2003 American political leaders and lawmakers have been committed to the simultaneous pursuit of tax cuts and military excursions abroad. Just a few decades ago, when military hawks were also deficit hawks, such a position would have seemed incongruous. This essay reviews, War and Taxes, a provocative and fascinating new book that seeks to explain the apparent dissonance of recent American wartime tax policy. In contrast to conventional wisdom which presumes that wartime patriotism has always and everywhere trumped self-interest, War and Taxes shows that the history of U.S. wartime taxation is not quite such a heroic tale ...


American Economic Development, Managerial Corporate Capitalism, And The Institutional Foundations Of The Modern Income Tax, Ajay K. Mehrotra 2010 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

American Economic Development, Managerial Corporate Capitalism, And The Institutional Foundations Of The Modern Income Tax, Ajay K. Mehrotra

Articles by Maurer Faculty

Histories of the modern American income tax have generally focused on the role that social and political forces have played in the development of a new tax system. This article seeks to move beyond the social and political determinants to examine the economic factors that facilitated the adoption of the modern, graduated income tax. Without marginalizing the importance of social and political factors, the central aim of this article is to make a modest contribution to the legal and political historiography of the U.S. income tax by highlighting how changing material economic conditions afforded social groups, political reformers, and ...


Reducing Information Gaps To Reduce The Tax Gap: When Is Information Reporting Warranted?, Leandra Lederman 2010 Indiana University Maurer School of Law

Reducing Information Gaps To Reduce The Tax Gap: When Is Information Reporting Warranted?, Leandra Lederman

Articles by Maurer Faculty

A core problem for enforcement of tax laws is asymmetric information. The taxpayer knows the facts regarding the relevant transactions it engages in during the year-or at least has ready access to that information. The government is forced to play catch-up, obtaining that information either from the taxpayer or from third parties. Information reporting is routinely used to address this information gap. The government obtains information about the taxpayer's tax situation from a third party and-equally important-the taxpayer knows that the government has received that information. This fosters taxpayer honesty. Information reporting is not a panacea, however. It imposes ...


Debt-Financed Consumption And A Hybrid Income-Consumption Tax, Lawrence A. Zelenak 2010 Duke Law School

Debt-Financed Consumption And A Hybrid Income-Consumption Tax, Lawrence A. Zelenak

Faculty Scholarship

The debate between proponents of income taxation and proponents of consumption taxation has focused almost exclusively on the differing treatment of savings under the two tax bases. This is odd, given that income and consumption tax bases also differ in their treatment of debt-financed consumption. This Essay addresses the largely-ignored question of the taxation of debt-financed consumption. It contends that a strong case can be made in favor of a hybrid income-consumption tax base under which taxation is triggered by the earlier of consumption or income, so that both debt-financed consumption and saved income are included in the tax base ...


An Arm's Length Solution To The Shareholder Loan Tax Puzzle, Wayne M. Gazur 2010 University of Colorado Law School

An Arm's Length Solution To The Shareholder Loan Tax Puzzle, Wayne M. Gazur

Articles

No abstract provided.


Of Punitive Damages, Tax Deductions, And Tax-Aware Juries: A Response To Polsky And Markel, Lawrence A. Zelenak 2010 Duke Law School

Of Punitive Damages, Tax Deductions, And Tax-Aware Juries: A Response To Polsky And Markel, Lawrence A. Zelenak

Faculty Scholarship

In “Taxing Punitive Damages,” Gregg D. Polsky and Dan Markel argue that defendants paying punitive damages are under-punished relative to juries’ intentions, because tax-unaware juries do not take into account the fact that the deductibility of punitive damages significantly reduces defendants’ after-tax costs. They note that the Obama administration has proposed addressing the under-punishment problem by amending the Internal Revenue Code to disallow deductions for punitive damages (and for settlements paid on account of punitive damage claims). They conclude, however, that the proposal would be ineffective because defendants could avoid its impact by disguising nondeductible punitive damage settlements as deductible ...


Avoiding Misuse Of Donor Advised Funds, Michael Hussey 2009 Widener Law

Avoiding Misuse Of Donor Advised Funds, Michael Hussey

Michael Hussey

No abstract provided.


The Untold Story Of Crane V. Commissioner Reveals An Inconvenient Tax Truth: Useless Depreciation Deductions Cause Global Basis Erosion To Bait A Hazardous Tax Trap For Unwitting Taxpayers, I Katz 2009 Selected Works

The Untold Story Of Crane V. Commissioner Reveals An Inconvenient Tax Truth: Useless Depreciation Deductions Cause Global Basis Erosion To Bait A Hazardous Tax Trap For Unwitting Taxpayers, I Katz

Irwin J Katz

Facts not discussed in the Supreme Court's decision in Crane v. Commissioner (much better known for Footnote 37) reveal an inconvenient tax truth of a hazardous tax trap for unwitting taxpayers (the "Basis Reduction Tax Trap"). For seven years, Beulah Crane operated an apartment building at a loss. For that reason, the substantial amount of allowable depreciation deductions on the building produced minimal tax benefits for her. Notwithstanding the lack of tax benefits, the basis of the apartment building was reduced by the depreciation deductions pursuant to section 1016(a) (2) of the Internal Revenue Code. Under threat of ...


“Respecting Foundation And Charity Autonomy: How Public Is Private Philanthropy?”, John Tyler, Evelyn Brody 2009 Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation

“Respecting Foundation And Charity Autonomy: How Public Is Private Philanthropy?”, John Tyler, Evelyn Brody

John E. Tyler III

No abstract provided.


The United States, James Repetti 2009 Boston College Law School

The United States, James Repetti

James R. Repetti

No abstract provided.


Comparative Income Taxation: A Structural Analysis, Hugh Ault, Brian Arnold 2009 Boston College Law School

Comparative Income Taxation: A Structural Analysis, Hugh Ault, Brian Arnold

Hugh J. Ault

The purpose of this book is to compare different solutions adopted by nine industrialized countries to common problems of income tax design. As in other legal domains, comparative study of income taxation can provide fresh perspectives from which to examine a particular national system. Increasing economic globalization also makes understanding foreign tax systems relevant to a growing set of transnational business transactions. Comparative study is, however, notoriously difficult. Full understanding of a foreign tax system may require mastery not only of a foreign language, but also of foreign business and legal cultures. It would be the work of a lifetime ...


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